Madrid is the capital of Spain and the largest municipality in both the Community of Madrid and Spain as a whole. The city has 3.3 million inhabitants and a metropolitan area population of 6.5 million. It is the third-largest city in the European Union, smaller than only London and Berlin, its monocentric metropolitan area is the third-largest in the EU, smaller only than those of London and Paris; the municipality covers 604.3 km2. Madrid lies on the River Manzanares in the Community of Madrid; as the capital city of Spain, seat of government, residence of the Spanish monarch, Madrid is the political and cultural centre of the country. The current mayor is Manuela Carmena from the party Ahora Madrid; the Madrid urban agglomeration has the third-largest GDP in the European Union and its influence in politics, entertainment, media, science and the arts all contribute to its status as one of the world's major global cities. Madrid is home to Real Madrid and Atlético Madrid. Due to its economic output, high standard of living, market size, Madrid is considered the leading economic hub of the Iberian Peninsula and of Southern Europe.
It hosts the head offices of the vast majority of major Spanish companies, such as Telefónica, IAG or Repsol. Madrid is the 10th most liveable city in the world according to Monocle magazine, in its 2017 index. Madrid houses the headquarters of the World Tourism Organization, belonging to the United Nations Organization, the Ibero-American General Secretariat, the Organization of Ibero-American States, the Public Interest Oversight Board, it hosts major international regulators and promoters of the Spanish language: the Standing Committee of the Association of Spanish Language Academies, headquarters of the Royal Spanish Academy, the Cervantes Institute and the Foundation of Urgent Spanish. Madrid organises fairs such as ARCO, SIMO TCI and the Madrid Fashion Week. While Madrid possesses modern infrastructure, it has preserved the look and feel of many of its historic neighbourhoods and streets, its landmarks include the Royal Palace of Madrid. Cibeles Palace and Fountain have become one of the monument symbols of the city.
مجريط Majrīṭ is the first documented reference to the city. It is recorded in Andalusi Arabic during the al-Andalus period; the name Magerit was retained in Medieval Spanish. The most ancient recorded name of the city "Magerit" comes from the name of a fortress built on the Manzanares River in the 9th century AD, means "Place of abundant water" in Arabic. A wider number of theories have been formulated on possible earlier origins. According to legend, Madrid was founded by Ocno Bianor and was named "Metragirta" or "Mantua Carpetana". Others contend that the original name of the city was "Ursaria", because of the many bears that were to be found in the nearby forests, together with the strawberry tree, have been the emblem of the city since the Middle Ages, it is speculated that the origin of the current name of the city comes from the 2nd century BC. The Roman Empire established a settlement on the banks of the Manzanares river; the name of this first village was "Matrice". Following the invasions carried out by the Germanic Sueves and Vandals, as well as the Sarmatic Alans during the 5th century AD, the Roman Empire no longer had the military presence required to defend its territories on the Iberian Peninsula, as a consequence, these territories were soon occupied by the Vandals, who were in turn dispelled by the Visigoths, who ruled Hispania in the name of the Roman emperor taking control of "Matrice".
In the 8th century, the Islamic conquest of the Iberian Peninsula saw the name changed to "Mayrit", from the Arabic term ميرا Mayra and the Ibero-Roman suffix it that means'place'. The modern "Madrid" evolved from the Mozarabic "Matrit", still in the Madrilenian gentilic. Although the site of modern-day Madrid has been occupied since prehistoric times, there are archaeological remains of Carpetani settlement, Roman villas, a Visigoth basilica near the church of Santa María de la Almudena and three Visigoth necropoleis near Casa de Campo, Tetúan and Vicálvaro, the first historical document about the existence of an established settlement in Madrid dates from the Muslim age. At the second half of the 9th century, Emir Muhammad I of Córdoba built a fortress on a headland near the river Manzanares, as one of the many fortresses he ordered to be built on the border between Al-Andalus and the kingdoms of León and Castile, with the objective of protecting Toledo from the Christian invasions and as a starting point for Muslim offensives.
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Spain the Kingdom of Spain, is a country located in Europe. Its continental European territory is situated on the Iberian Peninsula, its territory includes two archipelagoes: the Canary Islands off the coast of Africa, the Balearic Islands in the Mediterranean Sea. The African enclaves of Ceuta, Peñón de Vélez de la Gomera make Spain the only European country to have a physical border with an African country. Several small islands in the Alboran Sea are part of Spanish territory; the country's mainland is bordered to the south and east by the Mediterranean Sea except for a small land boundary with Gibraltar. With an area of 505,990 km2, Spain is the largest country in Southern Europe, the second largest country in Western Europe and the European Union, the fourth largest country in the European continent. By population, Spain is the fifth in the European Union. Spain's capital and largest city is Madrid. Modern humans first arrived in the Iberian Peninsula around 35,000 years ago. Iberian cultures along with ancient Phoenician, Greek and Carthaginian settlements developed on the peninsula until it came under Roman rule around 200 BCE, after which the region was named Hispania, based on the earlier Phoenician name Spn or Spania.
At the end of the Western Roman Empire the Germanic tribal confederations migrated from Central Europe, invaded the Iberian peninsula and established independent realms in its western provinces, including the Suebi and Vandals. The Visigoths would forcibly integrate all remaining independent territories in the peninsula, including Byzantine provinces, into the Kingdom of Toledo, which more or less unified politically and all the former Roman provinces or successor kingdoms of what was documented as Hispania. In the early eighth century the Visigothic Kingdom fell to the Moors of the Umayyad Islamic Caliphate, who arrived to rule most of the peninsula in the year 726, leaving only a handful of small Christian realms in the north and lasting up to seven centuries in the Kingdom of Granada; this led to many wars during a long reconquering period across the Iberian Peninsula, which led to the creation of the Kingdom of Leon, Kingdom of Castile, Kingdom of Aragon and Kingdom of Navarre as the main Christian kingdoms to face the invasion.
Following the Moorish conquest, Europeans began a gradual process of retaking the region known as the Reconquista, which by the late 15th century culminated in the emergence of Spain as a unified country under the Catholic Monarchs. Until Aragon had been an independent kingdom, which had expanded toward the eastern Mediterranean, incorporating Sicily and Naples, had competed with Genoa and Venice. In the early modern period, Spain became the world's first global empire and the most powerful country in the world, leaving a large cultural and linguistic legacy that includes more than 570 million Hispanophones, making Spanish the world's second-most spoken native language, after Mandarin Chinese. During the Golden Age there were many advancements in the arts, with world-famous painters such as Diego Velázquez; the most famous Spanish literary work, Don Quixote, was published during the Golden Age. Spain hosts the world's third-largest number of UNESCO World Heritage Sites. Spain is a secular parliamentary democracy and a parliamentary monarchy, with King Felipe VI as head of state.
It is a major developed country and a high income country, with the world's fourteenth largest economy by nominal GDP and sixteenth largest by purchasing power parity. It is a member of the United Nations, the European Union, the Eurozone, the Council of Europe, the Organization of Ibero-American States, the Union for the Mediterranean, the North Atlantic Treaty Organization, the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development, Organization for Security and Co-operation in Europe, the Schengen Area, the World Trade Organization and many other international organisations. While not an official member, Spain has a "Permanent Invitation" to the G20 summits, participating in every summit, which makes Spain a de facto member of the group; the origins of the Roman name Hispania, from which the modern name España was derived, are uncertain due to inadequate evidence, although it is documented that the Phoenicians and Carthaginians referred to the region as Spania, therefore the most accepted etymology is a Semitic-Phoenician one.
Down the centuries there have been a number of accounts and hypotheses: The Renaissance scholar Antonio de Nebrija proposed that the word Hispania evolved from the Iberian word Hispalis, meaning "city of the western world". Jesús Luis Cunchillos argues that the root of the term span is the Phoenician word spy, meaning "to forge metals". Therefore, i-spn-ya would mean "the land where metals are forged", it may be a derivation of the Phoenician I-Shpania, meaning "island of rabbits", "land of rabbits" or "edge", a reference to Spain's location at the end of the Mediterranean. The word in question means "Hyrax" due to Phoenicians confusing the two animals. Hispania may derive from the poetic use of the term Hesperia, reflecting the Greek perception of Italy as a "western land" or "land of the setting sun" (Hesperia
El País is a Spanish-language daily newspaper in Spain. According to the Office of Justification of Dissemination it is the second most circulated daily newspaper in Spain as of December 2017. It's by the number sales in 2018 were, on average, 60.000 according to internal audits, more than 70% less than a decade prior. The current editor, Soledad Gallego Díaz, has been brought to court after dismissing five employees for what the accusers mainatin are political and ideological reasons. El País is the most read newspaper in Spanish online and the second most circulated daily newspaper in Spain, one of three Madrid dailies considered to be national newspapers of record for Spain. El País, based in Madrid, is owned by the Spanish media conglomerate PRISA. PRISA is owned by Banco Santander, Telefónica and the Liberty vulture fund. PRISA's debt of 988 million euros is bigger than the company's value, its headquarters and central editorial staff are located in Madrid, although there are regional offices in the principal Spanish cities where regional were produced until 2015.
El País produces a world edition in Madrid, available online in Brazil and Hispanic America. An English edition began as a print edition in 2001, available as a supplement in what was the International Herald Tribune The Global New York Times. Since 2014, it has been an digital project. In 2018, the newspaper changed editors one week after a vote of no confidence forced a change of premiership in Parliament, sparking doubts about the political independence of the parent company. Since the newspaper has engaged in a radical change of editorial line, going from a politically independent position to defending the socialist minority government; the current newspaper's editor in America, Javier Moreno, managing editor, Jan Martinez Ahrens, were responsible for publishing a false picture of a dying Hugo Chávez in 2013. The publication of such photo in the front page was a major blow to the newspaper's credibility and standing in Latin America. El País was founded in May 1976 by a team at PRISA which included Jesus de Polanco, José Ortega Spottorno and Carlos Mendo.
The paper was designed by Julio Alonso. It was first published on 4 May 1976, six months after the death of dictator Francisco Franco, at the beginning of the Spanish transition to democracy; the first editor-in-chief of the daily was Juan Luis Cebrián. El País was the first pro-democracy newspaper within a context where all the other Spanish newspapers were influenced by Franco's ideology; the circulation of the paper was 116,600 copies in its first year. It rose to 137,562 copies in 1977. El País filled a gap in the market and became the newspaper of Spanish democracy, for which role El País was awarded the Prince of Asturias Award for Communication and the Humanities in 1983, at a time when the transition from Franco's dictatorship to democracy was still developing; the paper's first Director was Juan Luis Cebrián. Like many other Spanish journalists of the time he had worked for Diario Pueblo, a mouthpiece for the Francoist sindicato vertical, its reputation as a bastion of Spanish democracy was established during the attempted coup d'état by Lieutenant Colonel Antonio Tejero of the Guardia Civil on 23 February 1981.
During the uncertain situation of the night of 23 February 1981, with all the members of parliament held hostage in the Congress building and with tanks on the streets of Valencia, before the state television station could transmit a speech by King Juan Carlos I condemning the coup, El País published a special edition of the newspaper called'El País, for the Constitution'. It was the first daily paper on the streets that night with a clear pro-democracy position calling on citizens to demonstrate in favour of democracy, it was discussed in the news media that the director of El País, Juan Luis Cebrián, telephoned the director of Diario 16, Pedro J. Ramírez, in order to propose that both newspapers work on a joint publication in defence of democracy and Ramírez refused, claiming that he would prefer to wait a few hours to see how the situation developed. Diario 16 was not published until after a television broadcast by the king. Along with its commitment to democracy before the attempted coup of 23 February 1981, the Spanish Socialist Workers' Party's election victory in 1982 with an absolute majority and its open support for the government of Felipe González, meant that El País consolidated its position during the 1980s as the Spanish newspaper with the most sales ahead of the conservative leaning ABC.
In 1986 El País was the recipient of the Four Freedom Award for the Freedom of Speech by the Roosevelt Institute. In 1987 El País received the largest amount of the state aid. Both the rigorous journalistic standards and the fact that it was the first Spanish newspaper to establish internal quality control standards have increased the standing of El País, it was the first Spanish daily to create the role of "Reader's Advocate" and the first to publish a "Style Guide", that has become a benchmark for quality amongst journalists. El País has established a number of collaborative agreements with other European newspapers with a social democrat viewpoint. In 1989, El País participated in the creation of a common network of information resources with La Repubblica in Italy and Le Monde in France. At the beginning of the 1990s, El País had to face a new journalistic challenge; the increasing political tensions caused by corru
Cycle sport is competitive physical activity using bicycles. There are several categories of bicycle racing including road bicycle racing, time trialling, cyclo-cross, mountain bike racing, track cycling, BMX, cycle speedway. Non-racing cycling sports include artistic cycling, cycle polo, freestyle BMX and mountain bike trials; the Union Cycliste Internationale is the world governing body for cycling and international competitive cycling events. The International Human Powered Vehicle Association is the governing body for human-powered vehicles that imposes far fewer restrictions on their design than does the UCI; the UltraMarathon Cycling Association is the governing body for many ultra-distance cycling races. Bicycle racing is recognised as an Olympic sport. Bicycle races are popular all over the world in Europe; the countries most devoted to bicycle racing include Belgium, France, Italy, the Netherlands and Switzerland. Other countries with international standing include Australia, the United Kingdom and the United States.
The first bicycle race is popularly held to have been a 1,200 meter race on the 31 May 1868 at the Parc de Saint-Cloud, Paris. It was won by expatriate Englishman James Moore; the machine is now on display at the museum in Ely, England. The Union Cycliste Internationale was founded on 14 April 1900 by Belgium, the United States, France and Switzerland to replace the International Cycling Association, formed in 1892, over a row with Great Britain as well as because of other issues. Road bicycle racing involve both team and individual competition, races are contested in various ways, they range from the one-day road race and time trial to multi-stage events like the Tour de France and its sister events which make up cycling's Grand Tours. The races take place from spring through to autumn. Many riders from the northern hemisphere spend the winter in countries such as Australia, to compete or train. Professional races range from the three-week "Grand Tour" stage races such as the Tour de France, Giro d'Italia and the Vuelta a España to multi-day stage races such as the Tour de Suisse and Tour of California, to single day "Classics" such as the Tour of Flanders and Milan–San Remo.
The longest one-day road race sanctioned by USA Cycling is Lotoja which covers the 206 miles from Logan, Utah to Jackson, Wyoming. Criteriums are races based on circuits less than a mile in length and sometimes run for a set time rather than a specific distance. Criteriums are the most popular form of road racing in North America. In Belgium, kermesses are popular, single-day events of over 120 km; as well as road races in which all riders start individual time trial and team time trial events are held on road-based courses. Track cycling encompasses races that take place on banked velodromes. Events are quite diverse and can range from individual and team pursuits, two-man sprints, to various group and mass start races. Competitors use track bicycles which do not have freewheels. Cyclo-cross originated as a sport for road racers during the off season, to vary their training during the cold months. Races take place in the autumn and winter and consist of many laps of a 2–3 km or 1–2 mile course featuring pavement, wooded trails, steep hills, obstacles requiring the rider to dismount, carry the bike and remount in one motion.
Races for senior categories are between 30 minutes and an hour long, the distance varying depending on the conditions. The sport is strongest in traditional road cycling countries such as France. Mountain bike races involve moderate to high degree of technical riding. There are several varieties. BMX takes place off-road. BMX races are sprints on purpose-built off-road single-lap tracks on single-gear bicycles. Riders navigate a dirt course of banked and flat corners. Cycle speedway is bicycle racing on 70 -- 90 m in length. Motor-paced racing and Keirin use motorcycles for pacing so bicyclists achieve higher speeds. Speeds achieved on indoor tracks are greater than those on roads. Other factors affecting speed are the route profile, wind conditions and elevation. At a 2013 event in Mexico, François Pervis achieved an average of 21.40 metres per second with a flying start over 200 meters. The top average speed over the men's 1 km time trial at the 2004 Summer Olympics was 16.4 metres per second recorded by Chris Hoy.
Average speeds drop with increasing distance, so that over the 120 km Cootamundra Annual Classic it is 11.8 metres per second. In the 259 km 2010 Paris-Roubaix, Fabian Cancellara set a speed of 10.9 metres per second, while over the 818 km Furnace Creek 508, the speed drops to 8.3 metres per second. For an extreme road distance such as the 4800 km Race Across America, the average speed of the record holder is 5.7 metres per second, while the 2350 km Freedom Trail over mountainous terrain in South Africa is at a record speed of 1.9 metres per second. Mountain bike trials is a sport where riders navigate natural and man-made obstacles without putting down their foot, or "dabbing", it is similar to motorcycle trials. Points are awarded for bike handling skills. Freestyle BMX is an extreme sport of stunt riding BMX bikes. Cycling Mountain bi