1950 Swiss Grand Prix
The 1950 Swiss Grand Prix, formally titled the Großer Preis der Schweiz für Automobile, was a Formula One motor race held on 4 June 1950 at Bremgarten. It was race four of seven in the 1950 World Championship of Drivers; the 42-lap race was won by Alfa Romeo driver Nino Farina. His teammate Luigi Fagioli finished Talbot-Lago driver Louis Rosier came in third; the fourth round of the Championship took place just three weeks after the series began at Silverstone. Once again the event proved to be a battle between the Alfa Romeo factory 158s of Giuseppe Farina, Juan Manuel Fangio and Luigi Fagioli and the Scuderia Ferraris of Alberto Ascari, Luigi Villoresi, Raymond Sommer and Peter Whitehead. There were a number of uncompetitive Maseratis as usual. José Froilán González was out of action as a result of burns he had received after the first lap accident at Monaco Grand Prix. Out of action as a result of the crash was Maserati factory driver Franco Rol; this was the last race to be entered by pre-war racer Eugène Martin.
It was the first and only World Championship Grand Prix for Nello Pagani, better known for his exploits in Grand Prix motorcycle racing. In qualifying Fangio and Farina were well clear of Fagioli with Villoresi and Ascari sharing the second row of the 3-2-3 grid. Peter Whitehead, Franco Rol, Reg Parnell and Rudi Fischer failed to qualify. In the race, on the first lap Ascari managed to get among the Alfa Romeos but he slipped back and it was left to the Alfas to battle. Fangio led early on but Farina went ahead through a faster refuelling stop. Fagioli was unable to keep up and after both Villoresi and Ascari retired it was left to Prince Bira to run fourth, he had to refuel and so Philippe Étancelin in a Talbot-Lago was able to move into fourth place. Shortly afterwards, factory Talbot-Lago driver Eugène Martin crashed and was hurt when he was thrown from the car. Étancelin went out with gearbox trouble and so Talbot-Lago factory driver Louis Rosier moved into fourth. He was promoted to third.
Farina became the first driver to win multiples Grands Prix, after winning the inaugural World Championship Grand Prix. ^1 — Nello Pagani qualified and drove all 39 laps of the race in the #2 Maserati. José Froilán González, named substitute driver for the car, was absent due to injury. Notes^1 – Includes 1 point for fastest lap Drivers' Championship standingsNote: Only the top five positions are listed. Only the best 4 results counted towards the Championship
1950 Formula One season
The 1950 Formula One season was the fourth season of the FIA's Formula One motor racing. It featured the inaugural FIA World Championship of Drivers which commenced on 13 May and ended on 3 September, as well as a number of non-championship races; the championship consisted of six Grand Prix races, each held in Europe and open to Formula One cars, plus the Indianapolis 500, run to AAA National Championship regulations. Giuseppe Farina won the championship from Juan Manuel Luigi Fagioli; the inaugural World Championship of Drivers saw Alfa Romeo dominate with their supercharged 158, a well-developed pre-war design which debuted in 1938. All of the Formula One regulated races in the championship were run in Europe; the Indianapolis 500 was run to American AAA regulations, not to FIA Formula One regulations and none of the regular drivers who competed in Europe competed in the 500, vice versa. Alfa Romeo drivers dominated the championship with Italian Giuseppe "Nino" Farina edging out Argentine teammate Juan Manuel Fangio by virtue of his fourth place in Belgium.
Although the Indianapolis 500, which ran to different regulations, was included in the World Championship each year from 1950 to 1960, it attracted little European participation and, conversely few American Indianapolis drivers entered any Grands Prix. Championship points were awarded to the top five finishers in each race on 6, 4, 3, 2 basis. 1 point was awarded for the fastest lap of each race. Points for shared drives were divided between the drivers, regardless of how many laps each driver completed during the race. Only the best four results from the seven races could be retained by each driver for World Championship classification; the Alfa Romeo team dominated the British Grand Prix at the fast Silverstone circuit in England, locking out the four-car front row of the grid. With King George VI in attendance, Giuseppe Farina won the race from pole position setting the fastest lap; the podium was completed by his teammates Luigi Fagioli and Reg Parnell, while the remaining Alfa driver, Juan Manuel Fangio, was forced to retire after experiencing problems with his engine.
The final points scorers were the works Talbot-Lagos of Yves Giraud-Cabantous and Louis Rosier, both two laps behind the leaders. Scuderia Ferrari made their World Championship debut around the streets of Monaco, their leading drivers, Luigi Villoresi and Alberto Ascari had to settle for the third row of the grid, while the Alfa Romeos of Fangio and Farina again started from the front row, alongside the privateer Maserati of José Froilán González. Polesitter Fangio took a comfortable victory setting the race's fastest lap, a whole lap ahead of Ascari, with the third-placed Louis Chiron a further lap back in the works Maserati. A first-lap accident, caused by the damp track, had eliminated nine of the nineteen starters—including Farina and Fagioli—while González, who had incurred damage in the pile-up, retired on the following lap. Villoresi, although delayed by the accident, had made his way through the field to second place, but was forced to retire with an axle problem. Fangio's win brought.
The Indianapolis 500, the third round of the inaugural World Championship of Drivers held at the Indianapolis Motor Speedway in Indianapolis, Indiana in the United States was won by the Kurtis Kraft-Offenhauser of Johnnie Parsons, ahead of the Deidt-Offenhausers of Bill Holland and Mauri Rose. The race was stopped after 138 of the scheduled 200 laps due to rain. Alfa Romeo's dominance continued when the World Championship returned to Europe for the Swiss Grand Prix at the tree-lined Bremgarten circuit just outside Bern. Fangio and Fagioli locked out the front row of the grid for Alfa, while the Ferraris of Villoresi and Ascari started from the second row. Fangio was the initial leader, starting from pole position, but he was passed by Farina on lap seven. Ascari and Villoresi were both able to compete with the third Alfa of Fagioli in the early stages, although both had retired by the ten-lap mark. Farina took the win and the fastest lap, finishing just ahead of Fagioli, while Rosier, in third place as a result of Fangio's retirement, took Talbot-Lago's first podium.
Farina's second win of the season put him six points clear of the consistent Fagioli, while Fangio was a further three points behind, having only scored points in one race. Alfa Romeo took their third front row lockout of the season at the Belgian Grand Prix at the fast 8.7 mile Spa-Francorchamps circuit, while the Ferrari of Villoresi shared the second row with the privateer Talbot-Lago of Raymond Sommer. The Alfas were once again untouchable at the start of the race, but when they stopped for fuel, Sommer emerged as an unlikely race leader, his lead, was short-lived and he was forced to retire when his engine blew up. Fangio took the victory, ahead of Fagioli, who again finished second. Rosier again made the podium in his Talbot-Lago, he had been able to pass the polesitter Farina when the Italian picked up transmission problems towards the end of the race. It was not all bad for Farina, however. Both Fagioli and Fangio closed the gap to Farina in the points standings—Fagioli was just four points adrift, while Fangio was a further point behind.
At Reims-Gueux, Alfa Romeo were unchallenged at the French Grand Prix at the fast Reims-Gueux circuit, due to the withdrawal of the works Ferraris of Ascari and Villoresi. The Alfas produced yet another lockout of the front row of the grid, with Fangio taking pole for the third time in six races; the powe
American open-wheel car racing
American open-wheel car racing known as Indy car racing, is a category of professional-level automobile racing in the United States and North America. As of 2019, the top-level American open-wheel racing championship is sanctioned by IndyCar. Competitive events for professional-level, single-seat open-wheel race cars have been conducted under the auspices of several different sanctioning bodies since 1902. A season-long, points-based, National Championship of drivers has been recognized in 1905, 1916, since 1920; the Indianapolis 500, which debuted in 1911, is the premier event of Indy car racing. The open-wheeled, single-seater cars have been similar to those in Formula One, though there are important differences; the fame of the Indianapolis 500 leads many to colloquially refer to the cars that compete on the American Championship circuit as "Indy cars." This form of racing has experienced high levels of popularity over the years in the post-World War II time frame. The "golden era" of the 1950s was followed by a decade of transition and innovation in the 1960s, which included increased international participation.
The sport experienced considerable growth and exposure during the rising popularity of the CART PPG Indy Car World Series in the 1980s and early 1990s. Two organizational disputes, in 1979 and 1996, led to a "split" that divided the participants among two separate sanctioning bodies. However, an official unification took place in 2008 that brought the sport back together under one single sanctioning body; the national championship was sanctioned by the Contest Board of the American Automobile Association. The AAA first sanctioned automobile motorsports events in 1902. At first it used the rules of the Automobile Club of America, but it formed its own rules in 1903, it introduced the first track season championship for racing cars in 1905. Barney Oldfield was the first champion. No official season championship was recognized from 1906–1915, single races were held. Official records regard 1916 as the next contested championship season. Years retroactive titles were named back to 1902; these post factum seasons are considered unofficial and revisionist history by accredited historians.
Racing did not cease in the United States during WWI, but the official national championship was suspended. The Indianapolis 500 itself was voluntarily suspended for 1917–1918 due to the war. In 1920, the championship resumed, despite the difficult economic climate that would follow, ran continuously throughout the Depression. Shortly after Pearl Harbor, all auto racing was suspended during World War II. From 1942 to 1945 no events were contested, banned by the U. S. government on account of rationing. Racing resumed in full in 1946; the 1946 season is unique, in that it included six Champ Car events, 71 "Big Car" races, as organizers were unsure about the availability of cars and participation. AAA ceased participation in auto racing at the end of the 1955 season, it cited a series of high-profile fatal accidents, namely Bill Vukovich at Indianapolis, the Le Mans disaster. Through 1922 and again from 1930 to 1937, it was commonplace for the cars to be two-seaters, as opposed to the aforementioned standard single-seat form.
The driver would be accompanied by a riding mechanic. The national championship was taken over by the United States Auto Club, a new sanctioning body formed by the then-owner of the Indianapolis Motor Speedway, Tony Hulman. Championship racing continued to grow in popularity in a stabilized environment for over two decades, with the two traditional disciplines of paved oval tracks and dirt oval tracks. During the 1950s, front-engined "roadsters" became the dominant cars on the paved oval tracks, while "upright" Champ Dirt Cars continued to dominate on dirt tracks. In the 1960s, drivers and team owners with road racing backgrounds, both American and foreign, began creeping into the series and the paved oval track cars evolved from front-engine "roadsters" to rear-engine formula-style racers. Technology and expense climbed at a rapid rate; the schedule continued to be dominated by oval tracks, but a few road course races were added to assuage the newcomers. Dirt tracks were dropped from the national championship after 1970.
During the 1970s, the increasing costs began to drive some of the traditional USAC car owners out of the sport. The dominant teams became Penske, Gurney, McLaren, all run by people with road racing backgrounds. There was a growing dissent between these teams and USAC management. Events outside Indianapolis were suffering from low attendance, poor promotion; the Indy 500 was televised on a same day tape delayed basis on ABC, most of the other races had little or no coverage on television. Towards the end of the decade, the growing dissent prompted several car owners to consider creating a new sanctioning body to conduct the races. Meanwhile, two events had a concomitant effect on the situation. Tony Hulman, president of the Indianapolis Motor Speedway and founder of USAC, died in the fall of 1977. A few months eight key USAC officials were killed in a plane crash. By the end of 1978, the owners had broken away and founded Championship Auto Racing Teams to wrest control of Championship racing away from USAC.
Championship Auto Racing Teams was formed by most of the existing team owners, with some initial assistance from the SCCA. Therefore, there were two national championships run each by USAC and CART; the Indianapolis 500 remained under USAC sanction. The top teams allied to CART, the CART championship became the more prestigious national championship. USAC
1950 British Grand Prix
The 1950 British Grand Prix, formally known as The Royal Automobile Club Grand Prix d'Europe Incorporating The British Grand Prix, was a Formula One motor race held on 13 May 1950 at the Silverstone Circuit in Silverstone, England. It was the first World Championship Formula One race, as well as the fifth British Grand Prix, the third to be held at Silverstone after motor racing resumed after World War II, it was the first race of seven in the 1950 World Championship of Drivers. The 70-lap race was won by Giuseppe Farina for the Alfa Romeo team, after starting from pole position, with a race time of 2:13:23.6 and an average speed of 146.378 km/h. Luigi Fagioli finished second in another Alfa Romeo, Reg Parnell third in a third Alfa Romeo; the race followed the non-championship Pau Grand Prix and San Remo Grand Prix, the Richmond Trophy and the Paris Grand Prix. Held on 13 May at Silverstone Circuit, designated as the Grand Prix of Europe for 1950, this first World Championship round was attended by George VI, Queen Elizabeth, Princess Margaret, the Earl & Countess Mountbatten of Burma.
In all, there were 22 competing, 21 qualified for the race, 11 classified. Numbers 7 and 13 were not assigned; the Alfa Romeo factory team arrived at the circuit with four 158s for Fangio, Fagioli & domestic driver Reg Parnell. Ferrari decided not to take part but there were a handful of Maseratis, one of them a factory car for Monegasque driver Louis Chiron. Scuderia Ambrosiana prepared two cars for David Hampshire and David Murray, Enrico Platé entered two drivers of aristocratic origin, Prince Bira of Siam and Baron Toulo de Graffenried. Joe Fry entered a private Maserati and Scuderia Milano entered Felice Bonetto, but he did not arrive; these cars were raced in Italian Rosso Corsa livery. Talbot-Lago sent over two factory cars in the traditional French pale blue colour to be driven by Yves Giraud-Cabantous and Eugène Martin. Other private Talbots were entered by Louis Rosier, Philippe Etancelin and Belgian Johnny Claes, in a yellow car; the rest of the field was made up of local machinery, which included four E.
R. A.s and two Altas, in British racing green. Farina was fastest in qualifying and the other three Alfas were alongside him on the front row; the second row consisted of "B. Bira" in a Maserati and the two factory Talbots. In accordance with the standard at the time, the rest of the grid consisted of rows of four and three alternating, up to the sixth row. Felice Bonetto was the only driver who did not take part in qualifying and would not take part in the race. On 13 May, 21 drivers from 9 countries were represented at the old Silverstone airport, 4 from France, 2 from Italy, 1 each from Belgium, Monaco, Argentina and Switzerland; the UK was represented by 9 drivers. The race drew 200,000 spectators. At the start of the race, Farina took the lead with Fangio in pursuit. In the early laps they switched around between themselves several times to keep everyone amused. Fangio retired with engine troubles and so Farina led Fagioli home by 2.5 seconds with Parnell a distant third despite hitting a hare during the race.
The nearest challenger was Giraud-Cabantous two laps down. Crossley and Murray duelled at the back before retiring, de Graffenried had done so on lap 34, while Chiron was demoted to the role of viewer 10 laps earlier. Giuseppe Farina led for 63 laps. Luigi Fagioli led for 6 laps. Juan Manuel Fangio led for 1 lap. Joe Fry drove car #10 for the first 45 laps Brian Shawe-Taylor took over for 19 laps for a total 64 laps, distance 297.536 km. Peter Walker drove car #9 for 2 laps Tony Rolt drove for and additional 3 laps, totaling 5 laps, a distance of 23.245 km. ^1 — Luigi Fagioli qualified and drove all 70 laps of the race in the #3 Alfa Romeo. Gianbattista Guidotti, named substitute driver for the car, was not used at the Grand Prix. ^2 — Peter Walker qualified and drove 2 laps of the race in the #9 ERA. Tony Rolt took over the car for 3 laps of the race. ^3 — Joe Fry qualified and drove 45 laps of the race in the #10 Maserati. Brian Shawe-Taylor took over the car for 19 laps of the race. ^4 — Entry cancelled prior to event.
Notes^1 – Includes 1 point for fastest lap Drivers' Championship standingsNote: Only the top five positions are listed. Only the best 4 results counted towards the Championship
1950 Indianapolis 500
The 34th International 500-Mile Sweepstakes was held at the Indianapolis Motor Speedway on Tuesday, May 30, 1950. The event was part of the 1950 AAA National Championship Trail, it was race 3 of 7 in the 1950 World Championship of Drivers and paid points towards the World Championship. The event, did not attract any European entries for 1950. Giuseppe Farina planned to enter, but his car never arrived; the Indianapolis 500 would be included on the World Championship calendar through 1960. The race was scheduled for 200 laps, but was stopped after 138 laps due to rain. A rumor circulated in racing circles during and after this race that Johnnie Parsons's team discovered an irreparable crack in the engine block on race morning; the discovery precipitated Parsons to charge for the lap leader prizes. He set his sights on leading as many laps as possible before the engine was to fail. Furthermore, the race ending early due to rain saved Parsons's day allowing him to secure the victory before the engine let go.
However, the engine block crack was proved to be an urban myth, it was said to be a minor but acceptable level of porosity, which did not affect the performance. Parsons's win saw him score 9 points move to equal first in the first World Drivers' Championship alongside Giuseppe Farina and Juan Manuel Fangio, saw him become the first American to win a World Championship race. Despite the 500 being his only race in the 1950 World Championship, it would be enough to see him finish 6th in points. During the month, Clark Gable and Barbara Stanwyck were at the track to film scenes for the film To Please a Lady. Stanwyck was on hand in victory lane after the race for the traditional celebratory kiss to the winner. Time trials was scheduled for six days. Saturday May 13: Walt Faulkner won the pole position with a record run of 134.343 mph. Sunday May 14 Saturday May 20: The third day of time trials saw six cars complete runs. Bayliss Levrett was the fastest of the afternoon. Charles Van Acker was ruled physically disqualified, after a crash he suffered at the Speedway from 1949.
Sunday May 21 Saturday May 27: The day began with 11 spots open in the grid. Sunday May 28: Only one driver managed to bump his way into the field. Johnny McDowell bumped Cliff Griffith; the two Novi entries failed to qualify – Chet Miller had engine trouble in one of the cars, while the other snapped a supercharger shaft. Rain and two crashes cut the track time to less than three hours. Cy Marshall was among the few left in line when time trials closed at 6 p.m. Notes^1 – Includes 1 point for fastest lead lap = past winner = rookie Pole position: Walt Faulkner – 4:27.97 Fastest Lead Lap: Johnnie Parsons – 1:09.77 Shared drivers: Joie Chitwood and Tony Bettenhausen, after Bettenhausen retired. Points for 5th position were shared between the drivers. Henry Banks and Fred Agabashian Bayliss Levrett and Bill Cantrell First win for Firestone in the World Championship. World Drivers' Championship standingsNote: Only the top five positions are listed. Only the best 4 results counted towards the Championship.
The race was carried live on the precursor to the IMS Radio Network. The broadcast was sponsored by Perfect Circle Piston Bill Slater served as the anchor. Sid Collins moved into the booth for the first time to serve as analyst, conducted the victory lane interview at the conclusion of the race; the broadcast feature live coverage of the start, the finish, live updates throughout the race. Prior to the race, it was reported. WIBC personality Sid Collins was named as a replacement, Slater was able to arrive in time for race day. Collins, who had served as a turn reporter, was invited to be the co-anchor in the booth. For the first time, Collins interviewed the winner in victory lane at the conclusion of the race. Collins claims he burned his trousers on Parsons's hot exhaust pipe during the interview, which took place in the rain; because the race was shortened, Mutual had to interrupt Queen For A Day to cover the finish of the abbreviated event. This was cited by some as a reason why the Speedway would begin flag-to-flag coverage in 1953.
The race was carried live for the second year in a row on local television on WFBM-TV channel 6 of Indianapolis. Earl Townsend, Jr. was the announcer, along with Paul Roberts. After the race, Speedway management disallowed WFBM from broadcasting the race live again, feeling that gate attendance had been negatively affected. Indianapolis 500 History: Race & All-Time Stats – Official Site 1950 Indianapolis 500 Radio Broadcast, Mutual Van Camp's Pork & Beans Presents: Great Moments From the Indy 500 – Fleetwood Sounds, 1975 1950 Indianapolis 500 at RacingReference.info
Chicago the City of Chicago, is the most populous city in Illinois, as well as the third most populous city in the United States. With an estimated population of 2,716,450, it is the most populous city in the Midwest. Chicago is the principal city of the Chicago metropolitan area referred to as Chicagoland, the county seat of Cook County, the second most populous county in the United States; the metropolitan area, at nearly 10 million people, is the third-largest in the United States, the fourth largest in North America and the third largest metropolitan area in the world by land area. Located on the shores of freshwater Lake Michigan, Chicago was incorporated as a city in 1837 near a portage between the Great Lakes and the Mississippi River watershed and grew in the mid-nineteenth century. After the Great Chicago Fire of 1871, which destroyed several square miles and left more than 100,000 homeless, the city made a concerted effort to rebuild; the construction boom accelerated population growth throughout the following decades, by 1900 Chicago was the fifth largest city in the world.
Chicago made noted contributions to urban planning and zoning standards, including new construction styles, the development of the City Beautiful Movement, the steel-framed skyscraper. Chicago is an international hub for finance, commerce, technology, telecommunications, transportation, it is the site of the creation of the first standardized futures contracts at the Chicago Board of Trade, which today is the largest and most diverse derivatives market gobally, generating 20% of all volume in commodities and financial futures. O'Hare International Airport is the one of the busiest airports in the world, the region has the largest number of U. S. highways and greatest amount of railroad freight. In 2012, Chicago was listed as an alpha global city by the Globalization and World Cities Research Network, it ranked seventh in the entire world in the 2017 Global Cities Index; the Chicago area has one of the highest gross domestic products in the world, generating $680 billion in 2017. In addition, the city has one of the world's most diversified and balanced economies, not being dependent on any one industry, with no single industry employing more than 14% of the workforce.
Chicago's 58 million domestic and international visitors in 2018, made it the second most visited city in the nation, behind New York City's approximate 65 million visitors. The city ranked first place in the 2018 Time Out City Life Index, a global quality of life survey of 15,000 people in 32 cities. Landmarks in the city include Millennium Park, Navy Pier, the Magnificent Mile, the Art Institute of Chicago, Museum Campus, the Willis Tower, Grant Park, the Museum of Science and Industry, Lincoln Park Zoo. Chicago's culture includes the visual arts, film, comedy and music jazz, soul, hip-hop and electronic dance music including house music. Of the area's many colleges and universities, the University of Chicago, Northwestern University, the University of Illinois at Chicago are classified as "highest research" doctoral universities. Chicago has professional sports teams in each of the major professional leagues, including two Major League Baseball teams; the name "Chicago" is derived from a French rendering of the indigenous Miami-Illinois word shikaakwa for a wild relative of the onion, known to botanists as Allium tricoccum and known more as ramps.
The first known reference to the site of the current city of Chicago as "Checagou" was by Robert de LaSalle around 1679 in a memoir. Henri Joutel, in his journal of 1688, noted that the eponymous wild "garlic" grew abundantly in the area. According to his diary of late September 1687:...when we arrived at the said place called "Chicagou" which, according to what we were able to learn of it, has taken this name because of the quantity of garlic which grows in the forests in this region. The city has had several nicknames throughout its history such as the Windy City, Chi-Town, Second City, the City of the Big Shoulders, which refers to the city's numerous skyscrapers and high-rises. In the mid-18th century, the area was inhabited by a Native American tribe known as the Potawatomi, who had taken the place of the Miami and Sauk and Fox peoples; the first known non-indigenous permanent settler in Chicago was Jean Baptiste Point du Sable. Du Sable arrived in the 1780s, he is known as the "Founder of Chicago".
In 1795, following the Northwest Indian War, an area, to be part of Chicago was turned over to the United States for a military post by native tribes in accordance with the Treaty of Greenville. In 1803, the United States Army built Fort Dearborn, destroyed in 1812 in the Battle of Fort Dearborn and rebuilt; the Ottawa and Potawatomi tribes had ceded additional land to the United States in the 1816 Treaty of St. Louis; the Potawatomi were forcibly removed from their land after the Treaty of Chicago in 1833. On August 12, 1833, the Town of Chicago was organized with a population of about 200. Within seven years it grew to more than 4,000 people. On June 15, 1835, the first public land sales began with Edmund Dick Taylor as U. S. Receiver of Public Monies; the City of Chicago was incorporated on Saturday, March 4, 1837, for several decades was the world's fastest-growing city. As the site of the Chicago Portage, the city became an important transportation hub between the eastern and western United States.
Chicago's first railway and Chicago Union Railroad, the Illi
Crown Hill Cemetery
Crown Hill Cemetery is located at 700 West Thirty-Eighth Street in Indianapolis, Marion County, Indiana. The owned cemetery was established in 1863 at Strawberry Hill, whose summit was renamed "The Crown", a high point overlooking Indianapolis, it is 2.8 miles northwest of the city's center. Crown Hill was dedicated on June 1, 1864, encompasses 555 acres, making it the third largest non-governmental cemetery in the United States, its grounds are based on the landscape designs of Pittsburgh landscape architect and cemetery superintendent John Chislett Sr. and Adolph Strauch, a Prussian horticulturalist. In 1866 the U. S. government authorized a U. S. National Cemetery for Indianapolis; the 1.4-acre Crown Hill National Cemetery is located in Section 10. Crown Hill contains 25 miles of paved road, over 150 species of trees and plants, over 200,000 graves, services 1,500 burials per year. Crown Hill is the final resting place for individuals from all walks of life, from political and civic leaders to ordinary citizens, infamous criminals, unknowns.
Benjamin Harrison, twenty-third president of the United States, Vice Presidents Charles W. Fairbanks, Thomas A. Hendricks, Thomas R. Marshall are buried at Crown Hill. Infamous bank robber and "Public Enemy # 1"; the gravesite of Hoosier poet James Whitcomb Riley overlooks the city from "The Crown". Many of the cemetery's mausoleums, monuments and structures were designed by architects, landscape designers, sculptors such as Diedrich A. Bohlen, George Kessler, Rudolf Schwarz, Adolph Scherrer, the architectural firms of D. A. Bolen and Son and Vonnegut and Bohn, among others. Works by contemporary sculptors include David L. Rodgers, Michael B. Wilson, Eric Nordgulen; the cemetery's administrative offices and crematorium are located at Thirty-eighth and Clarenden streets on the cemetery's north grounds. Crown Hill's Waiting Station, built in 1885 at its east entrance on Thirty-fourth Street and Boulevard Place, serves as a meeting place for tours and programs; the Crown Hill Heritage Foundation, a nonprofit corporation established in 1984, raises funds to preserve the cemetery's historic buildings and grounds.
Crown Hill Cemetery was listed on the National Register of Historic Places on February 28, 1973. Crown Hill was not Indianapolis's first major cemetery. Alexander Ralston included a cemetery site in his 1821 plan of Indianapolis at the south end of Kentucky Avenue, where it intersects South and West Streets. Prior to the establishment of Crown Hill Cemetery in 1863, the city's main cemetery was expanded in the 1830s to create the 25-acre Greenlawn Cemetery on the city's southwest side. During the Civil War Greenlawn was filling with burials of Union soldiers and Confederate prisoners of war and faced encroachment from west side industrial development. By the end of the 1870s it was closed to further interments due to lack of space; the normal demands of a growing city, along with the capacity issues at Greenlawn, prompted a group of Indianapolis's civic-minded men to establish a new and larger cemetery within five miles of the city. On September 12, 1863, the men met with John Chislett Sr. a Pittsburgh landscape architect and cemetery superintendent, to discuss ideas for a cemetery that would be based on the park-like settings becoming popular in Europe, most notably the Pere Lachaise Cemetery in Paris.
On September 25, 1863, the group formed the Association of Crown Hill. Its selection committee bought a 166-acre farm and tree nursery owned by Martin Williams for $51,500; the site for the new cemetery at Strawberry Hill, a high point overlooking Indianapolis, was 2.8 miles northwest of the city. The committee acquired adjacent acreage of rolling terrain from other sources. On October 22, 1863, a thirty-man Board of Corporators formally established Crown Hill as a owned cemetery. Once the initial land was secured the board hired Chislett's son, Frederick, as Crown Hill's first superintendent, he arrived in Indianapolis with his wife and children on December 31, 1863. Frederick supervised construction of the cemetery's first roads and developed the property's grounds based on the landscape designs of his father and Prussian horticulturalist Adolph Strauch; the design retained many of the cemetery's natural features and laid out winding roads to create a landscape in the Victorian Romantic style.
The cemetery's first main entrance was off old Michigan Road. Crown Hill Cemetery was dedicated on June 1, 1864; the first burial at Crown Hill was the body of Lucy Ann Seaton, aged thirty-three, a young mother who had died of consumption. That year James Pattison built a stone gateway for $2,300 at the cemetery's west entrance off of Michigan Road; the cemetery's east entrance at Thirty-fourth Street opened in 1864. Omnibus transportation reached the cemetery in 1864. Visitors could travel by steam-powered boat up the Central Canal to reach Crown Hill. Automobiles were allowed on the grounds beginning in 1912. In 1866 the federal government purchased 1.4 acres of land within the grounds of Crown Hill for a national military cemetery. The bodies of more than 700 Union soldiers who died in Indianapolis during the Civil War were moved from Greenlawn Cemetery to new graves at the National Cemetery. On May 30, 1868, Crown Hill, along with Arlington National Cemetery and 182 others in twenty-seven states, took part in the country's first Memorial Day celebrations.
An estimated crowd of 10,000 attended the Crown Hill ceremony, beginning an annual tradition at the site. By the mid-1800s, Crown Hill was a burial ground as well as a popular location