Blues is a music genre and musical form, originated in the Deep South of the United States around the 1870s by African Americans from roots in African musical traditions, African-American work songs and the folk music of white Americans of European heritage. Blues incorporated spirituals, work songs, field hollers, shouts and rhymed simple narrative ballads; the blues form, ubiquitous in jazz and blues and rock and roll, is characterized by the call-and-response pattern, the blues scale and specific chord progressions, of which the twelve-bar blues is the most common. Blue notes thirds or fifths flattened in pitch, are an essential part of the sound. Blues shuffles or walking bass reinforce the trance-like rhythm and form a repetitive effect known as the groove. Blues as a genre is characterized by its lyrics, bass lines, instrumentation. Early traditional blues verses consisted of a single line repeated four times, it was only in the first decades of the 20th century that the most common current structure became standard: the AAB pattern, consisting of a line sung over the four first bars, its repetition over the next four, a longer concluding line over the last bars.
Early blues took the form of a loose narrative relating the racial discrimination and other challenges experienced by African-Americans. Many elements, such as the call-and-response format and the use of blue notes, can be traced back to the music of Africa; the origins of the blues are closely related to the religious music of the Afro-American community, the spirituals. The first appearance of the blues is dated to after the ending of slavery and the development of juke joints, it is associated with the newly acquired freedom of the former slaves. Chroniclers began to report about blues music at the dawn of the 20th century; the first publication of blues sheet music was in 1908. Blues has since evolved from unaccompanied vocal music and oral traditions of slaves into a wide variety of styles and subgenres. Blues subgenres include country blues, such as Delta blues and Piedmont blues, as well as urban blues styles such as Chicago blues and West Coast blues. World War II marked the transition from acoustic to electric blues and the progressive opening of blues music to a wider audience white listeners.
In the 1960s and 1970s, a hybrid form called blues rock developed, which blended blues styles with rock music. The term Blues may have come from "blue devils", meaning sadness; the phrase blue devils may have been derived from Britain in the 1600s, when the term referred to the "intense visual hallucinations that can accompany severe alcohol withdrawal". As time went on, the phrase lost the reference to devils, "it came to mean a state of agitation or depression." By the 1800s in the United States, the term blues was associated with drinking alcohol, a meaning which survives in the phrase blue law, which prohibits the sale of alcohol on Sunday. Though the use of the phrase in African-American music may be older, it has been attested to in print since 1912, when Hart Wand's "Dallas Blues" became the first copyrighted blues composition. In lyrics the phrase is used to describe a depressed mood, it is in this sense of a sad state of mind that one of the earliest recorded references to "the blues" was written by Charlotte Forten aged 25, in her diary on December 14, 1862.
She was a free-born black from Pennsylvania, working as a schoolteacher in South Carolina, instructing both slaves and freedmen, wrote that she "came home with the blues" because she felt lonesome and pitied herself. She overcame her depression and noted a number of songs, such as Poor Rosy, that were popular among the slaves. Although she admitted being unable to describe the manner of singing she heard, Forten wrote that the songs "can't be sung without a full heart and a troubled spirit", conditions that have inspired countless blues songs; the lyrics of early traditional blues verses often consisted of a single line repeated four times. It was only in the first decades of the 20th century that the most common current structure became standard: the so-called "AAB" pattern, consisting of a line sung over the four first bars, its repetition over the next four, a longer concluding line over the last bars. Two of the first published blues songs, "Dallas Blues" and "Saint Louis Blues", were 12-bar blues with the AAB lyric structure.
W. C. Handy wrote; the lines are sung following a pattern closer to rhythmic talk than to a melody. Early blues took the form of a loose narrative. African-American singers voiced his or her "personal woes in a world of harsh reality: a lost love, the cruelty of police officers, oppression at the hands of white folk, hard times"; this melancholy has led to the suggestion of an Igbo origin for blues because of the reputation the Igbo had throughout plantations in the Americas for their melancholic music and outlook on life when they were enslaved. The lyrics relate troubles experienced within African American society. For instance Blind Lemon Jefferson's "Rising High Water Blues" tells of the Great Mississippi Flood of 1927: "Backwater rising, Southern peoples can't make no time I said, backwater rising, Southern peoples can't make no time And I can't get no hearing from that Memphis girl of mine."Although the blues gained an association with misery and oppression, the lyrics could be humorous and raunchy: "Rebecca, get your big legs off of me, Rebecca, get your big legs off of m
James Milton Campbell Jr. better known as Little Milton, was an American blues singer and guitarist, best known for his hit records "Grits Ain't Groceries," "Walking the Back Streets and Crying," and "We're Gonna Make It." Milton was born James Milton Campbell Jr. in the Mississippi Delta town of Inverness and raised in Greenville by a farmer and local blues musician. By age twelve he was a street musician, chiefly influenced by T-Bone Walker and his blues and rock and roll contemporaries, he joined the Rhythm Aces in the early part of the 1950s, a three piece band who played throughout the Mississippi Delta area. One of the group was Eddie Cusic. In 1952, while still a teenager playing in local bars, he caught the attention of Ike Turner, at that time a talent scout for Sam Phillips' Sun Records, he recorded a number of singles. None of them broke through onto radio or sold well at record stores and Milton left the Sun label by 1955. After trying several labels without notable success, including Trumpet Records, Milton set up the St. Louis based Bobbin Records label, which scored a distribution deal with Leonard Chess' Chess Records.
As a record producer, Milton helped bring artists such as Albert King and Fontella Bass to fame, while experiencing his own success for the first time. After a number of small format and regional hits, his 1962 single, "So Mean to Me," broke onto the Billboard R&B chart peaking at #14. Following a short break to tour, managing other acts, spending time recording new material, he returned to music in 1965 with a more polished sound, similar to that of B. B. King. After the ill-received "Blind Man", he released back-to-back hit singles; the first, "We're Gonna Make It," a blues-infused soul song, topped the R&B chart and broke through onto Top 40 radio, a format dominated by white artists. He followed the song with #4 R&B hit "Who's Cheating Who?" All three songs were featured on his album, We're Gonna Make It, released that summer. Throughout the late 1960s Milton released a number of moderately successful singles, but did not issue a further album until 1969, with Grits Ain't Groceries featuring his hit of the same name, as well as "Just a Little Bit" and "Baby, I Love You".
With the death of Leonard Chess the same year, Milton's distributor, Checker Records fell into disarray, Milton joined the Stax label two years later. Adding complex orchestration to his works, Milton scored hits with "That's What Love Will Make You Do" and "What It Is" from his live album, What It Is: Live at Montreux, he appeared in the documentary film, released in 1973. Stax, had been losing money since late in the previous decade and was forced into bankruptcy in 1975. After leaving Stax, Milton struggled to maintain a career, moving first to Evidence the MCA imprint Mobile Fidelity Records, before finding a home at the independent record label, Malaco Records, where he remained for much of the remainder of his career, his last hit single, "Age Ain't Nothin' But a Number," was released in 1983 from the album of the same name. In 1988, Little Milton was inducted into the Blues Hall of Fame and won a W. C. Handy Award, his final album, Think of Me, was released in May 2005 on the Telarc imprint, included writing and guitar on three songs by Peter Shoulder of the UK-based blues-rock trio Winterville.
Milton’s song "Let Me Down Easy" was recorded by the Spencer Davis Group on The Second Album, but his authorship was not acknowledged on the record. He released a single of it himself in 1968 on Checker, it was chosen by Etta James as the final track in her final album The Dreamer in 2011. Milton died on August 2005 from complications following a stroke, he was 70. We're Gonna Make It Sings Big Blues Grits Ain't Groceries If Walls Could Talk Waiting for Little Milton What It Is: Live at Montreux Blues'n' Soul Tin Pan Alley Friend of Mine Me For You, You For Me Walkin' the Back Streets The Blues Is Alright Age Ain't Nothin' But a Number Playing for Keeps I Will Survive Annie Mae's Cafe Movin' to the Country Back to Back Too Much Pain Reality I Need Your Love So Bad Strugglin' Lady I'm a Gambler Live at Westville Prison Cheatin' Habit Count the Days For Real Welcome to Little Milton Feel It Guitar Man The Blues Is Alright: Live at Kalamazoo Think of Me Live at the North Atlantic Blues Festival: His Last Concert Incomplete listing "So Mean to Me" "Blind Man" "We're Gonna Make It" "Who's Cheating Who?"
"Man Loves Two" "We Got the Winning Hand" "Feel So Bad" "I'll Never Turn My Back on You" "Let Me Down Easy" "More and More" "Grits Ain't Groceries" "Just a Little Bit" "Baby, I Love You" "If Walls Could Talk" "Somebody's Changin' My Sweet Baby's Mind" (
Gospel music is a genre of Christian music. The creation, performance and the definition of gospel music varies according to culture and social context. Gospel music is composed and performed for many purposes, including aesthetic pleasure, religious or ceremonial purposes, as an entertainment product for the marketplace. Gospel music has dominant vocals with Christian lyrics. Gospel music can be traced with roots in the black oral tradition. Hymns and sacred songs were repeated in a call and response fashion. Most of the churches relied on hand clapping and foot stomping as rhythmic accompaniment. Most of the singing was done a cappella; the first published use of the term "gospel song" appeared in 1874. The original gospel songs were written and composed by authors such as George F. Root, Philip Bliss, Charles H. Gabriel, William Howard Doane, Fanny Crosby. Gospel music publishing houses emerged; the advent of radio in the 1920s increased the audience for gospel music. Following World War II, gospel music moved into major auditoriums, gospel music concerts became quite elaborate.
Gospel blues is a blues-based form of gospel music. Southern gospel used all tenor-lead-baritone-bass quartet make-up. Progressive Southern gospel is an American music genre that has grown out of Southern gospel over the past couple of decades. Christian country music, sometimes referred to as country gospel music, is a subgenre of gospel music with a country flair, it peaked in popularity in the mid-1990s. Bluegrass gospel music is rooted in American mountain music. Celtic gospel music infuses gospel music with a Celtic flair, is quite popular in countries such as Ireland. British black gospel refers to Gospel music of the African diaspora, produced in the UK; some proponents of "standard" hymns dislike gospel music of the late 19th and early 20th centuries. Today, with historical distance, there is a greater acceptance of such gospel songs into official denominational hymnals. Gospel music features Christian lyrics; some modern gospel music, isn't explicitly Christian and just utilizes the sound.
Subgenres include contemporary gospel, urban contemporary gospel, Southern gospel, modern gospel music. Several forms of gospel music utilize choirs, use piano or Hammond organ, drums, bass guitar and electric guitar. In comparison with hymns, which are of a statelier measure, the gospel song is expected to have a refrain and a more syncopated rhythm. Several attempts have been made to describe the style of late 19th and early 20th century gospel songs in general. Christ-Janer said "the music was tuneful and easy to grasp... rudimentary harmonies... use of the chorus... varied metric schemes... motor rhythms were characteristic... The device of letting the lower parts echo rhythmically a motive announced by the sopranos became a mannerism". Patrick and Sydnor emphasize the notion that gospel music is "sentimental", quoting Sankey as saying, "Before I sing I must feel", they call attention to the comparison of the original version of Rowley's "I Will Sing the Wondrous Story" with Sankey's version.
Gold said, "Essentially the gospel songs are songs of testimony, religious exhortation, or warning. The chorus or refrain technique is found." According to Yale University music professor Willie Ruff, the singing of psalms in Gaelic by Presbyterians of the Scottish Hebrides evolved from "lining out" – where one person sang a solo and others followed – into the call and response of gospel music of the American South. Coming out of the African-American religious experience, American gospel music can be traced to the early 17th century, with foundations in the works of Dr. Isaac Watts and others. Gospel music has roots in the black oral tradition, utilizes a great deal of repetition, which allows those who could not read the opportunity to participate in worship. During this time and sacred songs were lined and repeated in a call and response fashion, Negro spirituals and work songs emerged. Repetition and "call and response" are accepted elements in African music, designed to achieve an altered state of consciousness we sometimes refer to as "trance", strengthen communal bonds.
Most of the churches relied on foot-stomping as rhythmic accompaniment. Guitars and tambourines were sometimes available, but not frequently. Church choirs became a norm only after emancipation. Most of the singing was done a cappella; the most famous gospel-based hymns were composed in the 1760s and 1770s by English writers John Newton and Augustus Toplady, members of the Anglican Church. Starting out as lyrics only, it took decades for standardized tunes to be added to them. Although not directly connected with African-American gospel music, they were adopted by African-Americans as well as white Americans, Newton's connection with the abolition movement provided cross-fertilization; the first published use of the term "Gospel Song" appeared in 1874 when Philip Bliss released a songbook entitled Gospel Songs. A Choice Collection of Hymns and Tunes, it was used to describe a new style of church music, songs that were easy to grasp and more singable than the traditional church hymns, which came out of the mass revival movement starting with Dwight L. Moody, whose musician was Ira D. Sankey, as well as the Holiness-Pentecostal movement.
Prior to the meeting of Moody and
Maria Muldaur is an American folk and blues singer, part of the American folk music revival in the early 1960s. She recorded the 1973 hit song "Midnight at the Oasis" and continues to record albums in the folk traditions, she is the mother of singer-songwriter Jenni Muldaur. Muldaur was born Maria Grazia Rosa Domenica D'Amato in Greenwich Village, New York City, where she attended Hunter College High School. Muldaur began her career in the early 1960s as Maria D'Amato, performing with John Sebastian, David Grisman, Stefan Grossman as a member of the Even Dozen Jug Band, she joined Jim Kweskin & the Jug Band as a featured vocalist and occasional violinist. During this time, she was part of the Greenwich Village scene that included Bob Dylan, some of her recollections of the period with respect to Dylan, appear in Martin Scorsese's 2005 documentary film No Direction Home, she married fellow Jug Band member Geoff Muldaur, after the Kweskin group broke up, the two of them produced two albums. She began her solo career, but retained her married name.
Her first solo album, Maria Muldaur, released in 1973, contained her hit single "Midnight at the Oasis", which reached number 6 on the Billboard Hot 100 in 1974. It peaked at number 21 in the UK Singles Chart; that year, she released her second album, Waitress in a Donut Shop. This included a re-recording of "I'm a Woman", the Leiber and Stoller number first associated with Peggy Lee and a standout feature from her Jug Band days; the title of this album is taken from a line in another song on the album, "Sweetheart", by Ken Burgan. Around this time, Muldaur established a relationship with the Grateful Dead. Opening for some Grateful Dead shows in the summer of 1974, with John Kahn, bassist of the Jerry Garcia Band earned her a seat in that group as a backing vocalist in the late 1970s. Around the same time Muldaur met and collaborated with bluegrass icon Peter Rowan; the two became close, she was chosen to be the godmother of his daughter Amanda Rowan. She appeared on Super Jam, the live recording of the German TV series Villa Fantastica, with Brian Auger on piano, Pete York on drums, Dick Morrissey on tenor saxophone, Roy Williams on trombone, Harvey Weston on bass and Zoot Money on vocals.
Muldaur continued to perform and record after her success in the mid-1970s, including a turn at the Teatro ZinZanni in 2001. Her 2005 release Sweet Lovin' Ol' Soul was nominated for both a Blues Music Award and a Grammy Award in the Traditional Blues category. In 2013, she was nominated for a Blues Music Award in the Koko Taylor Award category; the Even Dozen Jug Band Jug Band Music See Reverse Side for Title Garden of Joy The Best of Jim Kweskin & the Jug Band Pottery Pie Sweet Potatoes Maria Muldaur Waitress in a Donut Shop Sweet Harmony Southern Winds Open Your Eyes Gospel Nights There Is a Love Sweet and Slow Transblucency Live in London Louisiana Love Call Maria Muldaur and Friends: On the Sunny Side Meet Me at Midnite Jazzabelle Fanning the Flames Southland of the Heart Swingin' in the Rain Meet Me Where They Play the Blues Maria Muldaur's Music for Lovers Richland Woman Blues Animal Crackers in My Soup A Woman Alone with the Blues Classic Live! I'm a Woman: 30 Years of Maria Muldaur Sisters & Brothers Love Wants to Dance Sweet Lovin' Ol' Soul Heart of Mine: Maria Muldaur Sings Love Songs of Bob Dylan Songs for the Young at Heart Naughty, Bawdy & Blue Live in Concert
Allen Toussaint was an American musician, songwriter and record producer, an influential figure in New Orleans rhythm and blues from the 1950s to the end of the century, described as "one of popular music's great backroom figures". Many musicians recorded Toussaint's compositions, including "Java", "Mother-in-Law", "I Like It Like That", "Fortune Teller", "Ride Your Pony", "Get Out of My Life, Woman", "Working in the Coal Mine", "Everything I Do Gonna Be Funky", "Here Come the Girls", "Yes We Can Can", "Play Something Sweet", "Southern Nights", he was a producer for hundreds of recordings, among the best known of which are "Right Place, Wrong Time", by his longtime friend Dr. John, "Lady Marmalade", by Labelle; the youngest of three children, Toussaint was born in 1938 in New Orleans and grew up in a shotgun house in the Gert Town neighborhood, where his mother, Naomi Neville and fed all manner of musicians as they practiced and recorded with her son. His father, worked on the railway and played trumpet.
Allen Toussaint learned piano as a child and took informal music lessons from an elderly neighbor, Ernest Pinn. In his teens he played in a band, the Flamingos, with the guitarist Snooks Eaglin, before dropping out of school. A significant early influence on Toussaint was the syncopated "second-line" piano style of Professor Longhair. After a lucky break at age 17, in which he stood in for Huey "Piano" Smith at a performance with Earl King's band in Prichard, Toussaint was introduced to a group of local musicians led by Dave Bartholomew, who performed at the Dew Drop Inn, a nightclub on Lasalle Street in Uptown New Orleans, his first recording was in 1957 as a stand-in for Fats Domino on Domino's record "I Want You to Know", on which Toussaint played piano and Domino overdubbed his vocals. His first success as a producer came in 1957 with Lee Allen's "Walking with Mr. Lee", he began performing in Bartholomew's band, he recorded with Fats Domino, Smiley Lewis, Lee Allen and other leading New Orleans performers.
After being spotted as a sideman by the A&R man Danny Kessler, he recorded for RCA Records as Al Tousan. In early 1958 he recorded an album of instrumentals, The Wild Sound of New Orleans, with a band including Alvin "Red" Tyler, either Nat Perrilliat or Lee Allen, either Justin Adams or Roy Montrell, Frank Fields, Charles "Hungry" Williams; the recordings included Toussaint and Tyler's composition "Java", which first charted for Floyd Cramer in 1962 and became a number 4 pop hit for Al Hirt in 1964. Toussaint recorded and co-wrote songs with Allen Orange in the early 1960s. In 1960, Joe Banashak, of Minit Records and Instant Records, hired Toussaint as an A&R man and record producer, he did freelance work for other labels, such as Fury. Toussaint played piano, wrote and produced a string of hits in the early and mid-1960s for New Orleans R&B artists such as Ernie K-Doe, Chris Kenner, Irma Thomas and Aaron Neville, the Showmen, Lee Dorsey, whose first hit "Ya Ya" he produced in 1961; the early to mid-1960s are regarded as Toussaint's most creatively successful period.
Notable examples of his work are Jessie Hill's "Ooh Poo Pah Doo", Ernie K-Doe's "Mother-in-Law", Chris Kenner's "I Like It Like That". A two-sided 1962 hit by Benny Spellman comprised "Lipstick Traces" and the simple but effective "Fortune Teller". "Ruler of My Heart", written under his pseudonym Naomi Neville, first recorded by Irma Thomas for the Minit label in 1963, was adapted by Otis Redding under the title "Pain in My Heart" that year, prompting Toussaint to file a lawsuit against Redding and his record company, Stax. Redding's version of the song was recorded by the Rolling Stones on their second album. In 1964, "A Certain Girl" was the B-side of the first single release by the Yardbirds; the song was released again in 1980 by Warren Zevon, as the single from the album Bad Luck Streak in Dancing School it reached 57 on Billboard's Hot 100. Mary Weiss, former lead singer of The Shangri-Las, released it as "A Certain Guy" in 2007. Toussaint credited about twenty songs to his parents and Naomi, sometimes using the pseudonym "Naomi Neville".
These include "Fortune Teller", first recorded by Benny Spellman in 1961, "Pain In My Heart," first a hit for Otis Redding in 1963, "Work, Work", recorded by the Artwoods in 1966. Alison Krauss and Robert Plant covered "Fortune Teller" on their 2007 album Raising Sand. Toussaint continued to record when on leave. After his discharge in 1965, he joined forces with Marshall Sehorn to form Sansu Enterprises, which included a record label, variously known as Tou-Sea, Deesu, or Kansu, recorded Lee Dorsey, Chris Kenner, Betty Harris, others. Dorsey had hits with several of Toussaint's songs, including "Ride Your Pony", "Working in the Coal Mine", "Holy Cow"; the core players of the rhythm section used on many of the Sansu recordings from the mid- to late 1960s, Art Neville and the Sounds, consisted of Art Neville on keyboards, Leo Nocentelli on guitar, George Porter on bass, Zigaboo Modeliste on drums. They lat
Jerome John Garcia was an American singer-songwriter and guitarist, best known for his work as the lead guitarist and as a vocalist with the band Grateful Dead, which came to prominence during the counterculture era in the 1960s. Although he disavowed the role, Garcia was viewed by many as the leader or "spokesman" of the group. One of its founders, Garcia performed with the Grateful Dead for their entire 30-year career. Garcia founded and participated in a variety of side projects, including the Saunders–Garcia Band, the Jerry Garcia Band, Old & In the Way, the Garcia/Grisman acoustic duo, Legion of Mary, the New Riders of the Purple Sage, he released several solo albums, contributed to a number of albums by other artists over the years as a session musician. He was well known for his distinctive guitar playing, was ranked 13th in Rolling Stone's "100 Greatest Guitarists of All Time" cover story in 2003. Garcia was renowned for his musical and technical ability his ability to play a variety of instruments, his ability to sustain long improvisations with The Grateful Dead.
Garcia believed that improvisation took stress away from his playing and allowed him to make spur of the moment decisions that he would not have made intentionally. In an interview with Rolling Stone, Garcia noted that "my own preferences are for improvisation, for making it up as I go along; the idea of picking, of eliminating possibilities by deciding, that’s difficult for me". Garcia's improvisation techniques were lauded for their ability to span genres, as well as his ability to employ modal guitar playing, he was a proponent of using the Mixolydian mode, a scale which utilised a flattened 7th note. He used various exotic scales and chromatic playing to add exotic flavours to Grateful Dead work on 1975's Blues for Allah Later in life, Garcia was sometimes ill because of his diabetes, in 1986, he went into a diabetic coma that nearly cost him his life. Although his overall health improved somewhat after that, he continued to struggle with obesity and longstanding heroin and cocaine addictions.
He was staying in a California drug rehabilitation facility when he died of a heart attack in August 1995 at the age of 53. Garcia's ancestors on his father's side were from Galicia in northwest Spain, his mother's ancestors were Swedish. He was born in the Excelsior District of San Francisco, California, on August 1, 1942, to Jose Ramon "Joe" Garcia and Ruth Marie "Bobbie" Garcia, herself born in San Francisco, his parents named him after composer Jerome Kern. Jerome John was their second child, preceded by Clifford Ramon "Tiff", born in 1937. Shortly before Clifford's birth, their father and a partner leased a building in downtown San Francisco and turned it into a bar in response to Jose being blackballed from a musicians' union for moonlighting. Garcia was influenced by music at an early age, his father was his mother enjoyed playing the piano. His father's extended family—who had emigrated from Spain in 1919—would sing during reunions. At age four, while the family was vacationing in the Santa Cruz Mountains, two-thirds of Garcia's right middle finger was accidentally cut off.
Garcia and his brother Tiff were chopping wood. Jerry steadied a piece of wood with his finger, but Tiff miscalculated and the axe severed most of Jerry's middle finger. After his mother wrapped his hand in a towel, Garcia's father drove him over 30 miles to the nearest hospital. A few weeks Garcia — who had not looked at his finger since the accident — was surprised to discover most of it missing when the bandage he was wearing came off during a bath. Garcia confided that he used it to his advantage in his youth, showing it off to other children in his neighborhood. Less than a year after he lost most of his finger, his father died. Vacationing with his family near Arcata in Northern California in 1947, Garcia's father went fly fishing in the Trinity River, part of the Six Rivers National Forest. Not long after entering the river, Garcia's father slipped on a rock, lost his balance and was swept away by the river's rapids, he drowned. Although Garcia claimed he saw his father fall into the river, Dennis McNally, author of the book A Long Strange Trip: The Inside Story of the Grateful Dead, argues Garcia formed the memory after hearing others repeat the story.
Blair Jackson, who wrote Garcia: An American Life, lends weight to McNally's claim. Jackson's evidence was that a local newspaper article describing Jose's death failed to mention Jerry was present when he died. Following the accident, Garcia's mother took over her husband's bar, buying out his partner for full ownership; as a result, Ruth Garcia began working full-time, sending Jerry and his brother to live nearby with her parents and William Clifford. During the five-year period in which he lived with his grandparents, Garcia enjoyed a large amount of autonomy and attended Monroe Elementary School. At the school, Garcia was encouraged in his artistic abilities by his third grade teacher: through her, he discovered that "being a creative person was a viable possibility in life." According to Garcia, it was around this time that he was opened up to country and to bluegrass by his grandmother, whom he recalled enjoyed listening to the Grand Ole Opry. His elder brother, however, staunchly believed the contrary, insisting that Garcia was "fantasizing all... she'd been to Opry, b
The bass guitar is a plucked string instrument similar in appearance and construction to an electric guitar, except with a longer neck and scale length, four to six strings or courses. The four-string bass is tuned the same as the double bass, which corresponds to pitches one octave lower than the four lowest-pitched strings of a guitar, it is played with the fingers or thumb, or striking with a pick. The electric bass guitar has pickups and must be connected to an amplifier and speaker to be loud enough to compete with other instruments. Since the 1960s, the bass guitar has replaced the double bass in popular music as the bass instrument in the rhythm section. While types of basslines vary from one style of music to another, the bassist plays a similar role: anchoring the harmonic framework and establishing the beat. Many styles of music include the bass guitar, it is a soloing instrument. According to the New Grove Dictionary of Music and Musicians, an "Electric bass guitar a Guitar with four heavy strings tuned E1'-A1'-D2-G2."
It defines bass as "Bass. A contraction of Double bass or Electric bass guitar." According to some authors the proper term is "electric bass". Common names for the instrument are "bass guitar", "electric bass guitar", "electric bass" and some authors claim that they are accurate; the bass guitar is a transposing instrument, as it is notated in bass clef an octave higher than it sounds. In the 1930s, musician and inventor Paul Tutmarc of Seattle, developed the first electric bass guitar in its modern form, a fretted instrument designed to be played horizontally; the 1935 sales catalog for Tutmarc's electronic musical instrument company, featured his "Model 736 Bass Fiddle", a four-stringed, solid-bodied, fretted electric bass guitar with a 30 1⁄2-inch scale length, a single pick up. The adoption of a guitar's body shape made the instrument easier to hold and transport than any of the existing stringed bass instruments; the addition of frets enabled bassists to play in tune more than on fretless acoustic or electric upright basses.
Around 100 of these instruments were made during this period. Audiovox sold their “Model 236” bass amplifier. Around 1947, Tutmarc's son, began marketing a similar bass under the Serenader brand name, prominently advertised in the nationally distributed L. D. Heater Music Company wholesale jobber catalogue of 1948. However, the Tutmarc family inventions did not achieve market success. In the 1950s, Leo Fender and George Fullerton developed the first mass-produced electric bass guitar; the Fender Electric Instrument Manufacturing Company began producing the Precision Bass in October 1951. The "P-bass" evolved from a simple, un-contoured "slab" body design and a single coil pickup similar to that of a Telecaster, to something more like a Fender Stratocaster, with a contoured body design, edges beveled for comfort, a split single coil pickup; the "Fender Bass" was a revolutionary new instrument for gigging musicians. In comparison with the large, heavy upright bass, the main bass instrument in popular music from the early 1900s to the 1940s, the bass guitar could be transported to shows.
When amplified, the bass guitar was less prone than acoustic basses to unwanted audio feedback. In 1953 Monk Montgomery became the first bassist to tour with the Fender bass guitar, in Lionel Hampton's postwar big band. Montgomery was possibly the first to record with the bass guitar, on July 2, 1953 with The Art Farmer Septet. Roy Johnson, Shifty Henry, were other early Fender bass pioneers. Bill Black, playing with Elvis Presley, switched from upright bass to the Fender Precision Bass around 1957; the bass guitar was intended to appeal to guitarists as well as upright bass players, many early pioneers of the instrument, such as Carol Kaye, Joe Osborn, Paul McCartney were guitarists. In 1953, following Fender's lead, Gibson released the first short-scale violin-shaped electric bass, with an extendable end pin so a bassist could play it upright or horizontally. Gibson renamed the bass the EB-1 in 1958. In 1958, Gibson released the maple arched-top EB-2 described in the Gibson catalogue as a "hollow-body electric bass that features a Bass/Baritone pushbutton for two different tonal characteristics".
In 1959 these were followed by the more conventional-looking EB-0 Bass. The EB-0 was similar to a Gibson SG in appearance. Whereas Fender basses had pickups mounted in positions in between the base of the neck and the top of the bridge, many of Gibson's early basses featured one humbucking pickup mounted directly against the neck pocket; the EB-3, introduced in 1961 had a "mini-humbucker" at the bridge position. Gibson basses tended to be smaller, sleeker instruments with a shorter scale length than the Precision. A number of other companies began manufacturing bass guitars during the 1950s: Kay in 1952, Hofner and Danelectro in 1956, Rickenbacker in 1957 and Burns/Supersound in 1958. 1956 saw the appearance at the German trade fair "Musikmesse Frankfurt" of the distinctive Höfner 500/1 violin-shaped bass made using violin construction techniques by Walter Höfner, a second-generation violin luthier. The design was known popularly as the "Beat