The Atlantic is an American magazine, founded in 1857 as The Atlantic Monthly in Boston, Massachusetts. Since 2006, the magazine is based in Washington, D. C, created as a literary and cultural commentary magazine, it has grown to achieve a national reputation as a high-quality review organ with a moderate worldview. The magazine has recognized and published new writers and poets. It has published leading writers commentary on abolition, the periodical has won more National Magazine Awards than any other monthly magazine. The first issue of the magazine was published on November 1,1857, the magazines initiator and founder was Francis H. Underwood, an assistant to the publisher, who received less recognition than his partners because he was neither a humbug nor a Harvard man. After experiencing financial hardship and a series of changes, the magazine was reformatted as a general editorial magazine. Focusing on foreign affairs and the cultural trends, it is now primarily aimed at a target audience of serious national readers.
In 2010, The Atlantic posted its first profit in a decade, in profiling the publication at the time, The New York Times noted the accomplishment was the result of a cultural transfusion, a dose of counterintuition and a lot of digital advertising revenue. The magazine, subscribed to by over 425,000 readers, the Atlantic features articles in the fields of the arts, the economy, foreign affairs, political science, and technology. The Atlantics president is Bob Cohn, in April 2005, The Atlantics editors decided to cease publishing fiction in regular issues in favor of a newsstand-only annual fiction issue edited by longtime staffer C. Michael Curtis. They have since re-instituted the practice, on January 22,2008, TheAtlantic. com dropped its subscriber wall and allowed users to freely browse its site, including all past archives. TheAtlantic. com covers politics, entertainment, health, international affairs, and more. In December 2011, a new Health Channel launched on TheAtlantic. com, incorporating coverage of food, as well as related to the mind, sex, family.
TheAtlantic. com has expanded to visual storytelling with the addition of the In Focus photo blog, curated by Alan Taylor. A leading literary magazine, The Atlantic has published significant works. It was the first to publish pieces by the abolitionists Julia Ward Howe, for example, Emily Dickinson, after reading an article in The Atlantic by Thomas Wentworth Higginson, asked him to become her mentor. In 2005, the magazine won a National Magazine Award for fiction, the magazine published many of the works of Mark Twain, including one that was lost until 2001. Editors have recognized major cultural changes and movements, for example, the magazine has published speculative articles that inspired the development of new technologies
Portsmouth is a city in and the county seat of Scioto County, United States. It lies in far southern Ohio, just east of the mouth of the Scioto River at the Ohio River, the population was 20,226 at the 2010 census. According to historian Charles Augustus Hanna, a Shawnee village was founded at the site of modern-day Portsmouth in late 1758, Portsmouths European-American roots date to the 1790s, when the small town of Alexandria was founded west of Portsmouths site. Alexandria was flooded numerous times by the Ohio and the Scioto rivers, in 1803, Henry Massie spotted a place to move the town away from the flood plains. He began to plot the new city by mapping the streets, Portsmouth was founded in 1803 and was established as a city in 1815. Portsmouth growth continued with the completion of the Ohio and Erie Canal, the construction of the N&W railyards and the B&O junction at the city stimulated growth, with railroads soon carrying more freight than the canal. By the end of the 19th century, Portsmouth became one of the most important cities on the Ohio River between Pittsburgh and Cincinnati, wheeling-Pittsburgh Steel employed over one thousand people.
There were 100 other manufacturing companies producing goods from furniture to engines and shipping growth greatly benefited Boneyfiddle, where grand buildings were constructed with the wealth from the commerce. As time passed, much of the commerce began to move towards Chillicothe Street, while Boneyfiddle is receiving new life, it is a shadow of its former self. Another notable part of Portsmouths history in the 19th century was its importance on the Underground Railroad, fugitive slaves used this route to continue north to Detroit and into Canada to gain freedom. The population peaked at just over 42,000 in 1930, and by the 1950 census, foreign competition and industrial restructuring resulted in most of the industrial jobs on which Portsmouths economy was based moving out of the area. Following these declines, in 1980 when Empire-Detroit Steel-Portsmouth Works suspended local operations after the sale of the plant to Armco Steel. Armco Steel closed the plant because they did not want to replace the obsolete Open Hearth Furnaces with the more efficient basic oxygen steel furnaces, the plant needed a continuous caster to replace the obsolete soaking pits and blooming mill in 1995.
When the steel mill was closed,1,300 steelworkers were laid off, as of 2010, the city has a population of approximately 20,000. It has shared in the loss of jobs due to unskilled labor outsourcing, since the late 1990s and problems of unemployment, an epidemic of prescription drug abuse has swept the town and surrounding areas. It has caused an increase in Hepatitis C cases in the county, drug-related deaths, murder. The most prevalent drug is OxyContin, a synthetic opiate originally developed as a drug, known colloquially as oxys. The crisis is blamed on the proliferation of cash-only pain clinics, according to authorities, there are eight such clinics in Scioto County alone, the largest concentration of such operations per capita in any of Ohios counties
International Standard Book Number
The International Standard Book Number is a unique numeric commercial book identifier. An ISBN is assigned to each edition and variation of a book, for example, an e-book, a paperback and a hardcover edition of the same book would each have a different ISBN. The ISBN is 13 digits long if assigned on or after 1 January 2007, the method of assigning an ISBN is nation-based and varies from country to country, often depending on how large the publishing industry is within a country. The initial ISBN configuration of recognition was generated in 1967 based upon the 9-digit Standard Book Numbering created in 1966, the 10-digit ISBN format was developed by the International Organization for Standardization and was published in 1970 as international standard ISO2108. Occasionally, a book may appear without a printed ISBN if it is printed privately or the author does not follow the usual ISBN procedure, this can be rectified later. Another identifier, the International Standard Serial Number, identifies periodical publications such as magazines, the ISBN configuration of recognition was generated in 1967 in the United Kingdom by David Whitaker and in 1968 in the US by Emery Koltay.
The 10-digit ISBN format was developed by the International Organization for Standardization and was published in 1970 as international standard ISO2108, the United Kingdom continued to use the 9-digit SBN code until 1974. The ISO on-line facility only refers back to 1978, an SBN may be converted to an ISBN by prefixing the digit 0. For example, the edition of Mr. J. G. Reeder Returns, published by Hodder in 1965, has SBN340013818 -340 indicating the publisher,01381 their serial number. This can be converted to ISBN 0-340-01381-8, the check digit does not need to be re-calculated, since 1 January 2007, ISBNs have contained 13 digits, a format that is compatible with Bookland European Article Number EAN-13s. An ISBN is assigned to each edition and variation of a book, for example, an ebook, a paperback, and a hardcover edition of the same book would each have a different ISBN. The ISBN is 13 digits long if assigned on or after 1 January 2007, a 13-digit ISBN can be separated into its parts, and when this is done it is customary to separate the parts with hyphens or spaces.
Separating the parts of a 10-digit ISBN is done with either hyphens or spaces, figuring out how to correctly separate a given ISBN number is complicated, because most of the parts do not use a fixed number of digits. ISBN issuance is country-specific, in that ISBNs are issued by the ISBN registration agency that is responsible for country or territory regardless of the publication language. Some ISBN registration agencies are based in national libraries or within ministries of culture, in other cases, the ISBN registration service is provided by organisations such as bibliographic data providers that are not government funded. In Canada, ISBNs are issued at no cost with the purpose of encouraging Canadian culture. In the United Kingdom, United States, and some countries, where the service is provided by non-government-funded organisations. Australia, ISBNs are issued by the library services agency Thorpe-Bowker
George William Russell
George William Russell who wrote with the pseudonym Æ, was an Irish writer, critic, artistic painter and Irish nationalist. He was a writer on mysticism, and a figure in the group of devotees of theosophy which met in Dublin for many years. Russell was born in Lurgan, County Armagh, second son of Thomas Russell and his father, the son of a small farmer, became an employee of Thomas Bell and Co, a prosperous firm of linen drapers. The family relocated to Dublin, where his father had a new offer of employment, the death of his much loved sister Mary, aged 18, was a blow from which it took him a long time to recover. He was educated at Rathmines School and the Metropolitan School of Art, in the 1880s, Russell lived at the Theosophical Society lodge at 3, Upper Ely Place, sharing rooms with H. M. Magee, the brother of William Kirkpatrick Magee. Russell started working as a clerk, for many years worked for the Irish Agricultural Organisation Society. In 1897 Plunkett needed an able organiser and W.
B, Yeats suggested Russell, who became Assistant Secretary of the IAOS. In 1898 he married Violet North, they had two surviving sons and Diarmuid, as well as a son who died soon after birth. While his marriage was rumoured to be unhappy, all his friends agreed that Violets death in 1932 was a blow to Russell. Russell and Plunkett made a team, with each gaining much from the association with the other. As an officer of the IAOS he could not express opinions freely. During the 1913 Dublin Lock-out he wrote an letter to the Irish Times criticizing the attitude of the employers, spoke on it in England. He became involved in the anti-partition Irish Dominion League when Plunkett founded the body in 1919, Russell was editor from 1905 to 1923 of the Irish Homestead, the journal of the IAOS. His gifts as a writer and publicist gained him an influence in the cause of agricultural co-operation. He became editor of the The Irish Statesman, the paper of the Irish Dominion League, unbeknownst to him meetings and collections were organized and that year at Plunkett House he was presented by Father T.
Finlay with a cheque for £800. This enabled him to visit the United States the next year and he used the pseudonym AE, or more properly, Æ. This derived from an earlier Æon signifying the lifelong quest of man and he appears as a character with Lizzie Twigg in the Scylla and Charybdis episode of Joyces Ulysses, where he dismisses Stephens theories on Shakespeare. His collected poems was published in 1913, with an edition in 1926
Walter Walt Whitman was an American poet and journalist. A humanist, he was a part of the transition between transcendentalism and realism, incorporating both views in his works, Whitman is among the most influential poets in the American canon, often called the father of free verse. His work was controversial in its time, particularly his poetry collection Leaves of Grass. Born in Huntington on Long Island, Whitman worked as a journalist, a teacher, early in his career, he produced a temperance novel, Franklin Evans. Whitmans major work, Leaves of Grass, was first published in 1855 with his own money, the work was an attempt at reaching out to the common person with an American epic. He continued expanding and revising it until his death in 1892, after a stroke towards the end of his life, he moved to Camden, New Jersey, where his health further declined. When he died at age 72, his became an public spectacle. Walter Whitman was born on May 31,1819, in West Hills, Town of Huntington, Long Island, to parents with interests in Quaker thought, the second of nine children, he was immediately nicknamed Walt to distinguish him from his father.
Walter Whitman, Sr. named three of his seven sons after American leaders, Andrew Jackson, George Washington, and Thomas Jefferson, the oldest was named Jesse and another boy died unnamed at the age of six months. The couples sixth son, the youngest, was named Edward, at age four, Whitman moved with his family from West Hills to Brooklyn, living in a series of homes, in part due to bad investments. Whitman looked back on his childhood as generally restless and unhappy, one happy moment that he recalled was when he was lifted in the air and kissed on the cheek by the Marquis de Lafayette during a celebration in Brooklyn on July 4,1825. At age eleven Whitman concluded formal schooling, Whitman learned about the printing press and typesetting. He may have written sentimental bits of material for occasional issues. Clements aroused controversy when he and two attempted to dig up the corpse of Elias Hicks to create a plaster mold of his head. Clements left the Patriot shortly afterward, possibly as a result of the controversy, the following summer Whitman worked for another printer, Erastus Worthington, in Brooklyn.
His family moved back to West Hills in the spring, but Whitman remained and took a job at the shop of Alden Spooner, at age 16 in May 1835, Whitman left the Star and Brooklyn. He moved to New York City to work as a compositor though, in years, in May 1836, he rejoined his family, now living in Hempstead, Long Island. Whitman taught intermittently at various schools until the spring of 1838, after his teaching attempts, Whitman went back to Huntington, New York to found his own newspaper, the Long Islander
William Saroyan was an American novelist and short story writer. He was awarded the Pulitzer Prize for Drama in 1940, an Armenian American, Saroyan wrote extensively about the Armenian immigrant life in California. Many of his stories and plays are set in his native Fresno, some of his best-known works are The Time of Your Life, My Name Is Aram and My Hearts in the Highlands. Fry suggests that he takes his place naturally alongside Hemingway, William Saroyan was born on August 31,1908 in Fresno, California, to Armenak and Taguhi Saroyan, Armenian immigrants from Bitlis, Ottoman Empire. His father came to New York in 1905 and started preaching in Armenian Apostolic churches, at the age of three, after his fathers death, along with his brother and sister, was placed in an orphanage in Oakland, California. He went on to describe his experience in the orphanage in his writings, five years later, the family reunited in Fresno, where his mother, had already secured work at a cannery. He continued his education on his own, supporting himself with jobs, Saroyan decided to become a writer after his mother showed him some of his fathers writings.
A few of his short articles were published in Overland Monthly. His first stories appeared in the 1930s, among these was The Broken Wheel, written under the name Sirak Goryan and published in the Armenian journal Hairenik in 1933. Many of Saroyans stories were based on his experiences among the Armenian-American fruit growers of the San Joaquin Valley or dealt with the rootlessness of the immigrant. The short story collection My Name is Aram, a bestseller, was about a young boy. It has been translated into many languages, as a writer, Saroyan made his breakthrough in Story magazine with The Daring Young Man on the Flying Trapeze, the title taken from the nineteenth century song of the same title. The protagonist is a young, starving writer who tries to survive in a Depression-ridden society, through the air on the flying trapeze, his mind hummed. A trapeze to God, or to nothing, a trapeze to some sort of eternity. This character resembles the penniless writer in Knut Hamsuns 1890 novel Hunger, Saroyan served in the US Army during World War II.
He was stationed in Astoria, spending much of his time at the Lombardy Hotel in Manhattan, in 1942, he was posted to London as part of a film unit. He narrowly avoided a court martial when his novel, The Adventures of Wesley Jackson, was seen as advocating pacifism, Saroyan worked rapidly, hardly editing his text, and drinking and gambling away much of his earnings. From 1958 on, he resided in a Paris apartment
Esquire is an American mens magazine, published by the Hearst Corporation in the United States. Founded in 1933, it flourished during the Great Depression under the guidance of founders Arnold Gingrich, Esquire was first issued in October 1933. The magazine was first headquartered in Chicago and then, in New York City and it was founded and edited by David A. Smart, Henry L. Jackson and Arnold Gingrich. Jackson died in the crash of United Airlines Flight 624 in 1948, Smart died in 1952, although he left Esquire in 1936 to found a different magazine, Coronet. Additionally, Jacksons Republican political viewpoints contrasted with the liberal Democratic views of Smart, the administration alleged that Esquire had used the US Postal Service to promote lewd images. Esquire started in 1933 as a press run of a hundred thousand copies. It cost fifty cents per copy and it transformed itself into a more refined periodical with an emphasis on mens fashion and contributions by Ernest Hemingway, F. Scott Fitzgerald, Alberto Moravia, André Gide, and Julian Huxley.
In the 1940s, the popularity of the Petty Girls and Vargas Girls provided a circulation boost. In the 1960s, Esquire helped pioneer the trend of New Journalism by publishing such writers as Norman Mailer, Tim OBrien, John Sack, Gay Talese, Tom Wolfe, and Terry Southern. In August 1969, Esquire published Normand Poiriers piece, An American Atrocity, under Harold Hayes, who ran it from 1961 to 1973, it became as distinctive as its oversized pages. The magazine shrank to the conventional 8½×11 inches in 1971, the magazine was sold by the original owners to Clay Felker in 1977, who reinvented the magazine as a fortnightly in 1978, under the title of Esquire Fortnightly. However, the experiment proved to be a failure, and by the end of that year. Felker sold Esquire in 1979 to the 13-30 Corporation, a Tennessee publisher, during this time, New York Woman magazine was launched as something of a spinoff version of Esquire aimed at female audience. 13-30 split up in 1986, and Esquire was sold to Hearst at the end of the year, David M.
Granger was named editor-in-chief of the magazine in June 1997. Since his arrival, the magazine has received awards, including multiple National Magazine Awards—the industrys highest honor. Prior to becoming editor-in-chief at Esquire, Granger was the editor at GQ for nearly six years. Its award-winning staff writers include Tom Chiarella, Scott Raab, Mike Sager, Chris Jones, John H. Richardson, Cal Fussman, Lisa Taddeo, famous photographers have worked for the magazine, among which fashion photographer Gleb Derujinsky, and Richard Avedon. In January 2009 Esquire launched a new blog—the Daily Endorsement Blog, each morning the editors of the magazine recommend one thing for readers immediate enjoyment, not a political candidate or position or party, but a breakthrough idea or product or Web site
Lincoln Memorial University
Lincoln Memorial University is a private four-year co-educational liberal arts college located in Harrogate, United States. LMUs 1, 000-acre campus borders on Cumberland Gap National Historical Park, as a whole, LMU is accredited by the Southern Association of Colleges and Schools. In December 2014, the law school received accreditation by the American Bar Association. LMUs Abraham Lincoln Library and Museum houses a collection of memorabilia relating to the schools namesake, Abraham Lincoln. The collection was formed from donations by the schools early benefactor, General Oliver O. Howard. As of fall 2014, it has 1,699 undergraduate,933 graduate and 1,103 professional students, arthur founded Middlesboro, Kentucky for the companys employees and furnaces, and constructed a railroad line connecting Middlesboro with Knoxville, Tennessee. Arthur believed Middlesboro would grow into an industrial city, the so-called Pittsburgh of the South. In 1888, he founded the city of Harrogate, which he envisioned would someday be a suburb for Middlesboros elite. S. at the time, the hotel included a lavish dining hall, a casino, and a separate sanitarium.
The economic panic of the early 1890s and the subsequent collapse of Arthurs London financial backers doomed American Associates, in 1896, General Oliver O. Howard, a former Union officer who had helped establish Howard University, embarked on a lecture tour. Howards agent, Cyrus Kehr, suggested Howard establish a university as a memorial to President Abraham Lincoln. On June 18,1896, Howard spoke at the Harrow School, after the lecture, Myers asked Howard for assistance in establishing a college for the Cumberland Gap region. With the help of Howard and Kehr, Myers purchased the Four Seasons property, Lincoln Memorial University was chartered on February 12, 1897— Lincolns 88th birthday— with Cyrus Kehr as its first president. Howard mentioned the university and its purpose in a speech at Carnegie Hall in 1901, in 1902, the sanitarium building burned, and its surviving blocks were used to build Grant-Lee Hall, which has since been placed on the National Register of Historic Places. Arthurs house burned, but its tower, now called Conservatory Tower, LMU is known for a rich literary history that includes such renowned authors as James Still, Jesse Stuart, Don West, and George Scarbrough.
At one point, Emma Bell Miles and painter, served as Artist-in-Residence at the university, Lincoln Memorial University is home to the Grant Lee Literary Society, which spawned the still surviving Gamma Lambda Sigma Fraternity. The DeBusk Veterinary Teaching Center is housed on 700 acres, provides extensive hands-on experience, the initial plans to open Lincoln Memorial University-DeBusk College of Osteopathic Medicine began in 2004. Pete DeBusk, the Chairman of the LMU Board of Trustees, after conducting a year-long feasibility study, LMU announced it was pursuing the development of a college of osteopathic medicine and named Ray Stowers, D. O. A rural family physician, as president and dean
Greenup County, Kentucky
Greenup County is a county located in the U. S. state of Kentucky. As of the 2010 census, the population was 36,910, the county was founded in 1803 and named in honor of Christopher Greenup. Greenup County is part of the Huntington-Ashland, WV-KY-OH Metropolitan Statistical Area, as well as the Charleston-Huntington-Ashland, as of the 2010 census, the MSA had a population of 287,702. New definitions from February 28,2013 placed the population at 363,000, Greenup County was formed by an act of the General Assembly of Kentucky on December 12,1803 from Mason County which covered the majority of eastern Kentucky at the time. Three courthouses have served Greenup County, the first courthouse, built of logs, was replaced by a brick structure in 1811. The current officials of Greenup County are, County Judge/Executive, Robert W, the officials in the 20th Judicial Circuit are, Circuit Court, Division 1, Robert B. Conley Circuit Court, Division 2, Jeffrey L. Preston Commonwealths Attorney, leonhart The judge in the 20th Judicial District is, District Court, Brian C.
McCloud Misdemeanor criminal cases brought in District Court are prosecuted by the County Attorneys office, according to the U. S. Census Bureau, the county has a total area of 354 square miles, of which 344 square miles is land and 10 square miles is water. Like most eastern Kentucky counties, Greenup County is predominantly made up of rolling hills, the land in the Ohio River valley is generally flat and mostly populated by industry and residential development. Beyond this the land gives way to a series of hills, among these hills, popular fishing spots can be found among the Little Sandy River, Greenbo Lake, and Tygarts Creek. Greenup Countys land is predominantly covered by forest with minimal clear cutting of the old forests. Greenup Countys soil has long been supportive of a healthy agriculture, U. S. Highway 23 is the primary route for travel through Greenup County. It enters Greenup County at the southeastern most point and follows the Ohio River north along the border passing through Russell, Raceland, Greenup.
It exits just west of South Shore crossing the Ohio River via the U. S. Grant Bridge into Portsmouth and continuing north towards Columbus, Ohio. The AA Highway begins at U. S. Highway 23, the AA Highway runs west intersecting Route 7 and eventually exiting west into Lewis County. Since its completion in 1995, the AA Highway has allowed Northeastern Kentucky residents to easily travel to Maysville, Kentucky as well as Northern Kentucky and Cincinnati. The northern terminus of the Industrial Parkway ends at U. S. Highway 23 at Wurtland and this highway serves to connect Wurtland and the surrounding towns of Greenup and the unincorporated area of Argillite to the EastPark industrial park and Interstate 64 in Carter County. Boyd County Carter County Lewis County Scioto County, Ohio Lawrence County, Ohio As of the census of 2000, there were 36,891 people,14,536 households, the population density was 107 per square mile
Ironton is a city in and the county seat of Lawrence County, United States. Located in southernmost Ohio along the Ohio River, the city includes the Downtown Ironton Historic District, the population was 11,129 at the 2010 census. Ironton is part of the Huntington-Ashland, WV-KY-OH, Metropolitan Statistical Area, as of the 2010 census, the MSA had a population of 287,702. New definitions from February 28,2013 placed the population at 363,000, Ironton is a contraction of iron town. The city has a history with the iron industry. It had one of the first professional football teams, Ironton was founded in 1849 by John Campbell, a prominent pig iron manufacturer in the area. Interested in expanding his business, and due to the areas rich iron-ore content. He chose the location of Ironton because of its site along the Ohio River and he knew that the slope of the land would aid in transport of the raw material to the local blast furnaces. Between 1850 and 1890, Ironton was one of the foremost producers of iron in the world, england and Russia all purchased iron for warships from here due to the quality.
Iron produced here was used for the USS Monitor, the United States first ironclad ship, more than ninety furnaces were operating at the peak of production in the late 19th century. Owners and managers who gained wealth from the pig-iron industry constructed many opulent residences in the city, the iron industry generated revenues that were invested in new industries, such as soap and nail production. The Detroit and Ironton Railroad was constructed through two states, carrying iron to Henry Fords automaking plants in Michigan, the city had a street railway, the Ironton Petersburg Street Railway, four daily newspapers and a few foreign-language publications. Ironton was known for its attitude toward sin and vice associated with the mine. It was home to a racetrack, numerous saloons, and brothels, numerous chapels offered quick and quiet marriages. With its location on the Ohio River, Ironton became a destination on the Underground Railroad for refugee slaves seeking freedom in the North, John Campbell and some other city leaders sheltered slaves in their homes during their journeys.
During the American Civil War, local military regiments were mustered and trained at Camp Ironton, among them was the 91st Ohio Infantry, which was organized at Camp Ironton on August 26,1862. The downfall of Ironton came as the market for iron changed, the quality of the iron that had once made Ironton one of the leading producers of pig iron was no longer considered as desirable. All of the easily accessible iron had been mined by 1899, the nation was making the transition from a demand for iron to steel
Vanderbilt University is a private research university founded in 1873 and located in Nashville, Tennessee. It was named in honor of shipping and rail magnate Cornelius Vanderbilt, Vanderbilt hoped that his gift and the greater work of the university would help to heal the sectional wounds inflicted by the Civil War. Today, Vanderbilt enrolls approximately 12,000 students from all 50 U. S. states and over 90 foreign countries in four undergraduate and six graduate, despite its urban surroundings, the campus itself is a national arboretum and features over 300 different species of trees and shrubs. Vanderbilt is ranked as one of the top universities for its teaching, research opportunities. It is ranked 15th on the list of best national universities generated by U. S. News & World Report, lack of funds and the ravaged state of the Reconstruction Era South delayed the opening of the college. Indeed, the McTyeires had met at St. Francis Street Methodist Church in Mobile, Cornelius Vanderbilt, who was the wealthiest man in the United States at the time, was considering philanthropy as he was at an advanced age.
He had been planning to establish a university on Staten Island, New York, however, McTyeire convinced him to donate $500,000 to endow Central University in order to contribute to strengthening the ties which should exist between all sections of our common country. The endowment was increased to $1 million and would be only one of two philanthropic causes financially supported by Vanderbilt. Though he never expressed any desire that the university be named after himself, McTyeire, Vanderbilt died in 1877 without seeing the school named after him. One of the trustees, Hezekiah William Foote, was a Confederate veteran. The Treasurer of the Board of Trust from 1872 to 1875, Alexander Little Page Green, whose portrait hangs in Kirkland Hall, was a Methodist preacher and a former slave owner. His son-in-law, Robert A. Young, was a Methodist minister who served as the Financial Secretary on the Board of Trust from 1874 to 1882, retiring from the board in 1902. The first building, Main Building, known as Kirkland Hall, was designed by William Crawford Smith, in the fall of 1875, about 200 students enrolled at Vanderbilt, and in October the university was dedicated.
Bishop McTyeire was named Chairman of the Board of Trust for life by Vanderbilt as a stipulation of his endowment, McTyeire named Landon Garland, his mentor from Randolph-Macon College in Virginia and then-Chancellor of the University of Mississippi, as chancellor. Garland shaped the structure and hired the schools faculty, many of whom were renowned scholars in their respective fields. However, most of this faculty left after disputes with Bishop McTyeire, when the first fraternity chapter, Phi Delta Theta, was established on campus in 1876, it was shut down by the faculty, only to be reestablished as a secret society in 1877. Meanwhile, Old Gym, designed by Dutch-born architect Peter J. Williamson, was built in 1879–1880, by 1883, the Board of Trust passed a resolution allowing fraternities on campus, and more chapters were established in 1884. During the first 40 years, the Board of Trust, and therefore the university, was under the control of the General Conference of the Methodist Episcopal Church, conflicts escalated after James H.
Kirkland was appointed chancellor in 1893
Appalachia is a cultural region in the Eastern United States that stretches from the Southern Tier of New York to northern Alabama and Georgia. As of the 2010 United States Census, the region was home to approximately 25 million people, sociological studies in the 1960s and 1970s helped to re-examine and dispel these stereotypes. While endowed with abundant natural resources, Appalachia has long struggled, by 1990, Appalachia had largely joined the economic mainstream, but still lagged behind the rest of the nation in most economic indicators. Since Appalachia lacks definite physiographical or topographical boundaries, there has been disagreement over what exactly the region encompasses. The most commonly used definition of Appalachia is the one initially defined by the Appalachian Regional Commission in 1965. When the Commission was established, counties were added based on economic need, in 1921, John C. Campbell published The Southern Highlander and His Homeland in which he modified Frosts map to include 254 counties in 9 states.
A landmark survey of the region in the decade by the United States Department of Agriculture defined the region as consisting of 206 counties in 6 states. In 1984, Karl Raitz and Richard Ulack expanded the ARCs definition to include 445 counties in 13 states, although they removed all counties in Mississippi and added two in New Jersey. The name was altered by the Spanish to Apalachee and used as a name for the tribe. Pánfilo de Narváezs expedition first entered Apalachee territory on June 15,1528, now spelled Appalachian, it is the fourth oldest surviving European place-name in the U. S. After the de Soto expedition in 1540, Spanish cartographers began to apply the name of the tribe to the mountains themselves. The first cartographic appearance of Apalchen is on Diego Gutiérrez map of 1562, le Moyne was the first European to apply Apalachen specifically to a mountain range as opposed to a village, native tribe, or a southeastern region of North America. The name was not commonly used for the mountain range until the late 19th century.
A competing and often more popular name was the Allegheny Mountains, Alleghenies, in the early 19th century, Washington Irving proposed renaming the United States either Appalachia or Alleghania. In northern U. S. dialects, the mountains are pronounced /æpəˈleɪtʃənz/ or /æpəˈleɪʃənz/, the cultural region of Appalachia is pronounced /æpəˈleɪʃə/, /æpəˈleɪtʃə/, all with a third syllable like lay. In southern U. S. dialects, the mountains are called the /æpəˈlætʃənz/, and this pronunciation is favored in the core region in central and southern parts of the Appalachian range. The occasional use of the sh sound for the ch in the last syllable in northern dialects was popularized by Appalachian Trail organizations in New England in the early 20th century, Native American hunter-gatherers first arrived in what is now Appalachia over 16,000 years ago. The earliest discovered site is the Meadowcroft Rockshelter in Washington County, several other Archaic period archaeological sites have been identified in the region, such as the St.
Albans site in West Virginia and the Icehouse Bottom site in Tennessee