Stump v. Sparkman
Stump v. Sparkman, 435 U. S. 349, is the leading United States Supreme Court decision on judicial immunity. It involved an Indiana judge, sued by a young woman, sterilized without her knowledge as a minor in accordance with the judge's order; the Supreme Court held that the judge was immune from being sued for issuing the order because it was issued as a judicial function. The case has been called one of the most controversial in recent Supreme Court history. In 1971, Judge Harold D. Stump granted a mother's petition to have a tubal ligation performed on her 15-year-old daughter, who the mother alleged was "somewhat retarded"; the petition was granted the same day. The judge did not hold a hearing to receive evidence or appoint a lawyer to protect the daughter's interests; the daughter underwent the surgery a week having been told that she was to have her appendix removed. The daughter married two years later. Failing to become pregnant, she learned; the daughter and her husband sued the judge and others associated with the sterilization in federal district court.
The district court found. The Seventh Circuit Court of Appeals reversed the decision, holding that the judge had lost his immunity because he failed to observe "elementary principles of due process" when he ordered the sterilization. In 1978, the U. S. Supreme Court, in a 5-3 decision, reversed the Court of Appeals, announcing a test for deciding when judicial immunity should apply and holding that the judge could not be sued. On July 9, 1971, Ora Spitler McFarlin of Auburn, through her attorney Warren G. Sunday, presented a petition to Judge Harold D. Stump of the DeKalb County Circuit Court asking to have her 15-year-old daughter, Linda Spitler, surgically sterilized; the petition alleged that the daughter was "somewhat retarded", was associating with "older youth and young men" and that it would be in the daughter's best interest to undergo a tubal ligation "to prevent unfortunate circumstances." Judge Stump signed the requested order ex parte the same day. The daughter had no notice of it.
No guardian ad litem was appointed to represent her interest, no hearing was held. Neither the petition nor the order was filed with the clerk of the circuit court, nor did the order cite any statutory authority for the action being taken. On July 15, Linda Spitler entered DeKalb Memorial Hospital, just four blocks from her home, she was told. The next day a tubal ligation was performed on her by Dr. John H. Hines, M. D. assisted by Dr. Harry M. Covell, M. D. and anesthesiologist Dr. John C. Harvey, M. D. In 1973, Linda Spitler married Leo Sparkman. Failing to become pregnant, she learned from Dr. Hines in 1975; the Sparkmans brought an action for damages under 42 U. S. C. § 1983 and 42 U. S. C. § 1985 for alleged deprivation of Linda Sparkman's civil rights against Ora McFarlin, her attorney, Judge Stump, the doctors who performed the operation and the hospital where it was performed. Leo Sparkman asserted a pendent claim under state law for loss of potential fatherhood. Linda Sparkman asserted pendent state claims for assault and battery and medical malpractice.
The case was filed in the U. S. District Court for the Northern District of Indiana. Linda Sparkman changed her name to Jamie Renae Coleman and coauthored a 2003 book, The Blanket She Carried, with her friend Paula Headley; the district court judge, Jesse E. Eschbach, dismissed the case, holding that the only state action, necessary to the federal claims, was Judge Stump's approval of the petition and that he was "clothed with absolute judicial immunity", thereby cutting off the claims against the other defendants as well; the Sparkmans appealed to the U. S. Court of Appeals for the Seventh Circuit, which reversed the dismissal. Applying the doctrine of judicial immunity adopted by the U. S. Supreme Court in Bradley v. Fisher in 1871 and held applicable to § 1983 actions in Pierson v. Ray in 1967, Judge Luther M. Swygert, writing for himself and Judges Harlington Wood, Jr. and William G. East, found that immunity is available only when a judge has jurisdiction over the subject-matter of a case and that it is not available when he acts in "clear absence of all jurisdiction."
Although Indiana statute law permitted the sterilization of institutionalized persons under certain circumstances, it provided for the right to notice, the opportunity to defend and the right to appeal. The Court of Appeals found no basis in statutory or common law for a court to order the sterilization of a minor child upon a parent's petition, it held that Judge Stump's action could not be justified as a valid exercise of the power of courts to fashion new common law. Concluding, Judge Swygert wrote: Even if defendant Stump had not been foreclosed under the Indiana statutory scheme from fashioning a new common law remedy in this case, we would still find his action to be an illegitimate exercise of his common law power because of his failure to comply with elementary principles of procedural due process. Here a juvenile was ordered sterilized without the taking of the slightest steps to ensure that her rights were protected. Not only was the plaintiff not given representation, she was not told what was happening to her.
She was afforded no opportunity to contest the validity of her mother's allegations or to have a higher court examine whether the substance of those allegations if true, warranted her sterilization. The petition and order were never filed in court; this kind of purported justice does not fall in equity. Judge Stu
Federal Judicial Center
The Federal Judicial Center is the education and research agency of the United States federal courts. It was established by Pub. L. 90–219 in 1967, at the recommendation of the Judicial Conference of the United States. According to 28 U. S. C. § 620, the main areas of responsibility for the Center include: conducting and promoting "research and study of the operation of the courts of the United States," and to act to encourage and coordinate the same by others. S.. S. judiciary, for all employees in the justice system, from judges through probation officers and mediators. In addition to these major provisions, §620 sets forth the additional provisions that the FJC will provide staff and assistance to the Judicial Conference and component bodies, coordinate programs and research on the administration of justice with the State Justice Institute, cooperatively assist other government agencies in providing advice, receiving advice, regarding judicial administration in foreign countries, in each of these cases, to the extent it is "consistent with the performance of the other functions set forth" earlier.
The Code states that the Chief Justice of the United States is the permanent Chair of the Center's board, that it includes the director of the Administrative Office of the United States Courts and seven federal judges elected by the Judicial Conference. The Board appoints the Center's deputy director. Since its founding in 1967, the Center has had eleven directors; the current director is John S. Cooke; the deputy director is Clara Altman. The Federal Judicial Center was established by Congress on the recommendation of Chief Justice Earl Warren and other members of the judiciary who hoped that regular programs of research and education would improve the efficiency of the federal courts and help to relieve the backlog of cases in the lower courts. Governed by its own board, the Federal Judicial Center offered the courts the benefits of independent social science research and educational programs designed to improve judicial administration. In the 1950s and early 1960s, the Judicial Conference and the Administrative Office commissioned research projects to examine problems of judicial administration and organized educational programs to help judges manage growing and complicated caseloads.
These research and educational programs had funding. Support for an institutionalized program of judicial research and education increased after the establishment of 60 new district judgeships in 1961 demonstrated that the number of judges alone would not solve all of the problems of overworked courts. A growing number of judges and members of the bar urged the judiciary to establish a formal means to bring improved research and education to the courts. At the suggestion of Chief Justice Warren, the Judicial Conference in 1966 authorized a committee to examine the research and education requirements of the judiciary. Former Justice Stanley Reed agreed to Warren’s request to chair the committee; as the Reed committee formulated its recommendation for establishment of a Federal Judicial Center, President Johnson, at Warren’s request, included the proposal in his publicized message on crime in February 1967. The Judicial Committee adopted the recommendation. Bills to create the Center were soon submitted in both houses of Congress.
With broad support for the concept of a research and education center for the judiciary, discussion in the House and Senate hearings centered on questions about the proper institutional form and leadership for the Center. The Reed Committee and the director of the Administrative Office, among others, advocated an independent agency with its own governing board to which the Center director would report; the goal was to protect the research and education resources from being absorbed into administrative duties and to insure the objectivity of research. The Federal Judicial Center’s board consists of the Chief Justice, a rotating group of judges selected by the Judicial Conference, the director of the Administrative Office; the statute authorizes the Center to conduct and support research on the operation of the courts, to offer education and training for judges and court personnel, to assist and advise the Judicial Conference on matters related to the administration and management of the courts.
Legislation expanded the Center’s mandate to include programs related to the history of the federal judiciary. The Center includes several divisions; the Director's Office is responsible for the Center's overall management and its relations with other organizations. Its Office of Systems Innovation and Development provides technical support for Center education and research. Communications Policy and Design edits and distributes all Center print and electronic publications, operates the Federal Judicial Television Network, through the Information Services Office maintains a specialized library collection of materials on judicial administration; the Research Division undertakes empirical and exploratory research on federal judicial processes, judicial resources, court administration and case management, sentencing and its consequences at the request of the Judicial Conference and its committees, the courts themselves, or other groups in the federal system. James B. Eaglin is the current director of the research division.
DeKalb County, Indiana
DeKalb County is a county located in the U. S. state of Indiana. As of 2010, the population was 42,223; the county seat is Auburn. Named for Revolutionary War hero Johann, Baron de Kalb, the county was created by the Indiana legislature in 1835 and organized in 1837. DeKalb County was formed in 1837, it was named for the heroic General Johann de Kalb, a Continental Army officer from Bavaria, fatally wounded at the Battle of Camden, South Carolina. The original settlers to arrive in DeKalb County were migrants from New England who were settling the wilderness of what was known as the Northwest Territory; these people were "Yankee" migrants, to say they were descended from the English Puritans who settled New England in the colonial era. In the 1870s immigrants from Ireland and Germany began arriving in DeKalb County, in large numbers. According to the 2010 census, the county has a total area of 363.85 square miles, of which 362.82 square miles is land and 1.03 square miles is water. Altona Ashley Auburn Butler Corunna Garrett Hamilton Saint Joe Waterloo Artic Auburn Junction Butler Center Cedar Concord Fairfield Center Hopewell Moore New Era Newville Orangeville Saint Johns Sedan Spencerville Stafford Center Summit Taylor Corner Butler Concord Fairfield Franklin Grant Jackson Keyser Newville Richland Smithfield Spencer Stafford Troy Union Wilmington Interstate 69 U.
S. Route 6 State Road 1 State Road 3 State Road 4 State Road 8 State Road 101 State Road 205 State Road 327 State Road 427 Steuben County Williams County, Ohio Defiance County, Ohio Allen County Noble County LaGrange County In recent years, average temperatures in Auburn have ranged from a low of 17 °F in January to a high of 84 °F in July, although a record low of −24 °F was recorded in January 1984 and a record high of 106 °F was recorded in June 1988. Average monthly precipitation ranged from 1.42 inches in February to 4.17 inches in June. The county government is a constitutional body, is granted specific powers by the Constitution of Indiana, by the Indiana Code. County Council: The county council is the fiscal branch of the county government and controls all the spending and revenue collection in the county. Representatives are elected from county districts; the council members serve four year terms. They are responsible for setting salaries, the annual budget, special spending; the council has limited authority to impose local taxes, in the form of an income and property tax, subject to state level approval, excise taxes, service taxes.
Board of Commissioners: A three-member board of commissioners combines executive and non-fiscal legislative powers. Commissioners are elected county-wide, in staggered four-year terms. One commissioner serves as president; the commissioners function as the county drainage board, exercising control over the construction and maintenance of legal drains. Courts: DeKalb County has a Circuit Court and two Superior Courts. By local rule, approved by the Indiana Supreme Court, the jurisdiction of the Circuit Court is limited to juvenile and domestic cases. Criminal and domestic cases are heard in the two superior courts. Judges of each court are elected for six-year terms on partisan tickets. County Officials: The county has several other elected offices, including sheriff, auditor, recorder and circuit court clerk; each of these elected officers serves a term of four years and oversees a different part of county government. Members elected to county government positions are required to declare a party affiliation and to be residents of the county.
DeKalb County is part of Indiana's 3rd congressional district and in 2008 was represented by Mark Souder in the United States Congress. It is part of Indiana Senate districts 13 and 14, Indiana House of Representatives districts 51, 52 and 85; as of the 2010 United States Census, there were 42,223 people, 15,951 households, 11,328 families residing in the county. The population density was 116.4 inhabitants per square mile. There were 17,558 housing units at an average density of 48.4 per square mile. The racial makeup of the county was 96.9% white, 0.5% Asian, 0.4% black or African American, 0.2% American Indian, 0.8% from other races, 1.2% from two or more races. Those of Hispanic or Latino origin made up 2.4% of the population. In terms of ancestry, 36.3% were German, 10.9% were American, 10.8% were Irish, 9.1% were English. Of the 15,951 households, 35.2% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 54.8% were married couples living together, 10.5% had a female householder with no husband present, 29.0% were non-families, 24.3% of all households were made up of individuals.
The average household size was 2.61 and the average family size was 3.08. The median age was 38.1 years. The median income for a household in the county was $47,697 and the median income for a family was $55,280. Males had a median income of $44,880 versus $30,663 for females; the per capita income for the county was $21,779. About 6.7% of families and 9.0% of the population were below the poverty line, including 11.3% of those under age 18 and 6.2% of those age 65 or over. DeKalb County Central United School District DeKalb County Eastern Community School District Garrett-Keyser-Butler Community School District Hamilton Community Schools Lakewood Park Christian School St. Joseph's Catholic School Zion Lutheran Pre-School National Register of Historic Places listings in DeKalb County, Indiana The Star, daily newspaper covering DeKalb County DeKalb County Government Maumee Valley Heritage Corrid
United States Court of Appeals for the Seventh Circuit
The United States Court of Appeals for the Seventh Circuit is a federal court with appellate jurisdiction over the courts in the following districts: Central District of Illinois Northern District of Illinois Southern District of Illinois Northern District of Indiana Southern District of Indiana Eastern District of Wisconsin Western District of WisconsinThe court is based at the Dirksen Federal Building in Chicago, Illinois and is composed of eleven appellate judges. It is one of thirteen United States courts of appeals; the court offers a unique internet presence that includes wiki and RSS feeds of opinions and oral arguments. It is notable for having one of the most prominent law and economics scholars, Judge Frank H. Easterbrook, on its court. Richard Posner, another prominent law and economics scholar served on this court until his retirement in 2017; as of May 23, 2018, the judges on the court are as follows: Chief judges have administrative responsibilities with respect to their circuits, preside over any panel on which they serve unless the circuit justice is on the panel.
Unlike the Supreme Court, where one justice is nominated to be chief, the office of chief judge rotates among the circuit judges. To be chief, a judge must have been in active service on the court for at least one year, be under the age of 65, have not served as chief judge. A vacancy is filled by the judge highest in seniority among the group of qualified judges; the chief judge serves until age 70, whichever occurs first. The age restrictions are waived if no members of the court would otherwise be qualified for the position; when the office was created in 1948, the chief judge was the longest-serving judge who had not elected to retire on what has since 1958 been known as senior status or declined to serve as chief judge. After August 6, 1959, judges could not remain chief after turning 70 years old; the current rules have been in operation since October 1, 1982. The court has eleven seats for active judges, numbered in the order. Judges who retire into senior status leave their seat vacant.
That seat is filled by the next circuit judge appointed by the president. Federal judicial appointment history#Seventh Circuit Same-sex marriage in the Seventh Circuit Courts of Illinois "Standard Search". Federal Law Clerk Information System. Archived from the original on October 21, 2005. Retrieved July 2, 2005.primary but incomplete source for the duty stations "Instructions for Judicial Directory". University of Texas Law School. Archived from the original on November 11, 2005. Retrieved July 2, 2005.secondary source for the duty stations data is current to 2002 "U. S. Court of Appeals for the Seventh Circuit". Official website of the Federal Judicial Center. Archived from the original on April 18, 2005. Retrieved July 2, 2005.source for the state, term of active judgeship, term of chief judgeship, term of senior judgeship, termination reason, seat information United States Court of Appeals for the Seventh Circuit Recent opinions from FindLaw Official wiki of the United States Court of Appeals for the Seventh Circuit — Launched April 18, 2007 The Seventh Circuit Review
Warsaw is a city in and the county seat of Kosciusko County, United States. Warsaw has a population of 13,559 as of the 2010 U. S. Census. Warsaw, named after the capital of Poland in tribute to Tadeusz Kościuszko, platted on October 21, 1836. Warsaw's post office was established in 1837. Early Warsaw contained traders and merchants supplying manufactured goods to area farmers; because of the central location in the lake region, tourists soon began visiting Warsaw and made permanent residences in the city, with industry soon following. In March 1854, Warsaw became a town, the initial census on February 2, 1854 showed a total of 752 residents in the town limits; the Pennsylvania Railroad reached Warsaw in November 1854. The Big Four Railroad arrived in Warsaw in August 1870. Gas lights were installed in August 1880. Telephone lines were strung with Dr. Eggleston having the first phone; the waterworks were constructed in 1885. Gas was supplemented with electricity in 1897, but gas was still used in many homes until 1915.
In 1895, Revra DePuy founded DePuy Manufacturing in Warsaw to make wire mesh and wooden splints, becoming the world's first manufacturer of orthopedic appliances. In 1905, DePuy hired Justin Zimmer as a splint salesman. Zimmer broke away from DePuy in 1927 to start his own orthopedic company with Joe Ettinger in the basement of Ettinger. Warsaw is now known as the "orthopaedic capital of the world."East Fort Wayne Street Historic District, Kosciusko County Jail, Warsaw Courthouse Square Historic District, Warsaw Cut Glass Company, Justin Zimmer House are listed on the National Register of Historic Places. Warsaw is located at 41°14′26″N 85°50′49″W and occupies the area between Pike Lake, Hidden Lake and Center Lake and Winona Lake; the Tippecanoe River passes through the West portion of Warsaw. U. S. Route 30 and Indiana State Road 15 both pass through town, while Indiana State Road 25 begins on West Market Street while traffic is routed to West Winona Avenue along with State Road 15 after US Route 30 bypassed the downtown area.
According to the 2010 census, Warsaw has a total area of 12.918 square miles, of which 11.58 square miles is land and 1.338 square miles is water. KASW - Warsaw Municipal Airport As of the 2010 U. S. Census, there were 13,559 people, 5,461 households, 3,311 families residing in the city; the population density was 1,170.9 inhabitants per square mile. There were 6,066 housing units at an average density of 523.8 per square mile. The racial makeup of the city was 89.5% White, 1.6% African American, 0.5% Native American, 2.2% Asian, 4.3% from other races, 2.0% from two or more races. Hispanic or Latino of any race were 10.4% of the population. There were 5,461 households of which 32.1% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 43.1% were married couples living together, 12.8% had a female householder with no husband present, 4.7% had a male householder with no wife present, 39.4% were non-families. 32.8% of all households were made up of individuals and 11.7% had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older.
The average household size was 2.38 and the average family size was 3.02. The median age in the city was 34.8 years. 25.2% of residents were under the age of 18. The gender makeup of the city was 49.1% male and 50.9% female. As of the 2000 U. S. Census, there were 12,415 people, 4,794 households, 3,068 families residing in the city; the population density was 1,184.6 people per square mile. There were 5,101 housing units at an average density of 486.7 per square mile. The racial makeup of the city was 70.50% White, 1.41% African American, 0.39% Native American, 1.07% Asian, 0.02% Pacific Islander, 5.25% from other races, 1.37% from two or more races. Hispanic or Latino of any race were 29.21% of the population. There were 4,794 households out of which 32.4% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 49.0% were married couples living together, 10.8% had a female householder with no husband present, 36.0% were non-families. 30.4% of all households were made up of individuals and 11.8% had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older.
The average household size was 2.49 and the average family size was 3.11. In the city, the population was spread out with 26.0% under the age of 18, 10.9% from 18 to 24, 29.0% from 25 to 44, 21.0% from 45 to 64, 13.2% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 34 years. For every 100 females, there were 97.3 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 93.3 males. The median income for a household in the city was $36,564, the median income for a family was $45,153. Males had a median income of $33,322 versus $22,284 for females; the per capita income for the city was $19,262. About 6.8% of families and 9.2% of the population were below the poverty line, including 8.7% of those under age 18 and 13.4% of those age 65 or over. Warsaw has an elected mayor and city council-style of government. Officials are elected for four-year terms. Warsaw's current mayor is Republican Dr. Joseph Thallemer, who has served since January 1, 2012. Mike Hodges is Warsaw's longest-serving mayor; the Warsaw Common Council is a seven-member legislative group.
Five of the members represent specific districts. Jack Wilhite: At-large Cindy Dobbins: At-large Jeff Grose: 1st district Ron Shoemaker: 2nd distr
Supreme Court of the United States
The Supreme Court of the United States is the highest court in the federal judiciary of the United States. Established pursuant to Article III of the U. S. Constitution in 1789, it has original jurisdiction over a narrow range of cases, including suits between two or more states and those involving ambassadors, it has ultimate appellate jurisdiction over all federal court and state court cases that involve a point of federal constitutional or statutory law. The Court has the power of judicial review, the ability to invalidate a statute for violating a provision of the Constitution or an executive act for being unlawful. However, it may act only within the context of a case in an area of law over which it has jurisdiction; the court may decide cases having political overtones, but it has ruled that it does not have power to decide nonjusticiable political questions. Each year it agrees to hear about one hundred to one hundred fifty of the more than seven thousand cases that it is asked to review.
According to federal statute, the court consists of the Chief Justice of the United States and eight associate justices, all of whom are nominated by the President and confirmed by the Senate. Once appointed, justices have lifetime tenure unless they resign, retire, or are removed from office; each justice has a single vote in deciding. When the chief justice is in the majority, he decides. In modern discourse, justices are categorized as having conservative, moderate, or liberal philosophies of law and of judicial interpretation. While a far greater number of cases in recent history have been decided unanimously, decisions in cases of the highest profile have come down to just one single vote, exemplifying the justices' alignment according to these categories; the Court meets in the Supreme Court Building in Washington, D. C, its law enforcement arm is the Supreme Court of the United States Police. It was while debating the division of powers between the legislative and executive departments that delegates to the 1787 Constitutional Convention established the parameters for the national judiciary.
Creating a "third branch" of government was a novel idea. Early on, some delegates argued that national laws could be enforced by state courts, while others, including James Madison, advocated for a national judicial authority consisting of various tribunals chosen by the national legislature, it was proposed that the judiciary should have a role in checking the executive power to veto or revise laws. In the end, the Framers compromised by sketching only a general outline of the judiciary, vesting federal judicial power in "one supreme Court, in such inferior Courts as the Congress may from time to time ordain and establish", they delineated neither the exact powers and prerogatives of the Supreme Court nor the organization of the Template:Judicial branch as a whole. The 1st United States Congress provided the detailed organization of a federal judiciary through the Judiciary Act of 1789; the Supreme Court, the country's highest judicial tribunal, was to sit in the nation's Capital and would be composed of a chief justice and five associate justices.
The act divided the country into judicial districts, which were in turn organized into circuits. Justices were required to "ride circuit" and hold circuit court twice a year in their assigned judicial district. After signing the act into law, President George Washington nominated the following people to serve on the court: John Jay for chief justice and John Rutledge, William Cushing, Robert H. Harrison, James Wilson, John Blair Jr. as associate justices. All six were confirmed by the Senate on September 26, 1789. Harrison, declined to serve. In his place, Washington nominated James Iredell; the Supreme Court held its inaugural session from February 2 through February 10, 1790, at the Royal Exchange in New York City the U. S. capital. A second session was held there in August 1790; the earliest sessions of the court were devoted to organizational proceedings, as the first cases did not reach it until 1791. When the national capital moved to Philadelphia in 1790, the Supreme Court did so as well.
After meeting at Independence Hall, the Court established its chambers at City Hall. Under Chief Justices Jay and Ellsworth, the Court heard few cases; as the Court had only six members, every decision that it made by a majority was made by two-thirds. However, Congress has always allowed less than the court's full membership to make decisions, starting with a quorum of four justices in 1789; the court lacked a home of its own and had little prestige, a situation not helped by the era's highest-profile case, Chisholm v. Georgia, reversed within two years by the adoption of the Eleventh Amendment; the court's power and prestige grew during the Marshall Court. Under Marshall, the court established the power of judicial review over acts of Congress, including specifying itself as the supreme expositor of the Constitution and making several important constitutional rulings that gave shape and substance to the balance of power between the federal government and states; the Marshall Court ended the practice of each justice issuin
Indiana University Bloomington
Indiana University Bloomington is a public research university in Bloomington, Indiana. It is the flagship institution of the Indiana University system and, with over 40,000 students, its largest university. Indiana University is a "Public Ivy" university and ranks in the top 100 national universities in the U. S. and among the top 50 public universities. It is a member of the Association of American Universities and has numerous schools and programs, including the Jacobs School of Music, the School of Informatics and Engineering, the O'Neill School of Public and Environmental Affairs, the Kelley School of Business, the School of Public Health, the School of Nursing, the School of Optometry, the Maurer School of Law, the School of Education, the Media School, the Hamilton Lugar School of Global and International Studies; as of Fall 2017, 43,710 students attend Indiana University. While 55.1% of the student body was from Indiana, students from all 50 states, Washington, D. C. Puerto Rico and 165 countries were enrolled.
As of 2018, the average ACT score is a 28 and an SAT score of 1276. The university is home to an extensive student life program, with more than 750 student organizations on campus and with around 17 percent of undergraduates joining the Greek system. Indiana athletic teams are known as the Indiana Hoosiers; the university is a member of the Big Ten Conference. Indiana's faculty and alumni include nine Nobel laureates, 17 Rhodes Scholars, 17 Marshall Scholars, five MacArthur Fellows. In addition and alumni have won six Academy Awards, 49 Grammy Awards, 32 Emmy Awards, 20 Pulitzer Prizes, four Tony Awards, 104 Olympic medals. Notable Indiana alumni include James Watson, one of the co-discoverers of the structure of DNA. Indiana's state government in Corydon established Indiana University on January 20, 1820, as the "State Seminary." Construction began in 1822 at what is now called Seminary Square Park near the intersection of Second Street and College Avenue. The first professor was Baynard Rush Hall, a Presbyterian minister who taught all of the classes in 1825–27.
In the first year, he taught twelve students and was paid $250. Hall was a classicist who focused on Greek and Latin and believed that the study of classical philosophy and languages formed the basis of the best education; the first class graduated in 1830. From 1820 to 1889 a legal-political battle was fought between IU and Vincennes University as to, the legitimate state university. In 1829, Andrew Wylie became the first president, serving until his death in 1851; the school's name was changed to "Indiana College" in 1829, to "Indiana University" in 1839. Wylie and David Maxwell, president of the board of trustees, were devout Presbyterians, they spoke of the nonsectarian status of the school but hired fellow Presbyterians. Presidents and professors were expected to set a moral example for their charges. After six ministers in a row, the first non-clergyman to become president was the young biology professor David Starr Jordan, in 1885. Jordan followed Baptist theologian Lemuel Moss, who resigned after a scandal broke regarding his involvement with a female professor.
Jordan improved the university's finances and public image, doubled its enrollment, instituted an elective system along the lines of his alma mater, Cornell University. Jordan became president of Stanford University in June 1891. Growth of the college was slow. In 1851, IU had seven professors. IU admitted its first woman student, Sarah Parke Morrison, in 1867, making IU the fourth public university to admit women on an equal basis with men. Morrison went on to become the first female professor at IU in 1873. Mathematician Joseph Swain was IU's first Hoosier-born president, 1893 to 1902, he established Kirkwood Hall in 1894. He began construction for Science Hall in 1901. During his presidency, student enrollment increased from 524 to 1,285. In 1883, IU awarded its first Ph. D. and played its first intercollegiate sport, prefiguring the school's future status as a major research institution and a power in collegiate athletics. But another incident that year was of more immediate concern: the original campus in Seminary Square burned to the ground.
The college was rebuilt between 1884 and 1908 at the far eastern edge of Bloomington. One challenge was that Bloomington's limited water supply was inadequate for its population of 12,000 and could not handle university expansion; the University commissioned a study. In 1902, IU enrolled 1203 undergraduates. There were 82 graduate students including ten from out-of-state; the curriculum emphasized the classics, as befitted a gentleman, stood in contrast to the service-oriented curriculum at Purdue, which presented itself as of direct benefit to farmers and businessmen. The first extension office of IU was opened in Indianapolis in 1916. In 1920/1921 the School of Music and the School of Commerce and Finance (what becam