Plainfield, New Jersey
Plainfield is a city in Union County, New Jersey, United States, known by its nickname as "The Queen City." As of the 2010 United States Census, the city's population increased to 49,808, its highest recorded population in any decennial census, with the population having increased by 1,979 from the 47,829 counted in the 2000 Census, which had in turn increased by 1,262 from the 46,567 counted in the 1990 Census. The area of present-day Plainfield was formed as Plainfield Township, a township, created on April 5, 1847, from portions of Westfield Township, while the area was still part of Essex County. On March 19, 1857, Plainfield Township became part of the newly created Union County. Plainfield was incorporated as a city by an act of the New Jersey Legislature on April 21, 1869, from portions of Plainfield Township, based on the results of a referendum held that same day; the city and township coexisted until March 6, 1878, when Plainfield Township was dissolved and parts were absorbed by Plainfield city, with the remainder becoming Fanwood Township.
The name "Plainfield" used in both North Plainfield and South Plainfield, is derived from a local estate or from its scenic location. Plainfield was settled in 1684 by Quakers, incorporated as a city in 1869. A bedroom suburb in the New York metropolitan area, it has become the urban center of 10 allied municipalities, with diversified industries, including printing and the manufacture of chemicals, electronic equipment, vehicular parts. Among the several 18th-century buildings remaining are a Friends' meetinghouse, the Martine house, the Nathaniel Drake House, known as George Washington's headquarters during the Battle of Short Hills in June 1777. Nearby Washington Rock is a prominent point of the Watchung Mountains and is reputed to be the vantage point from which Washington watched British troop movements; the "Queen City" moniker arose in the second half of the 19th century. Plainfield had been developing a reputation during this period as featuring a climate, beneficial for respiratory ailments.
In 1886, in an effort to publicize the climate, local newspaper publisher Thomas W. Morrison began to use the slogan "Colorado of the East" to promote Plainfield; as Denver, was known as the "Queen City of the Plains," the slogan for Plainfield became abbreviated to "The Queen City."In 1902, the New Jersey Legislature approved measures that would have allowed the borough of North Plainfield to become part of Union County and to allow for a merger of North Plainfield with the City of Plainfield subject to the approval of a referendum by voters in both municipalities. Plainfield is the birthplace of P-Funk. George Clinton founded The Parliaments while working in a barber shop. Parliament-Funkadelic was inducted in the Rock and Roll Hall of Fame in 1997. Plainfield has been home to former New Jersey governor James McGreevey. In sports history, Plainfield is the birthplace and/or home of several current and former athletes, including professionals and well-known amateurs. Included in their number are Milt Campbell, the 1956 Olympic Decathlon gold medalist, Joe Black, the first African-American pitcher to win a World Series game, Jeff Torborg, former MLB player and manager, Vic Washington, NFL player.
Plainfield's history as a place to call home for the 19th and 20th century wealthy has led to a significant and preserved suburban architectural legacy. An influx of Wall Street money led to the creation of what was called Millionaires' Row after the opening of the railway in the 19th century. There are numerous sites, including homes and districts in the city that are listed on the National Register of Historic Places. While not listed, the Plainfield Armory, a prominent landmark completed in 1932, was sold by the state in 2013 as surplus property. Plainfield's wealthy northeast corner, known as the "Sleepy Hollow" section of the city and still is characterized by its array of finely landscaped streets and neighborhoods with homes defined by a broad array of architectural styles, most built during the first half of the twentieth century. From the tree-lines neighborhoods, it can be seen that the lot sizes vary, but the stateliness and distinction of each house is evident, whether a stately Queen Anne mansion or gingerbread cottage.
Most lots are nicely landscaped and semi or private. Plainfield was affected by the Plainfield Rebellion in July 1967; this civil disturbance occurred in the wake of the larger Newark riots. A Plainfield police officer was killed, about fifty people were injured, several hundred thousand dollars of property was damaged by looting and arson; the New Jersey National Guard restored order after three days of unrest. This civil unrest caused a massive white flight, characterized by the percentage of black residents rising from 40% in 1970 to 60% a decade later. Author and Plainfield native Isaiah Tremaine published Insurrection in 2017 as a mournful accounting of the Plainfield riots—and subsequent racial tensions at Plainfield High School—from his perspective as a black teenager living in the city with both white and black friends at the time. Prior to the rebellion, Plainfield was a regional entertainment center. Residents of nearby Union and Somerset counties would drive to shop and explore the business districts of Plainfield.
Other than during the holidays, peak shopping times Plainfield were Thursday nights and Saturday, when Front Street and the areas around it bustled. Plainfield had several entertainment venues at that time. At the peak, there were four operating movie theaters: the Strand, the Liberty, the Paramount and the Oxford theat
New Jersey General Assembly
The New Jersey General Assembly is the lower house of the New Jersey Legislature. Since the election of 1967, the Assembly has consisted of 80 members. Two members are elected from each of New Jersey's 40 legislative districts for a term of two years, each representing districts with average populations of 210,359. To be eligible to run, a potential candidate must be at least 21 years of age, must have lived in their district for at least one year prior to the election, have lived in the state of New Jersey for two years, they must be residents of their districts. Membership in the Assembly is considered a part-time job, many members have employment in addition to their legislative work. Assembly members serve two-year terms, elected every odd-numbered year in November. Several members of the Assembly hold other elective office, as they are grandfathered in under a New Jersey law that banned multiple office holding in 2007; the Assembly is led by the Speaker of the Assembly, elected by the membership of the chamber.
After the Lieutenant Governor of New Jersey and the President of the New Jersey Senate, the Speaker of the Assembly is third in the line of succession to replace the Governor of New Jersey in the event that he or she is unable to execute the duties of that office. The Speaker decides the schedule for the Assembly, which bills will be considered, appoints committee chairmen, runs the Assembly's agenda; the current Speaker is Craig Coughlin. Members of the NJ General Assembly receive an annual base salary of $49,000 with the Senate President and the Assembly Speaker earning more. Members receive $110,000 for staff salaries. In addition, they receive stationery and a telephone card, they receive other benefits. The total cost to the State of New Jersey for each member of the general assembly is $200,000 annually. See: New Jersey Legislature#Colonial period and New Jersey Legislative Council#Composition Committee chairs for the 2018-2019 Legislative Session are: Agriculture and Natural Resources - Asm.
Bob Andrzejczak Appropriations - Asm. John Burzichelli Budget - Aswm. Eliana Pintor Marin Commerce and Economic Development - Asm. Gordon M. Johnson Consumer Affairs - Asm. Paul Moriarty Education - Asw. Pamela R. Lampitt Environment and Solid Waste - Asw. Nancy Pinkin Financial Institutions and Insurance - Asm. John F. McKeon Health and Senior Services - Asm. Herb Conaway, MD Higher Education - Asw. Mila Jasey Homeland Security and State Preparedness - Asw. Valerie Vainieri Huttle Housing and Community Development - Asm. Jerry Green Human Services - Asw. Joann Downey Judiciary - Asw. Annette Quijano Labor - Asm. Joseph Egan Law and Public Safety - Asm. Adam Taliaferro Military and Veterans' Affairs - Asw. Cleopatra Tucker Oversight and Federal Relations - Asm. Joseph Danielsen Regulated Professions - Asm. Thomas Giblin Regulatory Oversight - Asm. Reed Gusciora Science and Technology - Asm. Andrew Zwicker State and Local Government - Asm. Vincent Mazzeo Telecommunications and Utilities - Asm. Wayne DeAngelo Tourism and the Arts - Asm.
Ralph Caputo Transportation and Independent Authorities - Asm. Daniel R. Benson Women and Children - Asw. Gabriela Mosquera Note: The first three subsections below end with a constitutional year: 1776, 1844 or 1947; the fourth subsection ends in 1966, the year of the U. S. Supreme Court decision that required legislative apportionment based on the principle of "one person, one vote"; the following is a list of Speakers of the Assembly since 1703. On December 6, 1775, Gov. William Franklin prorogued the New Jersey Legislature until January 3, 1776, but it never met again. On May 30, 1776, Franklin attempted to convene the legislature, but was met instead with an order by the New Jersey Provincial Congress for his arrest. On July 2, 1776, the Provincial Congress approved a new constitution; the Constitution of 1844 expanded the General Assembly to 60 members, elected annually and apportioned to the then-nineteen counties by population. Category:Members of the New Jersey General Assembly New Jersey State Constitution New Jersey Legislature official website Assembly Democrats official website Assembly Republicans official website New Jersey section of Project Vote Smart a national database of voting records and other information about legislators
New Jersey is a state in the Mid-Atlantic and Northeastern regions of the United States. It is located on a peninsula, bordered on the north and east by the state of New York along the extent of the length of New York City on its western edge. New Jersey is the fourth-smallest state by area but the 11th-most populous, with 9 million residents as of 2017, the most densely populated of the 50 U. S. states. New Jersey lies within the combined statistical areas of New York City and Philadelphia. New Jersey was the second-wealthiest U. S. state by median household income as of 2017. New Jersey was inhabited by Native Americans for more than 2,800 years, with historical tribes such as the Lenape along the coast. In the early 17th century, the Dutch and the Swedes founded the first European settlements in the state; the English seized control of the region, naming it the Province of New Jersey after the largest of the Channel Islands and granting it as a colony to Sir George Carteret and John Berkeley, 1st Baron Berkeley of Stratton.
New Jersey was the site of several decisive battles during the American Revolutionary War in the 18th century. In the 19th century, factories in cities, Paterson, Trenton, Jersey City, Elizabeth helped to drive the Industrial Revolution. New Jersey's geographic location at the center of the Northeast megalopolis, between Boston and New York City to the northeast, Philadelphia and Washington, D. C. to the southwest, fueled its rapid growth through the process of suburbanization in the second half of the 20th century. In the first decades of the 21st century, this suburbanization began reverting with the consolidation of New Jersey's culturally diverse populace toward more urban settings within the state, with towns home to commuter rail stations outpacing the population growth of more automobile-oriented suburbs since 2008. Around 180 million years ago, during the Jurassic Period, New Jersey bordered North Africa; the pressure of the collision between North America and Africa gave rise to the Appalachian Mountains.
Around 18,000 years ago, the Ice Age resulted in glaciers. As the glaciers retreated, they left behind Lake Passaic, as well as many rivers and gorges. New Jersey was settled by Native Americans, with the Lenni-Lenape being dominant at the time of contact. Scheyichbi is the Lenape name for the land, now New Jersey; the Lenape were several autonomous groups that practiced maize agriculture in order to supplement their hunting and gathering in the region surrounding the Delaware River, the lower Hudson River, western Long Island Sound. The Lenape society was divided into matrilinear clans; these clans were organized into three distinct phratries identified by their animal sign: Turtle and Wolf. They first encountered the Dutch in the early 17th century, their primary relationship with the Europeans was through fur trade; the Dutch became the first Europeans to lay claim to lands in New Jersey. The Dutch colony of New Netherland consisted of parts of modern Middle Atlantic states. Although the European principle of land ownership was not recognized by the Lenape, Dutch West India Company policy required its colonists to purchase the land that they settled.
The first to do so was Michiel Pauw who established a patronship called Pavonia in 1630 along the North River which became the Bergen. Peter Minuit's purchase of lands along the Delaware River established the colony of New Sweden; the entire region became a territory of England on June 24, 1664, after an English fleet under the command of Colonel Richard Nicolls sailed into what is now New York Harbor and took control of Fort Amsterdam, annexing the entire province. During the English Civil War, the Channel Island of Jersey remained loyal to the British Crown and gave sanctuary to the King, it was from the Royal Square in Saint Helier that Charles II of England was proclaimed King in 1649, following the execution of his father, Charles I. The North American lands were divided by Charles II, who gave his brother, the Duke of York, the region between New England and Maryland as a proprietary colony. James granted the land between the Hudson River and the Delaware River to two friends who had remained loyal through the English Civil War: Sir George Carteret and Lord Berkeley of Stratton.
The area was named the Province of New Jersey. Since the state's inception, New Jersey has been characterized by religious diversity. New England Congregationalists settled alongside Scots Presbyterians and Dutch Reformed migrants. While the majority of residents lived in towns with individual landholdings of 100 acres, a few rich proprietors owned vast estates. English Quakers and Anglicans owned large landholdings. Unlike Plymouth Colony and other colonies, New Jersey was populated by a secondary wave of immigrants who came from other colonies instead of those who migrated directly from Europe. New Jersey remained agrarian and rural throughout the colonial era, commercial farming developed sporadically; some townships, such as Burlington on the Delaware River and Perth Amboy, emerged as important ports for shipping to New York City and Philadelphia. The colony's fertile lands and tolerant religious policy drew more settlers, New Jersey's population had increased to 120,000 by 1775. Settlement for the first 10 years of English rule took place along Hackensack River and Arthur Kill –
New Jersey Legislature
The New Jersey Legislature is the legislative branch of the government of the U. S. state of New Jersey. In its current form, as defined by the New Jersey Constitution of 1947, the Legislature consists of two houses: the General Assembly and the Senate; the Legislature meets in the state capital of Trenton. Democrats hold super majorities in both chambers of the legislature; the New Jersey Legislature was established in 1702 upon the surrender by the Proprietors of East Jersey and those of West Jersey of the right of government to Queen Anne. Anne's government united the two colonies as the Province of New Jersey, a royal colony, establishing a new system of government; the instructions from Queen Anne to Viscount Cornbury, the first royal governor of New Jersey, outlined a fusion of powers system, which allowed for an overlap of executive and judicial authority. It provided for a bicameral legislature consisting of an appointed Council and an elected General Assembly; the Provincial Council consisted of twelve members, appointed by and serving at the pleasure of the British crown.
With the exception of resignations and those being removed for cause, councillors served for life. The former provinces of East and West Jersey were reorganized as the Eastern Division and the Western Division of the Province of New Jersey. Councillors were apportioned. In practice, this was not always followed; the Assembly consisted of 24 members with two each elected in the Cities of Burlington and Perth Amboy, ten at-large from each of the two divisions. As this system proved unwieldy for holding elections, in 1709 the Assembly was reapportioned; the number of members remained with a total of twelve from each division. In his instructions to Governor William Burnet, King George I recommended the reapportionment of Salem's seats to the formed Hunterdon County. Membership continued at 24 until 1768, when it was expanded to 30 by the addition of two representatives each from Morris and Sussex Counties; this apportionment remained until superseded by the Constitution of 1776. The Governor had the authority to summon the Legislature, to dissolve the Assembly and call new elections.
On December 6, 1775, Governor William Franklin prorogued the New Jersey Legislature until January 3, 1776, but it never met again. On May 30, 1776, Franklin attempted to convene the legislature, but was met instead with an order by the New Jersey Provincial Congress for his arrest. On July 2, 1776, the Provincial Congress approved a new constitution. In 1775, representatives from New Jersey's 13 counties established a Provincial Congress to supersede the Royal Governor. In June 1776, this congress had authorized the preparation of a constitution, written within five days, adopted by the Provincial Congress, accepted by the Continental Congress; the Constitution of 1776 provided for a bicameral legislature consisting of a General Assembly with three members from each county and a legislative council with one member from each county. All state officials, including the governor, were to be appointed by the Legislature under this constitution; the Vice-President of Council would succeed the governor.
Accordingly, the first session of the legislature convened on August 27, 1776. Legislative politics was defined in the following years by an intense rivalry between the Federalists, the Whigs, the Democratic Party; the New Jersey Constitution of 1844 provided for a direct popular election of the governor, gave him the power to veto bills passed by the legislature. The General Assembly was expanded to 60 members, elected annually and apportioned to the counties based on population; the Legislative Council was renamed the Senate, was to be composed of one member from each of the state's 19 counties, serving a three-year term. During the Civil War, party allegiance became entrenched. Democrats won both houses until the Republicans gained control in 1893. A court ruling obtained by the Republicans provided that members of the General Assembly were to be elected from the counties at-large, rather than from election districts of unequal population. Regardless of any changes, the legislature met infrequently, had high turnover among its members, was far from being the most influential or powerful organ of state government.
New Jersey adopted its current constitution in 1947. Under this constitution, the governor was given additional veto powers and the ability to serve two terms. Hundreds of independent agencies were consolidated into 20 principal executive departments under the control of the governor. Senators' terms were extended to four years. In 1966, the Senate was expanded from 21 to 40 members and the General Assembly from 60 to 80. Following a United States Supreme Court decision in 1964 and a New Jersey Supreme Court decision in 1972, the state's legislative districts were reapportioned into the current arrangement. Two more modern developments have helped shape the Legislature: the increase in importance of legislative committees and the development of longer tenures for the legislative leadership; the Legislature has the power to enact laws by a majority vote of both houses, subject to the Governor
Upendra J. Chivukula
Upendra Chivukula is a Democratic politician who serves as a Commissioner on the New Jersey Board of Public Utilities after serving more than 12 years in the New Jersey General Assembly, where he had been the Deputy Speaker. On September 18, 2014, Chivukula was nominated by Governor Chris Christie to a seat on the New Jersey Board of Public Utilities, to replace retiring NJ BPU Commissioner Jeanne Fox; the New Jersey Senate voted 35–1 to confirm Chivukula to a six-year term on the New Jersey Board of Public Utilities on September 22, 2014. Chivukula is an advocate for raising the minimum wage, supporting social security and medicare, investing in public education. In 2014 he ran in the Democratic primary to fill retiring Congressman Rush Holt's seat in Congress, but he did not win the nomination. Chivukula served in the New Jersey General Assembly from 2002–2014, where he represented the 17th Legislative District. In 2001, Chivukula became the first Indian American elected to the New Jersey General Assembly and the fourth Indian-American in the United States to be elected to state office.
Chivukula served as the New Jersey General Assembly's Deputy Speaker from 2007–2014. Chivukula was noted for being a progressive legislator and, in coordination with Congressman Rush D. Holt, Jr. pushed through reforms to invest in clean energy, infrastructure projects and high-tech manufacturing jobs. Assemblyman Chivukula served on the Franklin Township Council from 1998–2005, he was first elected to represent the 5th Council Ward in 1997, won re-election to his 5th Ward seat in 2001. He served as the township deputy mayor in 1998 and as mayor in 2000. In Franklin Township, he has served on the Franklin Township Community Foundation, Finance Oversight Committee, Traffic Management Committee, Fire Prevention Board, Emergency Life Support Delivery, Integrated Communications Committee, Emergency Management, Franklin Township Planning Board, Economic Development Committee, Community / Senior Center Steering Committee and the Bicentennial Celebration Committee. Chivukula has served on the Somerset County Affordable Housing Board of Trustees and the Middlesex County Cultural and Historic Commission.
He was appointed by Governor of New Jersey James Florio to be a Public Member of the New Jersey State Board of Social Work Examiners, where he served from 1994 to 1997. He was a Member of the Delegation to the Democratic National Convention in 1996, 2000, 2008, 2012 and was an alternate delegate in 2004. Chivukula was one of New Jersey's presidential electors casting the state's Electoral College votes after the 2004 presidential election. On November 6, 2012, he ran for Congress against Republican incumbent, U. S. Representative Leonard Lance to represent New Jersey's 7th congressional district in the United States House of Representatives, he was defeated in the Republican district 57%–40% with a vote of 175,662 to 123,057. On June 3, 2014, he ran for Congress against NJ state Assemblywoman Bonnie Watson Coleman, NJ state Senator Linda R. Greenstein, physicist Andrew Zwicker in the Democratic primary for New Jersey's 12th congressional district in the United States House of Representatives, to succeed retiring Congressman Rush D. Holt, Jr..
Chivukula came in third place in the primary with 21.8%, losing to Watson Coleman and Greenstein, who received 43% and 27.8% of the primary vote, respectively. Chivukula received a B. E. E. from College of Engineering, Guindy in Electrical Engineering and an M. E. E. degree from City College of New York in Electrical Engineering. He was born in Nellore and resides in Somerset, New Jersey. In 2015, Chivukula co-authored "THE 3rd WAY" with Veny Musum which advocates closing the broadening gap between the rich and the poor in America and worldwide through Inclusive Capitalism, or Economic Democracy via business initiatives like increasing an employee's equity stake and other methods of increasing profit sharing among all employees. Indians in the New York City metropolitan region Assemblyman Chivukula's legislative web page, New Jersey Legislature Assemblyman Chivukula's Congressional Campaign website New Jersey Legislature financial disclosure forms – 2013 2012 2011 2010 2009 2008 2007 2006 2005 2004 Assembly Member Upendra J. Chivukula, Project Vote Smart New Jersey Voter Information Website 2003 High Tech Hall of Fame Biography Indian American Leadership Incubator Profile Chief Guest DCCC Chairman Steve Israel Announces 4 New Red to Blue Races
Union County College
Union County College is an accredited, co-educational, two-year, community college located in Union County, New Jersey. As the first and oldest of New Jersey's 19 community colleges, Union County College has been serving both career-minded and transfer-oriented students since 1933; the College has four campuses situated in Cranford, Elizabeth and Scotch Plains. The College is accredited by the Middle States Commission on Higher Education; the college offers more than 80 programs with degrees in Associate in Arts, Associate in Science, Associate in Applied Science degree programs, certificate programs provided by the Continuing Education program. It offers distance education classes using the online Learning management system called Canvas from Instructure which allows students to gain credits toward degrees at their own convenience. Union County Junior College opened on October 16, 1933 in Roselle, New Jersey, with 243 evening students. With massive numbers of people out of work, there was strong pressure to educate people as a way to provide jobs.
According to one source, it was the oldest community college in New Jersey. Still, the college was "pitifully underfinanced" and rented space from a local high school, its initial budget was $17,000 for the entire school. Its purpose at the time wasn't so much to teach undergraduates but to "provide jobs for unemployed teachers" during the Great Depression, according to historian Donald R. Raichle. An early administrator was Dean Hubert Banks Huntley. Raichle described the college's emerging mission was preparing "students in the first two years of college to make possible their transfer to other colleges and universities, but funding problems became more severe, a lack of funds from the federal government in the middle 1930s forced a change back from public to independent status. Vocational training was emphasized; the college was to have four distinct homes from its founding until 1983. Twin challenges presented themselves in the next few decades: first, after World War II, returning soldiers bolstered by the GI bill swamped colleges and became a severe strain on resources in the late 1940s.
In the 1960s, the college faced competing pressures from the "rapid proliferation of public community colleges in New Jersey." Career education became more sophisticated, more costly, according to Raichle. By 1983, another major change happened; the college had grown to 6000 students. It merged with the Union County Technical Institute in Scotch Plains, it once again became a public college with the official name of Union County College; the college's structure was established by state statute on August 17, 1982. Between its founding in 1933 and 2007, it taught 1,100,000 students, with large numbers of them advancing to four-year colleges and universities, it has graduated more than 25,000 students as well; the merger was presided over by college alumnus Dr. Saul Orkin, president since 1974. In 1992, there were 4,000 full and part-time students in Elizabeth, 6,500 students in Cranford and Plainfield. One report in the New York Times in 1997 noted that graduates from New Jersey schools had high default rates––high relative to other states and to the national average––nevertheless graduates of Union County college had a lower default rate than the national average of 10%.
In comparison, three New Jersey schools had average default rates greater than 25% and were in danger of losing funding as a result. In the latter years of the first decade of the twenty-first century, an economic downturn caused admissions to swell, as students unable to afford pricier colleges descended on cost-effective alternatives such as community colleges, and many students and families found that community colleges such as Union County college were attractive educational values. An estimate for all enrollment at all schools within Union County College, including diverse programs such as continuing education and others, was 37,000 in 2010, but of these, the undergraduate enrollment was 13,000. Of undergraduates, comparable to national trends, there were more women than men. There were more part-time students than full-time students; the student body is racially diverse. Most students who apply are accepted, although the college has been declining some applications because of space limitations.
Since there are no dormitories, all students are commuters, unlike students who live in dormitories on campus. With the economic downturn of 2007–2010, students from wealthier towns who might go to "brand-name" colleges were attending Union County College, according to enrollment manager David Sheridan, who noted that community colleges have seen "big increases in enrollment" but found that many classes were "filled to capacity." The school works with students of varying capacities. For example, it accepted one student who had had learning issues in high school, had a 1.9 grade point average, but with work and effort, enrolling in extra courses during summers, he graduated with honors in biology in 2010 and has been accepted to Cornell University. There is no full-time housing for the college so all students must commute to campus by bu
The speaker of a deliberative assembly a legislative body, is its presiding officer, or the chair. The title was first used in 1377 in England; the speaker's official role is to moderate debate, make rulings on procedure, announce the results of votes, the like. The speaker decides who may speak and has the powers to discipline members who break the procedures of the chamber or house; the speaker also represents the body in person, as the voice of the body in ceremonial and some other situations. The title was first recorded in 1377 to describe the role of Thomas de Hungerford in the Parliament of England. By convention, speakers are addressed in Parliament as'Mister Speaker', if a man, or'Madam Speaker', if a woman. In other cultures other styles are used being equivalents of English "chairman" or "president". Many bodies have a speaker pro tempore, designated to fill in when the speaker is not available; the Speaker of the House of Representatives is the presiding officer of the Australian House of Representatives, the lower house of the Parliament of Australia.
The President of the Senate is the presiding officer of the Australian Senate, the upper house of the Parliament. In Canada, the Speaker of the House of Commons is the individual elected to preside over the House of Commons, the elected lower house; the speaker is a Member of Parliament and is elected at the beginning of each new parliament by fellow MPs. The Speaker's role in presiding over Canada's House of Commons is similar to that of speakers elsewhere in other countries that use the Westminster system; the Speaker does not vote except in the case of a tie. By convention, if required to vote, the Speaker will vote in favour of continuing debate on a matter, but will not vote for a measure to be approved; the Speaker of the Senate of Canada is the presiding officer of the Senate of Canada, the appointed upper house. The Speaker represents the Senate at official functions, rules on questions of parliamentary procedure and parliamentary privilege, presides over debates and voting in the "Red Chamber".
The Speaker of the Senate is appointed by the Governor General of Canada from amongst sitting senators upon the advice of the Prime Minister. The Speaker has a vote on all matters. In the event of a tie, the matter fails. At the provincial level, the presiding officer of the provincial legislatures is called the "Speaker" in all provinces except Quebec, where the term "President" is used; the presiding officer fulfills the same role as the Speaker of the House of Commons. Parliamentarism in Italy is centered on the Presidents of the two Houses, vested in defense of the members and of the assembly as a whole. Now constitutional community highlights changes in this role. In Singapore, the Speaker of the Parliament of Singapore is the head officer of the country's legislature. By recent tradition, the Prime Minister nominates a person, who may or may not be an elected Member of Parliament, for the role; the person's name is proposed and seconded by the MPs, before being elected as Speaker. The Constitution states.
While the Speaker does not have to be an elected MP, they must possess the qualifications to stand for election as an MP as provided for in the Constitution. The Speaker cannot be a Cabinet Minister or Parliamentary Secretary, must resign from those positions prior to being elected as Speaker; the Speaker is one of the few public sector roles which allow its office-holder to automatically qualify as a candidate in the Singapore presidential elections. The Speaker is the individual elected to preside over the elected House of Commons; the speaker is a Member of Parliament and is elected at the beginning of each new parliament by fellow MPs. The Lord Speaker is the presiding officer of the House of Lords; the used "Speaker of the House of Lords" is not correct. The presiding officer of the House of Lords was until the Lord Chancellor, a member of the government and the head of the judicial branch; the Lord Chancellor did not have the same authority to discipline members of the Lords that the speaker of the Commons has in that house.
The Lord Speaker is elected by the members of the House of Lords and is expected to be politically impartial. Both chambers of the United States Congress have a presiding officer defined by the United States Constitution; the Speaker of the United States House of Representatives presides over the lower house of Congress, the House of Representatives, is elected to that position by the entire House membership. Unlike in Commonwealth realms, the position is partisan, the Speaker plays an important part in running the House and advancing a political platform; the Vice President of the United States, as provided by the United States Constitution formally presides over the upper house, the Senate. In practice, the Vice President has a rare presence in Congress owing to responsibilities in the Executive branch and the fact that the Vice President may only vote to break a tie. In the Vice President's absence, the presiding role is delegated to the most Senior member of the majority party, the President pro tempore of the United States Senate.
Since the Senate's rules give little power to its non-member presider, the task of presiding over daily business is rotated among junior members of the majority party. In the forty-nine states that have a bicameral legislature, the highest leadership position in the