Pennsylvania the Commonwealth of Pennsylvania, is a state located in the northeastern and Mid-Atlantic regions of the United States. The Appalachian Mountains run through its middle; the Commonwealth is bordered by Delaware to the southeast, Maryland to the south, West Virginia to the southwest, Ohio to the west, Lake Erie and the Canadian province of Ontario to the northwest, New York to the north, New Jersey to the east. Pennsylvania is the 33rd-largest state by area, the 6th-most populous state according to the most recent official U. S. Census count in 2010, it is the 9th-most densely populated of the 50 states. Pennsylvania's two most populous cities are Philadelphia, Pittsburgh; the state capital and its 10th largest city is Harrisburg. Pennsylvania has 140 miles of waterfront along the Delaware Estuary; the state is one of the 13 original founding states of the United States. Part of Pennsylvania, together with the present State of Delaware, had earlier been organized as the Colony of New Sweden.
It was the second state to ratify the United States Constitution, on December 12, 1787. Independence Hall, where the United States Declaration of Independence and United States Constitution were drafted, is located in the state's largest city of Philadelphia. During the American Civil War, the Battle of Gettysburg was fought in the south central region of the state. Valley Forge near Philadelphia was General Washington's headquarters during the bitter winter of 1777–78. Pennsylvania is 170 miles north to south and 283 miles east to west. Of a total 46,055 square miles, 44,817 square miles are land, 490 square miles are inland waters, 749 square miles are waters in Lake Erie, it is the 33rd-largest state in the United States. Pennsylvania has 51 miles of coastline along Lake Erie and 57 miles of shoreline along the Delaware Estuary. Of the original Thirteen Colonies, Pennsylvania is the only state that does not border the Atlantic Ocean; the boundaries of the state are the Mason–Dixon line to the south, the Twelve-Mile Circle on the Pennsylvania-Delaware border, the Delaware River to the east, 80° 31' W to the west and the 42° N to the north, with the exception of a short segment on the western end, where a triangle extends north to Lake Erie.
Cities include Philadelphia, Reading and Lancaster in the southeast, Pittsburgh in the southwest, the tri-cities of Allentown and Easton in the central east. The northeast includes the former anthracite coal mining cities of Scranton, Wilkes-Barre and Hazleton. Erie is located in the northwest. State College serves the central region while Williamsport serves the commonwealth's north-central region as does Chambersburg the south-central region, with York and the state capital Harrisburg on the Susquehanna River in the east-central region of the Commonwealth and Altoona and Johnstown in the west-central region; the state has five geographical regions, namely the Allegheny Plateau and Valley, Atlantic Coastal Plain and the Erie Plain. New York Ontario Maryland Delaware West Virginia New Jersey Ohio Pennsylvania's diverse topography produces a variety of climates, though the entire state experiences cold winters and humid summers. Straddling two major zones, the majority of the state, with the exception of the southeastern corner, has a humid continental climate.
The southern portion of the state has a humid subtropical climate. The largest city, has some characteristics of the humid subtropical climate that covers much of Delaware and Maryland to the south. Summers are hot and humid. Moving toward the mountainous interior of the state, the winter climate becomes colder, the number of cloudy days increases, snowfall amounts are greater. Western areas of the state locations near Lake Erie, can receive over 100 inches of snowfall annually, the entire state receives plentiful precipitation throughout the year; the state may be subject to severe weather from spring through summer into fall. Tornadoes occur annually in the state, sometimes in large numbers, such as 30 recorded tornadoes in 2011; as of 1600, the tribes living in Pennsylvania were the Algonquian Lenape, the Iroquoian Susquehannock & Petun and the Siouan Monongahela Culture, who may have been the same as a little known tribe called the Calicua, or Cali. Other tribes who entered the region during the colonial era were the Trockwae, Saponi, Nanticoke, Conoy Piscataway, Iroquois Confederacy—possibly among others.
Other tribes, like the Erie, may have once held some land in Pennsylvania, but no longer did so by the year 1600. Both the Dutch and the English claimed both sides of the Delaware River as part of their colonial lands in America; the Dutch were the first to take possession. By June 3, 1631, the Dutch had begun settling the Delmarva Peninsula by establishing the Zwaanendael Colony on the site of present-day Lewes, Delaware. In 1638, Sweden established the New Sweden Colony, in the region of Fort Christina, on the site of present-day Wilmington, Delaware. New Sweden claimed and, for the most part, controlled the lower Delaware River region (parts of present-day Delaware, New Jersey, Pe
Greene County, Illinois
Greene County is a county located in the U. S. state of Illinois. According to the 2010 United States Census, it has a population of 13,886, its county seat is Carrollton. A notable archaeological area, the Koster Site, has produced evidence of more than 7,000 years of human habitation. Artifacts from the site are displayed at the Center for American Archeology in Illinois. Greene County is named in honor of General Nathanael Greene, a hero of the American Revolutionary War. According to the US Census Bureau, the county has a total area of 546 square miles, of which 543 square miles is land and 3.3 square miles is water. In recent years, average temperatures in the county seat of Carrollton have ranged from a low of 16 °F in January to a high of 87 °F in July, although a record low of −26 °F was recorded in January 1912 and a record high of 113 °F was recorded in July 1934. Average monthly precipitation ranged from 1.60 inches in January to 4.34 inches in May. Two Rivers National Wildlife Refuge As of the 2010 United States Census, there were 13,886 people, 5,570 households, 3,777 families residing in the county.
The population density was 25.6 inhabitants per square mile. There were 6,389 housing units at an average density of 11.8 per square mile. The racial makeup of the county was 97.9% white, 0.9% black or African American, 0.2% American Indian, 0.1% Asian, 0.3% from other races, 0.7% from two or more races. Those of Hispanic or Latino origin made up 0.8% of the population. In terms of ancestry, 30.7% were German, 14.7% were Irish, 13.3% were English, 12.1% were American. Of the 5,570 households, 30.9% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 53.0% were married couples living together, 9.4% had a female householder with no husband present, 32.2% were non-families, 27.8% of all households were made up of individuals. The average household size was 2.44 and the average family size was 2.95. The median age was 41.6 years. The median income for a household in the county was $41,450 and the median income for a family was $52,049. Males had a median income of $38,185 versus $27,231 for females.
The per capita income for the county was $22,107. About 11.8% of families and 15.1% of the population were below the poverty line, including 22.1% of those under age 18 and 10.0% of those age 65 or over. Greene County was reliably Democratic from the beginning through 1948. Since it has voted for the Republican nominee; as one of the most northerly “southern” counties in Illinois, Greene County was rock-ribbed Democratic for the seventy years after the Civil War, which it opposed as a “Yankee” war. Not until considerable anti-Catholic sentiment against Al Smith turned many voters to Herbert Hoover did the county support a Republican presidential nominee. However, with the coming of World War II, opposition to American involvement led to gains for Wendell Willkie and Thomas E. Dewey, although apart from the 1960 election – influenced by Catholicism – Greene was a bellwether county throughout the period from 1928 to 2004. In recent years, like most of downstate Illinois, opposition to the Democratic Party’s liberal views on social issues, along with economic problems, has caused rapid swings toward the Republican Party.
Hillary Clinton’s 2016 tally of 21.6 percent of the county’s vote is fifteen percent worse than any Democrat before 2010. National Register of Historic Places listings in Greene County, Illinois
A snow flurry is a term for a light snowfall that results in little or no snow accumulation. The US National Weather Service defines snow flurries as intermittent light snow that produces no measurable precipitation. In contrast, bursts of snowfall which do result in measurable snow accumulation are called snow showers. Snow shower Drizzle Precipitation Some Common Weather Terminology Glossary of Meteorology
Metro East is a region in Illinois that comprises the eastern suburbs of St. Louis, United States, it encompasses five Southern Illinois counties in the St. Louis Metropolitan Statistical Area; the region's most populated city is Belleville, with 45,000 residents. The Metro East is the second largest urban area in Illinois after the Chicago metropolitan area and, as of the 2000 census, the population of the Metro East statistical area is 599,845 residents, a figure that has risen above 700,000 in 2010; the significant growth in the Metro East is due to people in smaller outlying towns in Illinois moving to the area for better economic/job opportunities. The Metro East is a loose collection of small and mid-sized cities sitting along the American Bottom and the bluffs of the Mississippi River. According to the U. S. Census Bureau, the five counties of the region have a total area of 6,974 km2. 6,787 km2 of it is land and 186 km2 of it is water. As of the 2010 census, the most populated cities in the region include As of the 2010 census, there had been a major shift in population from the older rust belt industrial cities in the Mississippi River bottom, such as East St. Louis and Alton, to the more suburban satellite cities, such as, Edwardsville, O'Fallon sitting on the bluffs.
This is due to continued white flight. As of the census of 2000, there were 599,845 people, 229,888 households, 160,260 families residing in the five Metro East counties; the most common language is English. German speakers exist in southeastern Madison, Clinton, southern and eastern St. Clair Counties. Spanish is spoken in the Fairmont City area, in parts of Clinton County; the largest concentration of African-Americans is in Madison, western Granite City, East St. Louis, Washington Park, Cahokia and Alton. Secondary languages tend to be cultural or reminiscent of ancestry, not related to the general business of the area. Bond Calhoun Clinton Jersey Macoupin Madison Monroe St. Clair Notes: ^ means part of city in another county/counties Bold indicates county seat Quincy, IL is technically not located within the Metro East, but can be regionally associated due to their proximity and accessibility to Greater St. Louis. Kaskaskia College Lewis and Clark Community College Lindenwood University-Belleville McKendree University The Principia Southern Illinois University Edwardsville Southwestern Illinois College U.
S. Route 40 U. S. Route 50 U. S. Route 51 Historic U. S. Route 66 U. S. Route 67 I-55 I-64 I-70 I-255 I-270 The Metro East is connected with Missouri by the Metro Link light rail train; the Metrolink includes 11 stations on the Illinois side of St Louis, from the East St. Louis Riverfront, through Belleville Illinois, ending at Scott Air Force Base, it links the Metro East to downtown St. Louis, area universities, downtown Clayton, the major commercial airport, Lambert St. Louis International. St. Clair County share public transit including bus and rail. Madison County has a public transit system that includes bus services and bikeways converted as part of a Rail to Trail conversion. Anheuser-Busch Boeing Charter Communications Illinois Department of Transportation Korte Construction Monsanto National Steel Norrenberns Trucking Olin Corporation Scott Air Force Base Southern Illinois University Edwardsville U. S. Steel Wood River Refinery National Shrine of Our Lady of the Snows, near Belleville.
Clair County line Confluence Crush Roller Derby, Belleville GCS Ballpark, Sauget Gateway International Raceway, Madison Eads Bridge, historic bridge, among East. Louis, on the East St. Louis, St. Louis, Missouri border, over the Mississippi River Pere Marquette State Park, Grafton Raging Rivers Water Park, Grafton The Game, Glen Carbon St. Clair Square Mall, Fairview Heights Robert Wadlow Statue, Alton Horseshoe Lake, Pontoon Beach and Granite City Alton Square Mall, Alton Carlyle Lake, Carlyle Josephine Baker, East St. Louis and activist Jason Boyd, Edwardsville, AAA pitcher Ray Bradbury, science fiction author Jimmy Connors, East St. Louis and Belleville, tennis player Neal Cotts, former MLB pitcher Brian Daubach, former MLB 1B/DH/outfielder Miles Davis, East St. Louis and Alton, jazz artist Lea DeLaria, jazz singer and comedian Elizabeth Donald, horror novelist Dick Durbin, East St. Louis, U. S. senator Buddy Ebsen, television actor Jay Farrar, musician William Holden, O'Fallon, film actor Louis Jolliet, explorer of the Mississippi River Jackie Joyner-Kersee, East St. Louis, Olympic athlete Ken Kwapis, Belleville and television director and producer Père Jacques Marquette, French discoverer T. J. Mathews, former MLB pitcher Laurie Metcalf, Edwardsville and television actress Yadier Molina, Cardinals Baseball catcher Peter Sarsgaard, Belleville/Scott AFB, actor Michael Stipe, lead singer of the band REM Jeff Tweedy, lead singer of the band Wilco Uncle Tupelo, alternative country band Craig Virgin, distance runner Robert Pershing Wadlow, world's tallest man Scott
To cities, towns, charter townships and boroughs. The term can be used to describe municipally owned corporations. Municipal incorporation occurs when such municipalities become self-governing entities under the laws of the state or province in which they are located; this event is marked by the award or declaration of a municipal charter. A city charter or town charter or municipal charter is a legal document establishing a municipality, such as a city or town. In Canada, charters are granted by provincial authorities; the Corporation of Chennai is the oldest Municipal Corporation in the world after UK. The title "corporation" was used in boroughs from soon after the Norman conquest until the Local Government Act 2001. Under the 2001 act, county boroughs were renamed "cities" and their corporations became "city councils". After the Partition of Ireland, the corporations in the Irish Free State were Dublin, Cork and Waterford and Drogheda, Sligo and Wexford. Dún Laoghaire gained borough status in 1930 as “The Corporation of Dun Laoghaire".
Galway's borough status, lost in 1840, was restored in 1937. The New Zealand Constitution Act 1852 allowed municipal corporations to be established within the new Provinces of New Zealand; the term fell out of favour following the abolition of the Provinces in 1876. In the United States, such municipal corporations are established by charters that are granted either directly by a state legislature by means of local legislation, or indirectly under a general municipal corporation law after the proposed charter has passed a referendum vote of the affected population. Under the enterprise meaning of the term, municipal corporations are "organisations with independent corporate status, managed by an executive board appointed by local government officials, with majority public ownership"; some MOCs rely on revenue from user fees, distinguishing them from agencies and special districts funded through taxation, although this is not always the case. Municipal corporation follows a process of externalization that requires new skills and orientations from the respective local governments, follow common changes in the institutional landscape of public services.
They are argued to be more efficient than bureaucracy but have higher failure rates because of their legal and managerial autonomy. Unincorporated area German town law Municipal incorporationA Brief Summary of Municipal Incorporation Procedures by State - University of Georgia Characteristics and State Requirements for Incorporated Places - United States CensusMunicipal disincorporation / dissolutionDissolving Cities - University of California, Berkeley Municipal Disincorporation in California - California City Finance
The Italianate style of architecture was a distinct 19th-century phase in the history of Classical architecture. In the Italianate style, the models and architectural vocabulary of 16th-century Italian Renaissance architecture, which had served as inspiration for both Palladianism and Neoclassicism, were synthesised with picturesque aesthetics; the style of architecture, thus created, though characterised as "Neo-Renaissance", was of its own time. "The backward look transforms its object," Siegfried Giedion wrote of historicist architectural styles. The Italianate style was first developed in Britain in about 1802 by John Nash, with the construction of Cronkhill in Shropshire; this small country house is accepted to be the first Italianate villa in England, from, derived the Italianate architecture of the late Regency and early Victorian eras. The Italianate style was further developed and popularised by the architect Sir Charles Barry in the 1830s. Barry's Italianate style drew for its motifs on the buildings of the Italian Renaissance, though sometimes at odds with Nash's semi-rustic Italianate villas.
The style was not confined to England and was employed in varying forms, long after its decline in popularity in Britain, throughout Northern Europe and the British Empire. From the late 1840s to 1890 it achieved huge popularity in the United States, where it was promoted by the architect Alexander Jackson Davis. Key visual components of this style include: In interior decoration there were direct parallels to "Italianate" architecture with free re-combinations of decorative features drawn from Italian 16th-century architecture and objects, which were applied to purely 19th century forms. Wardrobes and dressers could be dressed in Italianate detailing as well as row houses; the spur to such commercial designs can be found in the "free Renaissance" style, espoused by Charles Eastlake. In 1868 he published Hints on Household Taste in Furniture and other Details, influential in Britain and in the United States, where the book was published in 1872. Although the archaeology of Mr. Eastlake's volume was always careful, most of the principles in it are beyond question, can be stated in a few words.
The Italianate style would have no carving or molding or other ornament glued on—such work must be done in the solid. The furniture that he thus proposed has straight, squarely cut members equal to their intention, its ornament is painted panels, porcelain plaques and tiles, metal trimmings, conventionalized carvings in sunk relief, a part of the construction entering into the ornament in the shape of narrow striated strips of wood radiating in opposite lines, after a fashion not altogether unknown in the time of Henry III. It has the solidity, but not the attraction, of the Medieval. Today "Italianate" furnishings are called "Eastlake" by American collectors and dealers, but contemporary terms ranged imaginatively, included "Neo-Grec". A late intimation of Nash's development of the Italianate style was his 1805 design of Sandridge Park at Stoke Gabriel in Devon. Commissioned by the dowager Lady Ashburton as a country retreat, this small country house shows the transition between the picturesque of William Gilpin and Nash's yet to be evolved Italianism.
While this house can still be described as Regency, its informal asymmetrical plan together with its loggias and balconies of both stone and wrought iron. Examples of the Italianate style in England tend to take the form of Palladian-style building enhanced by a belvedere tower complete with Renaissance-type balustrading at the roof level; this is a more stylistic interpretation of what architects and patrons imagined to be the case in Italy, utilises more the Italian Renaissance motifs than those earlier examples of the Italianate style by Nash. Sir Charles Barry, most notable for his works on the Tudor and Gothic styles at the Houses of Parliament in London, was a great promoter of the style. Unlike Nash he found his inspiration in Italy itself. Barry drew on the designs of the original Renaissance villas of Rome, the Lazio and the Veneto or as he put it: "...the charming character of the irregular villas of Italy." His most defining work in this style was the large Neo-Renaissance mansion Cliveden.
Although it has been claimed that one third of early Victorian country houses in England used classical styles Italianate, by 1855 the style was falling from favour and Cliveden came to be regarded as "a declining essay in a declining fashion."Anthony Salvin designed in the Italianate style in Wales, at Hafod House and Penoyre House, described by Mark Girouard as "Salvin's most ambitious classical house."Thomas Cubitt, a London building contractor, incorporated simple classical lines of the Italianate style as defined by Sir Char
Midwestern United States
The Midwestern United States referred to as the American Midwest, Middle West, or the Midwest, is one of four census regions of the United States Census Bureau. It occupies the northern central part of the United States, it was named the North Central Region by the Census Bureau until 1984. It is located between the Northeastern United States and the Western United States, with Canada to its north and the Southern United States to its south; the Census Bureau's definition consists of 12 states in the north central United States: Illinois, Iowa, Michigan, Missouri, North Dakota, South Dakota, Wisconsin. The region lies on the broad Interior Plain between the states occupying the Appalachian Mountain range and the states occupying the Rocky Mountain range. Major rivers in the region include, from east to west, the Ohio River, the Upper Mississippi River, the Missouri River. A 2012 report from the United States Census put the population of the Midwest at 65,377,684; the Midwest is divided by the Census Bureau into two divisions.
The East North Central Division includes Illinois, Michigan and Wisconsin, all of which are part of the Great Lakes region. The West North Central Division includes Iowa, Minnesota, North Dakota and South Dakota, several of which are located, at least within the Great Plains region. Chicago is the most populous city in the American Midwest and the third most populous in the entire country. Other large Midwestern cities include: Columbus, Detroit, Kansas City, Minneapolis, Cleveland, St. Louis, St. Paul, Cincinnati and Des Moines. Chicago and its suburbs form the largest metropolitan statistical area with 9.9 million people, followed by Metro Detroit, Minneapolis–St. Paul, Greater St. Louis, Greater Cleveland, Greater Cincinnati, the Kansas City metro area, the Columbus metro area; the term Midwestern has been in use since the 1880s to refer to portions of the central United States. A variant term, Middle West, has been used since the 19th century and remains common. Another term sometimes applied to the same general region is the heartland.
Other designations for the region have fallen out of use, such as the Northwest or Old Northwest and Mid-America. The Northwest Territory was one of the earliest territories of the United States, stretching northwest from the Ohio River to northern Minnesota and the upper-Mississippi; the upper-Mississippi watershed including the Missouri and Illinois Rivers was the setting for the earlier French settlements of the Illinois Country and the Ohio Country. Economically the region is balanced between heavy industry and agriculture, with finance and services such as medicine and education becoming important, its central location makes it a transportation crossroads for river boats, autos and airplanes. Politically, the region swings back and forth between the parties, thus is contested and decisive in elections. After the sociological study Middletown, based on Muncie, commentators used Midwestern cities as "typical" of the nation. Earlier, the rhetorical question, "Will it play in Peoria?", had become a stock phrase using Peoria, Illinois to signal whether something would appeal to mainstream America.
The region has a higher employment-to-population ratio than the Northeast, the West, the South, or the Sun Belt states as of 2011. Traditional definitions of the Midwest include the Northwest Ordinance Old Northwest states and many states that were part of the Louisiana Purchase; the states of the Old Northwest are known as Great Lakes states and are east-north central in the United States. The Ohio River runs along the southeastern section while the Mississippi River runs north to south near the center. Many of the Louisiana Purchase states in the west-north central United States, are known as Great Plains states, where the Missouri River is a major waterway joining with the Mississippi; the Midwest lies north of the 36°30′ parallel that the 1820 Missouri Compromise established as the dividing line between future slave and non-slave states. The Midwest Region is defined by the U. S. Census Bureau as these 12 states: Illinois: Old Northwest, Mississippi River, Ohio River, Great Lakes state Indiana: Old Northwest, Ohio River, Great Lakes state Iowa: Louisiana Purchase, Mississippi River, Missouri River state Kansas: Louisiana Purchase, Great Plains, Missouri River state Michigan: Old Northwest and Great Lakes state Minnesota: Old Northwest, Louisiana Purchase, Mississippi River, part of Red River Colony before 1818, Great Lakes state Missouri: Louisiana Purchase, Mississippi River, Missouri River, border state Nebraska: Louisiana Purchase, Great Plains, Missouri River state North Dakota: Louisiana Purchase, part of Red River Colony before 1818, Great Plains, Missouri River state Ohio: Old Northwest, Ohio River, Great Lakes state.
The southeastern part of the state is part of northern Appalachia South Dakota: Louisiana Purchase, Great Plains, Missouri River state Wisconsin: Old Northwest, Mississippi River, Great Lakes stateVarious organizations define the Midwest with different groups of states. For example, the Council of State Governments, an organization for communication and coordination among state governments, includes in its Midwe