Hardcore punk is a punk rock music genre and subculture that originated in the late 1970s. It is generally faster, harder, and more aggressive than other forms of punk rock, New York punk had a harder-edged sound than its San Francisco counterpart, featuring anti-art expressions of masculine anger, energy and subversive humor. Hardcore punk generally disavows commercialism, the music industry and anything similar to the characteristics of mainstream rock. Hardcore sprouted underground scenes across the United States in the early 1980s, particularly in Washington, New York, New Jersey, and Boston—as well as in Australia, Canada and the United Kingdom. Hardcore has spawned the straight movement and its associated submovements, hardline. Hardcore was heavily involved with the rise of the independent record labels in the 1980s and it has also influenced various music genres that have experienced widespread commercial success, including alternative rock, thrash metal, emo and metalcore. While traditional hardcore has never experienced mainstream success, some of its early pioneers have garnered appreciation over time. In 2011, Rolling Stone writer David Fricke placed Greg Ginn of Black Flag 99th place in his 100 Greatest Guitarists list, although the music genre started in English-speaking western countries, notable hardcore scenes have existed in Italy, Brazil, Japan, Europe and the Middle East. The origin of the hardcore punk is uncertain. The Vancouver-based band D. O. A. may have helped to popularize the term with the title of their 1981 album, Hardcore 81. C. Hardcore historian Steven Blush said that the term hardcore is also a reference to the sense of being fed up with the existing punk, Blush also states that the term refers to an extreme, the absolute most Punk. One definition of the genre is a form of exceptionally harsh punk rock, like the Oi. subgenre of the UK, hardcore punk can be considered an internal music reaction. According to one writer, distressed by the artificiality of much post-punk, lacking the art-school grace of post-punk, hardcore punk favor low key visual aesthetic over extravagance and breaking with original punk rock song patterns. One of the important philosophies in the scene is authenticity. The pejorative term poseur is applied to those who associate with punk and adopt its stylistic attributes but are deemed not to share or understand the underlying values and philosophy. Joe Keithley, the vocalist of D. O. A. said in an interview, in the vein of earlier punk rock, most hardcore punk bands have followed the traditional singer/guitar/bass/drum format. The songwriting has more emphasis on rather than melody. Critic Steven Blush writes The Sex Pistols were still rocknroll. like the craziest version of Chuck Berry, Hardcore was a radical departure from that
The groove usually starts near the periphery and ends near the center of the disc. The phonograph disc record was the medium used for music reproduction until late in the 20th century. It had co-existed with the cylinder from the late 1880s. Records retained the largest market share even when new formats such as compact cassette were mass-marketed, by the late 1980s, digital media, in the form of the compact disc, had gained a larger market share, and the vinyl record left the mainstream in 1991. The phonograph record has made a resurgence in the early 21st century –9.2 million records were sold in the U. S. in 2014. Likewise, in the UK sales have increased five-fold from 2009 to 2014, as of 2017,48 record pressing facilities remain worldwide,18 in the United States and 30 in other countries. The increased popularity of vinyl has led to the investment in new, only two producers of lacquers remains, Apollo Masters in California, USA, and MDC in Japan. Vinyl records may be scratched or warped if stored incorrectly but if they are not exposed to heat or broken. The large cover are valued by collectors and artists for the space given for visual expression, in the 2000s, these tracings were first scanned by audio engineers and digitally converted into audible sound. Phonautograms of singing and speech made by Scott in 1860 were played back as sound for the first time in 2008, along with a tuning fork tone and unintelligible snippets recorded as early as 1857, these are the earliest known recordings of sound. In 1877, Thomas Edison invented the phonograph, unlike the phonautograph, it was capable of both recording and reproducing sound. Despite the similarity of name, there is no evidence that Edisons phonograph was based on Scotts phonautograph. Edison first tried recording sound on a paper tape, with the idea of creating a telephone repeater analogous to the telegraph repeater he had been working on. The tinfoil was wrapped around a metal cylinder and a sound-vibrated stylus indented the tinfoil while the cylinder was rotated. The recording could be played back immediately, Edison also invented variations of the phonograph that used tape and disc formats. A decade later, Edison developed a greatly improved phonograph that used a wax cylinder instead of a foil sheet. This proved to be both a better-sounding and far more useful and durable device, the wax phonograph cylinder created the recorded sound market at the end of the 1880s and dominated it through the early years of the 20th century. Berliners earliest discs, first marketed in 1889, but only in Europe, were 12.5 cm in diameter, both the records and the machine were adequate only for use as a toy or curiosity, due to the limited sound quality
Braintree, officially the Town of Braintree, is a suburban New England city in Norfolk County, Massachusetts, United States. Although officially known as a town, Braintree adopted a charter, effective 2008. The population was 35,744 at the 2010 census, the town is part of the Greater Boston area with access to the MBTA Red Line and is a member of the Metropolitan Area Planning Commissions South Shore Coalition. The first and current mayor of Braintree is Joe Sullivan, Braintree, Massachusetts is named after Braintree, Essex in England. The town of Braintree was settled in 1625, colonized in 1635 and incorporated in 1640 and it comprised land that was later split into Quincy, Randolph, and Holbrook. Braintree was part of Suffolk County until the formation of Norfolk County in 1793, the town of Braintree was the birthplace of presidents John Adams and John Quincy Adams, as well as statesman John Hancock. General Sylvanus Thayer, the Father of West Point was also born in Braintree, Braintree was the site of the infamous 1920 murders that led to the trial of Sacco and Vanzetti. It was the retirement home of the co-inventor of the telephone, braintrees population grew by over 50% during the 1920s. In January 2008, Braintree converted from a town meeting form of government to a mayor-council government. According to the United States Census Bureau, the town has an area of 14.5 square miles. The total area is 4. 34% water Park and recreation locations in Braintree include Pond Meadow Park, Sunset Lake, summers are typically warm to hot, rainy, and humid, while winters oscillate between periods of cold rain and snow, with cold temperatures. Spring and fall are mild, with varying conditions dependent on wind direction. Prevailing wind patterns that blow offshore minimize the influence of the Atlantic Ocean, the hottest month is July, with a mean temperature of 69.7 °F. The coldest month is January, with a mean of 25.7 °F, periods exceeding 90 °F in summer and below freezing in winter are not uncommon but rarely extended, with about 13 and 25 days per year seeing each, respectively. The citys average window for freezing temperatures is November 9 through April 5, official temperature records have ranged from −21 °F in February 1934, up to 101 °F in August 1949 and 1974. Braintrees coastal location on the North Atlantic moderates its temperature, but makes the city prone to Noreaster weather systems that can produce much snow. The city averages 48.63 inches of precipitation a year, snowfall increases dramatically as one goes inland away from the city —away from the moderating influence of the ocean. Most snowfall occurs from December through March, as most years see no snow in April and November
This Is Boston, Not L.A.
This Is Boston, Not L. A. is a hardcore punk compilation released in 1982. For all of them, with the exception of the last one, This Is Boston, al Bariles band, SSD were asked to contribute to the compilation, but they refused to participate on it. However, Boston audiences often took away a different meaning and they assumed the song asserted Bostons superiority to Los Angeles. The albums front cover features an image of a mosh pit. This Is Boston, Not L. A. would be followed up a few months later by a six-song complementary record, the Unsafe at Any Speed EP. Consisting of only previously unreleased material, This Is Boston, Not L. A. was originally released in May 1982, as LP and Compact Cassette, a second vinyl pressing of the album would be released later that same year. In his review for AllMusic, Alex Henderson said, in the late 70s and early 80s. While Los Angeles, New York, and San Francisco were famous for their punk scenes, but make no mistake, Boston was a punk hotbed back then, and Modern Method Records tried to spread the word with this obscure but excellent compilation. This Is Boston, Not L. A. paints a picture of the Beantown punks who were active during that era. A few months after the release of This Is Boston, Not L. A, Modern Method issued a follow-up companion record, the 7-inch EP titled Unsafe at Any Speed, featuring one unreleased song apiece from six of the bands which had appeared on the original compilation. Also featuring a Phil In Phlashs photograph of a pit, and bold typography. The tracks that make up the EP resurfaced in 1995 as the last six songs on the CD re-release of This Is Boston, Not L. A. After the records release, Boston natives took to mocking the title with T-shirts that proclaimed in large type, This is L. A. not Boston in reference to Allston, Massachusetts. In the early to mid-1980s, the T-shirt appropriately mimicked the NBA rivalry between the Boston Celtics and Los Angeles Lakers, the Boston-based ska-punk band Big D and the Kids Table printed T-shirts referencing the song and compilation. They featured L. A with a strike through it on the front, south shore pop-punk band A Loss for Words also made shirts that featured a modified version of the Celtics logo and the same saying on the reverse side. This alludes to both the compilation and the Celtics victory in the 1984 NBA Finals, in 1994 Zafio Records released the This is Berkeley Not West Bay 4-way split EP with Black Fork, Dead and Gone, Screw 32 and AFI on it. As a response, in 2000 the Amsterdam-based Kangaroo Records label released the compilation EP This is Kangaroo Not Berkely, like the way it SHOULD be. The compilation was mentioned by the rock band NOFX on their song We Got Two Jealous Agains, featured on their album The War on Errorism
Muscular Dystrophy Association
The MDA Muscle Walk is the Muscular Dystrophy Associations annual walk event to build awareness of muscle diseases that weaken the musculoskeletal system. This event also raises money for research and support of patients and it is held in various locations in the United States. Participants of all ages are not required to pay a registration fee, however, they are highly encouraged to donate to the organization and help raise a certain amount of funds, depending on the size of the metro area. Each local Muscle Walk event is different, but all walks are non-competitive, in many cases, there is one Victory Lap for walkers. The MDA supports its participants before the event by providing fundraising advice, list of health related charity fundraisers MDA Muscle Walk official website
GBH were early pioneers of English street punk, often nicknamed UK82, along with Discharge, Broken Bones, The Exploited and The Varukers. GBH have gone on to influence several punk rock musicians, the name GBH was inspired by then-bassist Sean McCarthys trial for grievous bodily harm. The drum stool was then occupied from around 1994 by former Bomb Disneyland/Bomb Everything drummer Scott Preece, Charged GBH embarked on several English and mainland US tours during the early 1980s, including several gigs at the 100 Club. Lyrically, the album dealt with criticism of British and European culture, violence, morbidity, atheism, nihilism, musically, the album was loud and fast, with few songs exceeding three minutes. In 1984 the band dropped the Charged from their name and became just GBH, throughout their recording history it has become a tradition to include a cover version on many of the Albums. They and many of their UK82 peers such as The Exploited, Picture Frame Seduction, Discharge, although many of their contemporaries have evolved towards other styles over the years, GBH have remained fairly faithful to their original UK82 sound in subsequent releases. The band is active and touring and maintain a strong following both in England and the rest of Europe, as well as in the United States