General classification in the Tour de France
The general classification is the most important classification, the one by which the winner of the Tour de France is determined. Since 1919, the leader of the general classification wears the yellow jersey; the winner of the first Tour de France wore a green armband, not a yellow jersey. After the second Tour de France, the rules were changed, the general classification was no longer calculated by time, but by points; this points system was kept until 1912. At that time, the leader still did not wear a yellow jersey. There is doubt over; the Belgian rider Philippe Thys, who won the Tour in 1913, 1914 and 1920, recalled in the Belgian magazine Champions et Vedettes when he was 67 that he was awarded a yellow jersey in 1913 when the organiser, Henri Desgrange, asked him to wear a coloured jersey. Thys declined, saying making himself more visible in yellow would encourage other riders to ride against him, he said: "He made his argument from another direction. Several stages it was my team manager at Peugeot, Baugé, who urged me to give in.
The yellow jersey would be an advertisement for the company and, that being the argument, I was obliged to concede. So a yellow jersey was bought in the first shop, it was just the right size, although we had to cut a larger hole for my head to go through." He spoke of the next year's race, when "I won the first stage and was beaten by a tyre by Bossus in the second. On the following stage, the maillot jaune passed to Georget after a crash." The Tour historian Jacques Augendre called Thys "a valorous rider... well-known for his intelligence" and said his claim "seems free from all suspicion". But: "No newspaper mentions a yellow jersey before the war. Being at a loss for witnesses, we can't solve this enigma."According to the official history, the first yellow jersey was worn by the Frenchman Eugène Christophe in the stage from Grenoble to Geneva on July 18, 1919. The colour was chosen either to reflect the yellow newsprint of the organising newspaper, L'Auto, or because yellow was an unpopular colour and therefore the only one available with which a manufacturer could create jerseys at late notice.
The two possibilities have been promoted but the idea of matching the colour of Desgrange's newspaper seems more probable because Desgrange wrote: "This morning I gave the valiant Christophe a superb yellow jersey. You know that our director decided that the man leading the race should wear a jersey in the colours of L'Auto; the battle to wear this jersey is going to be passionate."Christophe disliked wearing it, complained that spectators imitated canaries whenever he passed. It was a habit encouraged by his nickname of Cri-Cri, French babytalk for a bird. Christophe remembered riders and spectators teasing: "Ah, the yellow jersey! Isn't he beautiful, the canary? What are you doing, Madame Cri-Cri", adding, "And that lasted the whole course."There was no formal presentation when Christophe wore his first yellow jersey in Grenoble, from where the race left at 2am for the 325 km to Geneva. He was given it the night before and tried it on in his hotel. In the next Tour de France in 1920, the yellow jersey was not awarded, but after the ninth stage, it was introduced again.
After Desgrange's death, his stylized initials were added to the yellow jersey on the chest. They moved in 1969 to the sleeve to make way for a logo advertising Virlux. A further advertisement for the clothing company Le Coq Sportif appeared at the bottom of the zip fastener at the neck, the first supplementary advertisement on the yellow jersey. Desgrange's initials returned to the front of the jersey in 1972, some years on the left, others on the right, they were removed in 1984 to make way for a commercial logo but Nike added them again in 2003 as part of the Tour's centenary celebrations. One set of initials is now worn on the upper right chest of the jersey. In 2013, a nighttime finish on the Champs-Élysées for the final stage was done to commemorate the race's 100th edition. Race leader Chris Froome wore a special yellow jersey covered in small translucent sequins into Paris as well as on the podium to allow him to be more visible under the lights; the original yellow jerseys were of conventional style.
Riders had to pull them over their head on the rostrum. For many years the jersey was made in only limited sizes and many riders found it a struggle to pull one on when tired or wet; the presentation jersey is now made with a full-length zip at the back and the rider pulls it on from the front, sliding his hands through the sleeves rather like a strait-jacket. He receives three further jerseys each day, plus money for each day he leads the race. There is no copyright on the yellow jersey and it has been imitated by many other races, although not always for the best rider overall: in the Tour of Benelux yellow is worn by the best young rider. In professional surf, the current male and female leaders of the World Surf League get to wear a yellow jersey on all the heats of a tour stop. In American English it is sometimes referred to as the mellow johnny, a mispronunciation of its French name by Lance Armstrong, who wore it many times while riding in the 1999-2005 races. Armstrong uses the name "Mellow Johnny" for his Texas-based bike shop.
The Lance Armstrong Foundation donated the yellow jersey from Armstrong's fourth Tour de France win to the National Museum of American History. The Tour de France, other bicycle stage races, are decided by totalling the time each rider takes on the daily stages. Time can be added or subtracted
A bib is a garment worn hanging from the neck on the chest to protect clothing from accidentally spilled food. Bibs are used by young children infants, but by some adults. Bibs are worn when consuming certain "messy" foods, such as lobster. In addition, bibs are used for infants; the word, reported in English since 1580 stems from the verb bibben "to drink", from the Latin bibere, either because it was worn while drinking or because it "soaked up" spills. The term bib may refer to the part of a garment that covers the chest. For instance, an apron that covers the chest may be referred to as a bib apron; the part of a jumper dress or of an overall that covers the chest may be referred to as a bib. In sport, it may refer to a garment that used by a team to identify themselves on the field of play, or to identify a participant in a competition with a start number. Powerlifters wear a bib benchpress shirt across their chest area to help them lift more weight. In Netball, bibs are used by the umpire to identify players' positions so it can be determined, within their allowed area.
Paper bibs are commonly used in dentist offices to protect the patient's clothing during checkups and cleanings. Another medical use is during an x-ray, a lead bib can be put over a patient to prevent the radiation from reaching parts other than the part of the body being tested. Apron Bib shorts Water Faucet Dudou and Yếm, East Asian clothing sometimes translated as bibs EtymologyOnLine Babieswiki.com
A baseball uniform is a type of uniform worn by baseball players and, uniquely to baseball, coaches. Most baseball uniforms have the names and uniform numbers of players who wear them on the backs of the uniforms to distinguish players from each other. Baseball shirts, shoes, socks and gloves are parts of baseball uniforms. Most uniforms have different logos and colors to aid players and spectators in distinguishing the two teams from each other and the officials, they are made out of polyester instead of cotton. Baseball uniforms were first worn by the New York Knickerbockers Baseball Club in 1849. Today, sales of replica uniforms and derivative branded products generate large amounts of income for Major League teams through merchandising; the New York Knickerbockers were the first baseball team to wear uniforms, taking the field on April 4, 1849, in pants made of blue wool, white flannel shirts and straw hats. The practice of wearing a uniform soon spread, by 1900, all Major League Baseball teams had adopted them.
By 1882 most uniforms included stockings, which covered the leg from foot to knee, were used to differentiate one club from another. The uniforms themselves had different colors and patterns that reflected the different baseball positions. In the late 1880s, the Detroit Wolverines and Washington Nationals of the National League and the Brooklyn Bridegrooms of the American Association were the first to wear striped uniforms. By the end of the 19th century, teams began the practice of wearing one of two different uniforms, one when they played in their own baseball stadium and a different one when they played on the road, it became common to wear one of gray, solid dark blue, or black on the road. An early example of this is the Brooklyn Superbas, who started to use a blue pattern for their road uniforms in 1907. In 1916, on the New York Giants' road uniforms, purple lines gave their uniforms a tartan-like effect, another kind of road uniform was a solid dark blue or black material with white around this time.
The Kansas City Athletics' home and road uniforms were changed by Charles O. Finley in 1963, to the colors of gold and green; some teams used light blue for their road uniforms from the 1970s to the early 1990s. Early striped patterns developed into long stripes along the length of the uniforms, called pinstriping; this was first worn on some major league baseball team's uniforms in 1907, the pinstripes were widened in 1912, so that the crowd could see them more clearly. The Brooklyn Bridegrooms used checked uniforms in 1889, brought them back in 1907 and 1916–1917. Satin uniforms were developed by several teams including the Brooklyn Dodgers for night games, as the sheen of the fabric was more reflective and thus easier to see. Pinstripes were worn on the uniforms of the New York Yankees. Legend had it that the stripes were adopted to make Babe Ruth look slimmer, but since the Yankees had been wearing pinstripes a few years before Ruth played for them in 1920, the legend was found to be a myth.
The Yankees' pinstripes on their home uniforms soon became a team symbol. In 1916, the Cleveland Indians became the first team to add numbers on their uniforms, positioned on the left sleeve of the home uniforms only. In 1929, numbers were first added on the backs of uniforms by the New York Yankees and the Cleveland Indians. By 1932, all major league baseball teams had numbers on their players' uniforms; the Brooklyn Dodgers, in 1952, became the first baseball team to add numbers to the fronts of their uniforms. In 1960, the Chicago White Sox were the first team to place players' names on the back of their jerseys, doing so on their road jerseys. In most parts of the world, numbers are no more than two digits long. Major league teams assign the highest numbers in spring training to the players who are not expected to make the regular-season roster. Two Hall of Famers who wore high numbers are Don Drysdale, who wore #53 for the Brooklyn and Los Angeles Dodgers, Carlton Fisk, who wore #72 for the Chicago White Sox.
Caps, or other types of headgear with eye-shades, have been a part of baseball uniforms from the beginning. From the 1840s to the 1870s, baseball players wore various types of hats, or no cap at all, since there was no official rule regarding headgear. Examples included full-brimmed straw hats such as boating caps, jockey caps, cycling caps, flat-topped caps; the Brooklyn Excelsiors was the first team to wear what would become the modern baseball cap, with its distinctive rounded top and peak, in the 1860s. By the early years of the twentieth century, this style of cap had become common, but some teams revived the flat-topped cap, such as the New York Giants in 1916 and the Pittsburgh Pirates as as during the 1979 World Series. Over time, the peak has enlarged to further protect the player's eyes from the sun. More players have worn hats with fold-down ear flaps in cold weather. In the late 19th century, soft but durable leather shoes were the preferred choice of baseball players. In the 1970s, as artificial turf became prominent on developed count
Football is a family of team sports that involve, to varying degrees, kicking a ball to score a goal. Unqualified, the word football is understood to refer to whichever form of football is the most popular in the regional context in which the word appears. Sports called football in certain places include association football; these different variations of football are known as football codes. There are a number of references to traditional, ancient, or prehistoric ball games played by indigenous peoples in many different parts of the world. Contemporary codes of football can be traced back to the codification of these games at English public schools during the nineteenth century; the expansion of the British Empire allowed these rules of football to spread to areas of British influence outside the directly controlled Empire. By the end of the nineteenth century, distinct regional codes were developing: Gaelic football, for example, deliberately incorporated the rules of local traditional football games in order to maintain their heritage.
In 1888, The Football League was founded in England, becoming the first of many professional football competitions. During the twentieth century, several of the various kinds of football grew to become some of the most popular team sports in the world; the various codes of football share certain common elements and can be grouped into two main classes of football: carrying codes like American football, Canadian football, rugby union and rugby league, where the ball is moved about the field while being held in the hands or thrown, kicking codes such as Association football and Gaelic football, where the ball is moved with the feet, where handling is limited. Common rules among the sports include: Two teams of between 11 and 18 players. A defined area in which to play the game. Scoring goals or points by moving the ball to an opposing team's end of the field and either into a goal area, or over a line. Goals or points resulting from players putting the ball between two goalposts; the goal or line being defended by the opposing team.
Players being required to move the ball—depending on the code—by kicking, carrying, or hand-passing the ball. Players using only their body to move the ball. In all codes, common skills include passing, evasion of tackles and kicking. In most codes, there are rules restricting the movement of players offside, players scoring a goal must put the ball either under or over a crossbar between the goalposts. There are conflicting explanations of the origin of the word "football", it is assumed that the word "football" refers to the action of the foot kicking a ball. There is an alternative explanation, that football referred to a variety of games in medieval Europe, which were played on foot. There is no conclusive evidence for either explanation. A Chinese game called cuju has been recognised by FIFA as the first version of the game with regular rules, it existed during the Han dynasty and the Qin dynasty, in the second and third centuries BC. The Japanese version of cuju is kemari, was developed during the Asuka period.
This is known to have been played within the Japanese imperial court in Kyoto from about 600 AD. In kemari several people stand in a circle and kick a ball to each other, trying not to let the ball drop to the ground; the Ancient Greeks and Romans are known to have played many ball games, some of which involved the use of the feet. The Roman game harpastum is believed to have been adapted from a Greek team game known as "ἐπίσκυρος" or "φαινίνδα", mentioned by a Greek playwright and referred to by the Christian theologian Clement of Alexandria; these games appear to have resembled rugby football. The Roman politician Cicero describes the case of a man, killed whilst having a shave when a ball was kicked into a barber's shop. Roman ball games knew the air-filled ball, the follis. Episkyros is recognised as an early form of football by FIFA. There are a number of references to traditional, ancient, or prehistoric ball games, played by indigenous peoples in many different parts of the world. For example, in 1586, men from a ship commanded by an English explorer named John Davis, went ashore to play a form of football with Inuit people in Greenland.
There are accounts of an Inuit game played on ice, called Aqsaqtuk. Each match began with two teams facing each other in parallel lines, before attempting to kick the ball through each other team's line and at a goal. In 1610, William Strachey, a colonist at Jamestown, Virginia recorded a game played by Native Americans, called Pahsaheman. On the Australian continent several tribes of indigenous people played kicking and catching games with stuffed balls which have been generalised by historians as Marn Grook; the earliest historical account is an anecdote from the 1878 book by Robert Brough-Smyth, The Aborigines of Victoria, in which a man called Richard Thomas is quoted as saying, in about 1841 in Victoria, that he had witnessed Aboriginal people playing the game: "Mr Thomas describes how the foremost player will drop kick a ball made from the skin of a possum and how other players leap into the air in order to catch it." Some historians have theorised. The Māo
Ball (gridiron football)
In Canada and in the United States, a football is a ball in the form of a prolate spheroid, used in the context of playing gridiron football. Footballs are made of cow hide leather, as such a material is required in professional and collegiate football. Footballs used in recreation, in organised youth leagues, may be made of rubber or plastic materials. In the 1860s, manufactured inflatable balls were introduced through the innovations of English shoemaker Richard Lindon; these were much more regular in shape than the handmade balls of earlier times, making kicking and carrying easier. These early footballs were plum-shaped; some teams used to have white footballs for purposes of night practice. Georgia Tech back Judy Harlan once spoke of Joe Guyon, a full blooded Indian, his antics: "Once in a while the Indian would come out in Joe, such as the nights Heisman gave us a white football and had us working out under the lights. That's when Guyon would give out the blood curdling war whoops." The football changed in 1934, with a rule change that tapered the ball at the ends more and reduced the size around the middle.
This new, sleeker ball made it much easier to handle for passers, while at the same time making the drop kick unreliable and obsolete. Hugh "Shorty" Ray, at the time a college football official and the NFL's head of officiating, is credited with conceiving the pointed football. From 1941 to 1970 and from 2005 to the present, the official game ball of the National Football League has been stamped with the nickname "The Duke" in honor of Wellington Mara, the longtime owner of the New York Giants, named after the Duke of Wellington by his father, Tim Mara and first owner of the Giants. Wilson Sporting Goods, the manufacturer of the NFL ball since 1941, named the ball after Wellington Mara at the urging of George Halas, the owner of the Chicago Bears, to reward Tim Mara for arranging the contract that made Wilson the official supplier of footballs to the NFL; the nickname was used until 1970, when Wilson changed the game ball upon the merger of the NFL and AFL. Wellington Mara died in 2005, Wilson returned "The Duke" to the game ball the following year in his honor.
Coach John Heisman was a Shakespearean actor in the offseason, would open each season by saying to his freshmen football players: What is this? It is a prolate spheroid, an elongated sphere in which the outer leather casing is drawn over a somewhat smaller rubber tubing. Better to have died as a small boy than to fumble this football. Leather panels are tanned to a natural brown color, required in professional leagues and collegiate play. At least one manufacturer uses leather, tanned to provide a "tacky" grip in dry or wet conditions. White footballs have been used in games played at night so that the ball can be seen more easily. At most levels of play, white stripes are painted on each end of the ball, halfway around the circumference, to improve nighttime visibility and to differentiate the college football from the pro football. However, the NFL once explored the usage of white-striped footballs – in Super Bowl VIII; the leather is stamped with a pebble-grain texture to help players grip the ball.
Some or all of the panels may be stamped with the manufacturer's name, league or conference logos and other markings. Four panels or pieces of leather or plastic are required for each football. After a series of quality control inspections for weight and blemishes, workers begin the actual manufacturing process. Two of the panels are perforated along adjoining edges. One of these lacing panels receives an additional perforation and reinforcements in its center, to hold the inflation valve; each panel is attached to an interior lining. The four panels are stitched together in an "inside-out" manner; the edges with the lacing holes, are not stitched together. The ball is turned right side out by pushing the panels through the lacing hole. A polyurethane or rubber lining called a bladder is inserted through the lacing hole. Polyvinyl chloride or leather laces are inserted through the perforations, to provide a grip for holding and passing the football. Before play, according to the NFL rules, the ball must be inflated to an air pressure between 12.5 and 13.5 pounds per square inch.
The ball weighs 14 to 15 ounces. In the CFL the stripes traverse the entire circumference of the ball; the UFL used a ball with lime-green stripes. The XFL used a novel color pattern, a black ball with red curved lines in lieu of stripes, for its footballs. Three indoor American football leagues; the USFL used the same Wilson football the NFL used at the time, with the only differences being the word markings and signature. The World Football League's football was a distinct orange color, said to be more visible during the night as most of that league's games would be played in the evenings. In an NFL game, the home club must have 36 balls for an outdoor game or 24 for an indoor game, they must be available for the referee to test with a pressure gauge two and a half hours before the game
Sport includes all forms of competitive physical activity or games which, through casual or organised participation, aim to use, maintain or improve physical ability and skills while providing enjoyment to participants, in some cases, entertainment for spectators. Hundreds of sports exist, from those between single contestants, through to those with hundreds of simultaneous participants, either in teams or competing as individuals. In certain sports such as racing, many contestants may compete or consecutively, with one winner; some sports allow a "tie" or "draw". A number of contests may be arranged in a tournament producing a champion. Many sports leagues make an annual champion by arranging games in a regular sports season, followed in some cases by playoffs. Sport is recognised as system of activities which are based in physical athleticism or physical dexterity, with the largest major competitions such as the Olympic Games admitting only sports meeting this definition, other organisations such as the Council of Europe using definitions precluding activities without a physical element from classification as sports.
However, a number of competitive, but non-physical, activities claim recognition as mind sports. The International Olympic Committee recognises both chess and bridge as bona fide sports, SportAccord, the international sports federation association, recognises five non-physical sports: bridge, draughts, Go and xiangqi, limits the number of mind games which can be admitted as sports. Sport is governed by a set of rules or customs, which serve to ensure fair competition, allow consistent adjudication of the winner. Winning can be crossing a line first, it can be determined by judges who are scoring elements of the sporting performance, including objective or subjective measures such as technical performance or artistic impression. Records of performance are kept, for popular sports, this information may be announced or reported in sport news. Sport is a major source of entertainment for non-participants, with spectator sport drawing large crowds to sport venues, reaching wider audiences through broadcasting.
Sport betting is in some cases regulated, in some cases is central to the sport. According to A. T. Kearney, a consultancy, the global sporting industry is worth up to $620 billion as of 2013; the world's most accessible and practised sport is running, while association football is its most popular spectator sport. The word "sport" comes from the Old French desport meaning "leisure", with the oldest definition in English from around 1300 being "anything humans find amusing or entertaining". Other meanings include. Roget's defines the noun sport as an "activity engaged in for relaxation and amusement" with synonyms including diversion and recreation; the singular term "sport" is used in most English dialects to describe the overall concept, with "sports" used to describe multiple activities. American English uses "sports" for both terms; the precise definition of what separates a sport from other leisure activities varies between sources. The closest to an international agreement on a definition is provided by SportAccord, the association for all the largest international sports federations, is therefore the de facto representative of international sport.
SportAccord uses the following criteria, determining that a sport should: have an element of competition be in no way harmful to any living creature not rely on equipment provided by a single supplier not rely on any "luck" element designed into the sport. They recognise that sport can be physical mind, predominantly motorised co-ordination, or animal-supported; the inclusion of mind sports within sport definitions has not been universally accepted, leading to legal challenges from governing bodies in regards to being denied funding available to sports. Whilst SportAccord recognises a small number of mind sports, it is not open to admitting any further mind sports. There has been an increase in the application of the term "sport" to a wider set of non-physical challenges such as video games called esports due to the large scale of participation and organised competition, but these are not recognised by mainstream sports organisations. According to Council of Europe, European Sports Charter, article 2.i, "'Sport' means all forms of physical activity which, through casual or organised participation, aim at expressing or improving physical fitness and mental well-being, forming social relationships or obtaining results in competition at all levels."
There are opposing views on the necessity of competition as a defining element of a sport, with all professional sport involving competition, governing bodies requiring competition as a prerequisite of recognition by the International Olympic Committee or SportAccord. Other bodies advocate widening the definition of sport to include all physical activity. For instance, the Council of Eu
A sleeveless shirt is a shirt manufactured without sleeves, or whose sleeves have been cut off. Sleeveless shirts are worn depending on the style, they are worn by athletes in sports such as track and field and triathlon. A-shirt is short for "athletic shirt" because it is worn in sports, such as basketball and track-and-field events. In the United States and Canada, it is known as a tank top and by the pejorative nicknames wifebeater, guinea tee, or dago tee. In the UK, an A-shirt when used as an undershirt, is known as a vest. Another term is singlet, used in England, Ireland, Ghana, Hong Kong, New Zealand, parts of Hawaii. In the Philippines, when used as an undershirt it is called a sando. In Bangladesh and the State of West Bengal in India, it is called a sando-genji. In India it is known as a banian and is used extensively as an undershirt to absorb sweat and prevent its penetration to outer layers of clothing. In France, it is called a marcel after Marcel Eisenberg, who first started large-scale production of the shirts for Parisian porters during the mid-19th century, or more formally a débardeur, meaning "docker", "porter" or "stevedore".
But in french speaking Belgium, it is only called a singlet. In addition to athletic usage, A-shirts have traditionally been used as undershirts with suits and dress shirts, they are sometimes worn alone without a dress shirt or top shirt during warm and/or humid weather in North America where the climate is warmer and more humid in the summer. A-shirts are worn alone under casual settings, as lounge wear, and/or while completing yard work or other chores around the home; the build of an A-shirt is simple: the neck and armholes are reinforced for durability. One has large armholes and neck holes and a neckline that can reach down as far as the bottom of the chest.. They are sometimes made long to make tucking into a pair of jeans/shorts easier. In all cases, they are buttonless and pocketless. An A-shirt worn as an undershirt is designed for a tight fit and is made of ribbed cotton. A tank top consists of a sleeveless shirt with low neck and different shoulder straps width, it is named after one-piece bathing suits of the 1920s worn in tanks or swimming pools.
The upper garment is worn by both men and women. A camisole called just cami, is a sleeveless undergarment for women extending to the waist, they have spaghetti straps. Worn as an undershirt, like the A-shirt they have become used as warm-weather outerwear; the camisole is made of satin, nylon, or cotton. A dudou, known as a yem in Vietnamese contexts, is an item of East Asian clothing resembling a silk apron or bib but traditionally used as an undershirt or bodice to flatten the figure and, medicinally, to preserve stomach qi. Beginning around the year 2000, Western and Chinese fashion has begun incorporating them as a sleeveless and backless shirt for women. A halter top is a sleeveless shirt in which a strap goes around the back of the neck, leaving the upper back uncovered. Halter tops are worn by girls and women. A sleeveless T-shirt called a muscle shirt, is the same design as a T-shirt, but without sleeves; some sleeveless T-shirts, which possess smaller, narrower arm holes, can be worn by both women and men, but those with larger, wider arm holes are worn by men, since the larger arm holes would expose the female breast under certain circumstances.
They are worn during athletic activities or as casual wear during warmer weather. They are colloquially known as shooter shirts in the southern United States, they were quite popular in the 1980s and were stereotypically associated with surfers and bodybuilders and bore gyms. Such shirts without logos are now more worn as casual wear. A tube top is a shirt with no sleeves or shoulders a tube that wraps around a woman's torso; some versions cover most of the torso. In British and Australian English, they are informally known as boob tubes