Major Walter Reed, M. D. U. S. Army, was a U. S. Army physician who in 1901 led the team that postulated and confirmed the theory that yellow fever is transmitted by a particular mosquito species, rather than by direct contact; this insight gave impetus to the new fields of epidemiology and biomedicine, most allowed the resumption and completion of work on the Panama Canal by the United States. Reed followed work started by Carlos Finlay and directed by George Miller Sternberg, called the "first U. S. bacteriologist". Walter Reed was born in Virginia, to Lemuel Sutton Reed and his first wife, Pharaba White. During his youth, the family resided at Murfreesboro, North Carolina with his mother's family during his father's preaching tours. Two of his elder brothers achieved distinction: J. C. became a minister in Virginia like their father, Christopher a judge in Wichita, Kansas and St. Louis, Their childhood home is included in the Murfreesboro Historic District. After the American Civil War, Rev. Reed remarried, to Mrs. Mary C. Byrd Kyle of Harrisonburg, with whom he would have a daughter.
Young Walter enrolled at the University of Virginia. After two years, Reed completed the M. D. degree in 1869, two months before he turned 18. He was the youngest-ever recipient of an M. D. from the university. Reed enrolled at the New York University's Bellevue Hospital Medical College in Manhattan, New York, where he obtained a second M. D. in 1870, as his brother Christopher attempted to set up a legal practice. After interning at several New York City hospitals, Walter Reed worked for the New York Board of Health until 1875, he took her West with him. Emily would give birth to a son, Walter Lawrence Reed and a daughter, Emily Lawrence Reed, the couple adopted an aboriginal American girl while posted at frontier camps. Finding his youth limited his influence, dissatisfied with urban life, Reed joined the U. S. Army Medical Corps; this allowed him both professional opportunities and modest financial security to establish and support a family. After Reed passed a grueling thirty-hour examination in 1875, the army medical corps enlisted him as an assistant surgeon.
By this time, two of his brothers were working in Kansas, Walter soon was assigned postings in the American West. Over the next sixteen years, the Army assigned the career officer to different outposts, where he was responsible not only for American military and their dependents, but various aboriginal American tribes, at one point looking after several hundred Apaches, including Geronimo. Reed noticed the devastation epidemics could wreak and maintained his concerns about sanitary conditions. During one of his last tours, he completed advanced coursework in pathology and bacteriology in the Johns Hopkins University Hospital Pathology Laboratory. In 1893, Reed joined the faculty of the George Washington University School of Medicine and the newly opened Army Medical School in Washington, D. C. where he held the professorship of Clinical Microscopy. In addition to his teaching responsibilities, he pursued medical research projects and served as the curator of the Army Medical Museum, which became the National Museum of Health and Medicine.
These positions allowed Reed to break free from the fringes of the medical world. In 1896, Reed first distinguished himself as a medical investigator, he proved that yellow fever among enlisted men stationed near the Potomac River was not a result of drinking the river water. He showed officials that the enlisted men who got yellow fever had a habit of taking trails through the local swampy woods at night, their yellow fever-free fellow officers did not do so. Reed proved that the local civilians drinking from the Potomac River had no relation to the incidence of the disease. Reed traveled to Cuba to study diseases in U. S. Army encampments there during the Spanish–American War. Appointed chairman of a panel formed in 1898 to investigate an epidemic of typhoid fever and his colleagues showed that contact with fecal matter and food or drink contaminated by flies caused that epidemic. Yellow fever became a problem for the Army during this time, felling thousands of soldiers in Cuba. In May 1900, Major Reed returned to Cuba when he was appointed head of the Army board charged by Surgeon General George Miller Sternberg to examine tropical diseases, including yellow fever.
Sternberg was one of the founders of bacteriology during this time of great advances in medicine due to widespread acceptance of Louis Pasteur's germ theory of disease, as well as the methods of studying bacteria developed by Robert Koch. During Reed's tenure with the U. S. Army Yellow Fever Commission in Cuba, the board both confirmed the transmission by mosquitoes and disproved the common belief that yellow fever could be transmitted by clothing and bedding soiled by the body fluids and excrement of yellow fever sufferers – articles known as fomites; the board conducted many of its dramatic series of experiments at Camp Lazear, named in November 1900 for Reed's assistant and friend Jesse William Lazear, who had died two months earlier of yellow fever while on this assignment. The risky but fruitful research work was done with human volunteers, including some of the medical personnel, such as Clara Maass, who allowed themselves to be deliberately infected; the research work with the disease under Reed's leadership was responsible for stemming the mortality rates from yellow fever during the building of the Panama Canal, something that had confounded the French attempts in that region only 20 y
The United States of America known as the United States or America, is a country composed of 50 states, a federal district, five major self-governing territories, various possessions. At 3.8 million square miles, the United States is the world's third or fourth largest country by total area and is smaller than the entire continent of Europe's 3.9 million square miles. With a population of over 327 million people, the U. S. is the third most populous country. The capital is Washington, D. C. and the largest city by population is New York City. Forty-eight states and the capital's federal district are contiguous in North America between Canada and Mexico; the State of Alaska is in the northwest corner of North America, bordered by Canada to the east and across the Bering Strait from Russia to the west. The State of Hawaii is an archipelago in the mid-Pacific Ocean; the U. S. territories are scattered about the Pacific Ocean and the Caribbean Sea, stretching across nine official time zones. The diverse geography and wildlife of the United States make it one of the world's 17 megadiverse countries.
Paleo-Indians migrated from Siberia to the North American mainland at least 12,000 years ago. European colonization began in the 16th century; the United States emerged from the thirteen British colonies established along the East Coast. Numerous disputes between Great Britain and the colonies following the French and Indian War led to the American Revolution, which began in 1775, the subsequent Declaration of Independence in 1776; the war ended in 1783 with the United States becoming the first country to gain independence from a European power. The current constitution was adopted in 1788, with the first ten amendments, collectively named the Bill of Rights, being ratified in 1791 to guarantee many fundamental civil liberties; the United States embarked on a vigorous expansion across North America throughout the 19th century, acquiring new territories, displacing Native American tribes, admitting new states until it spanned the continent by 1848. During the second half of the 19th century, the Civil War led to the abolition of slavery.
By the end of the century, the United States had extended into the Pacific Ocean, its economy, driven in large part by the Industrial Revolution, began to soar. The Spanish–American War and World War I confirmed the country's status as a global military power; the United States emerged from World War II as a global superpower, the first country to develop nuclear weapons, the only country to use them in warfare, a permanent member of the United Nations Security Council. Sweeping civil rights legislation, notably the Civil Rights Act of 1964, the Voting Rights Act of 1965 and the Fair Housing Act of 1968, outlawed discrimination based on race or color. During the Cold War, the United States and the Soviet Union competed in the Space Race, culminating with the 1969 U. S. Moon landing; the end of the Cold War and the collapse of the Soviet Union in 1991 left the United States as the world's sole superpower. The United States is the world's oldest surviving federation, it is a representative democracy.
The United States is a founding member of the United Nations, World Bank, International Monetary Fund, Organization of American States, other international organizations. The United States is a developed country, with the world's largest economy by nominal GDP and second-largest economy by PPP, accounting for a quarter of global GDP; the U. S. economy is post-industrial, characterized by the dominance of services and knowledge-based activities, although the manufacturing sector remains the second-largest in the world. The United States is the world's largest importer and the second largest exporter of goods, by value. Although its population is only 4.3% of the world total, the U. S. holds 31% of the total wealth in the world, the largest share of global wealth concentrated in a single country. Despite wide income and wealth disparities, the United States continues to rank high in measures of socioeconomic performance, including average wage, human development, per capita GDP, worker productivity.
The United States is the foremost military power in the world, making up a third of global military spending, is a leading political and scientific force internationally. In 1507, the German cartographer Martin Waldseemüller produced a world map on which he named the lands of the Western Hemisphere America in honor of the Italian explorer and cartographer Amerigo Vespucci; the first documentary evidence of the phrase "United States of America" is from a letter dated January 2, 1776, written by Stephen Moylan, Esq. to George Washington's aide-de-camp and Muster-Master General of the Continental Army, Lt. Col. Joseph Reed. Moylan expressed his wish to go "with full and ample powers from the United States of America to Spain" to seek assistance in the revolutionary war effort; the first known publication of the phrase "United States of America" was in an anonymous essay in The Virginia Gazette newspaper in Williamsburg, Virginia, on April 6, 1776. The second draft of the Articles of Confederation, prepared by John Dickinson and completed by June 17, 1776, at the latest, declared "The name of this Confederation shall be the'United States of America'".
The final version of the Articles sent to the states for ratification in late 1777 contains the sentence "The Stile of this Confederacy shall be'The United States of America'". In June 1776, Thomas Jefferson wrote the phrase "UNITED STATES OF AMERICA" in all capitalized letters in the headline of his "original Rough draught" of the Declaration of Independence; this draft of the document did not surface unti
Phi Kappa Psi
Phi Kappa Psi known as Phi Psi, is an American collegiate social fraternity, founded by William Henry Letterman and Charles Page Thomas Moore in the southwest corner of the second floor of Widow Letterman's home on the campus of Jefferson College in Canonsburg, Pennsylvania on February 19, 1852. There are over 100 chapters and colonies at accredited four year colleges and universities throughout the United States. More than 179,000 men have been initiated into Phi Kappa Psi since its founding. Phi Kappa Psi and Phi Gamma Delta, both founded at the same college, form the Jefferson Duo. In the winter of 1850, a typhoid fever epidemic hit Jefferson College in Pennsylvania. Many students left school. Among those who remained were William Henry Letterman and Charles Page Thomas Moore, they chose to care for their classmates who were stricken with the contagious disease, a strong bond was formed. In the following school year and Moore decided to found a fraternity based on "the great joy of serving others" that they experienced during the epidemic.
On February 19, 1852, Phi Kappa Psi was founded. The Executive Council of Phi Kappa Psi is composed of the President, Vice President, Treasurer, 6 Archons. Since its founding, Phi Kappa Psi has been controlled by undergraduates; this unique system of governance is achieved by a governing body, the Executive Council, made up of a majority of elected undergraduates. These undergraduates, known as Archons, represent the six Districts of Phi Kappa Psi, which divide the nation into equal parts based on the number of chapters represented. Archons are elected during meetings of each District during Woodrow Wilson Leadership Schools, held during odd-numbered years. Four alumni serve on the Executive Council and are elected at Grand Arch Councils, held during even-numbered years. Phi Kappa Psi's first form of government centered on a Grand Chapter. One chapter at a time was designated the Grand Chapter, it was responsible for governing the national fraternity; this lasted until 1886. In 1992, Phi Kappa Psi began to award one exceptional chapter with the Grand Chapter Award.
Its name is derived from the fraternity's first form of government. This award was granted biennially at Grand Arch Councils. 2001 marked the first time that this award was granted in an odd-numbered year, it has been an annual award since. William Henry Letterman was born in Pennsylvania, he was twenty years old when Phi Kappa Psi was founded by him and his colleague Charles Page Thomas Moore. William graduated from Jefferson College and went on to receive his M. D. from Jefferson Medical College in 1856, where he was president of his graduating class. His father died early in William's life, he is the younger brother of Jonathan Letterman, known as the Father of Battlefield Medicine, whose system enabled thousands of wounded men to be recovered and treated during the American Civil War. He died on May 23, 1881, was buried in the cemetery at Duffau, Texas. Charles Page Thomas Moore was a co-founder of the Phi Kappa Psi Fraternity in 1852 at Jefferson College in Canonsburg, Pennsylvania, he was born in Virginia in a portion of the state along the Ohio River now located in West Virginia.
Moore was a justice of the West Virginia Supreme Court of Appeals, died in West Virginia. Officers may vary from each chapter with some chapters not using certain positions and others creating new positions; the duties of each officer may vary from each chapter as well. The top 9 officers are common to all chapters. GP – The GP is the President of the chapter, he presides over chapter meetings as well as other chapter activities. The GP attends both the university's Greek Leaders Retreat as well as National's President Leadership Academy, both which occur yearly, he is responsible for the security of the charter and ritualistic materials. VGP – The VGP is the Vice President of the chapter, he works with the GP in running chapter meetings as well as other chapter activities. The VGP presides over the chapter's executive committee and works with other committees within the chapter; the VGP is in charge of the local fraternity's Grievance Board, in charge of assigning just punishment for misconduct that may happen amongst chapter brothers.
The VGP must be prepared to take over the GP's duties. AG – The AG is the most direct connection the chapter house has to national headquarters; the AG is in charge of writing the Chapter's semi-annual report for the National Fraternity, in charge of public relations for the local chapter. This means he is responsible for generating favorable publicity for Phi Kappa Psi in campus and community media. P – The P is in charge of distributing and collecting live-in contracts to the Brothers and Pledges, he makes sure everyone pays their dues on time. BG – The BG is in charge of the book keeping at all chapter meetings, he records the minutes of the chapter meeting and makes them available for the brothers to see afterwards. SG – The SG collects and documents various activities that the chapter is involved in throughout the academic year, he is in charge of scheduling pictures for the composite as well as ordering it. Hod. – The Hod is the messenger of the chapter. He is held responsible for informing all brothers of activiti
Paris is the capital and most populous city of France, with an area of 105 square kilometres and an official estimated population of 2,140,526 residents as of 1 January 2019. Since the 17th century, Paris has been one of Europe's major centres of finance, commerce, fashion and the arts; the City of Paris is the centre and seat of government of the Île-de-France, or Paris Region, which has an estimated official 2019 population of 12,213,364, or about 18 percent of the population of France. The Paris Region had a GDP of €681 billion in 2016, accounting for 31 percent of the GDP of France, was the 5th largest region by GDP in the world. According to the Economist Intelligence Unit Worldwide Cost of Living Survey in 2018, Paris was the second most expensive city in the world, after Singapore, ahead of Zurich, Hong Kong and Geneva. Another source ranked Paris as most expensive, on a par with Singapore and Hong-Kong, in 2018; the city is a major rail and air-transport hub served by two international airports: Paris-Charles de Gaulle and Paris-Orly.
Opened in 1900, the city's subway system, the Paris Métro, serves 5.23 million passengers daily, is the second busiest metro system in Europe after Moscow Metro. Gare du Nord is the 24th busiest railway station in the world, the first located outside Japan, with 262 million passengers in 2015. Paris is known for its museums and architectural landmarks: the Louvre was the most visited art museum in the world in 2018, with 10.2 million visitors. The Musée d'Orsay and Musée de l'Orangerie are noted for their collections of French Impressionist art, the Pompidou Centre Musée National d'Art Moderne has the largest collection of modern and contemporary art in Europe; the historical district along the Seine in the city centre is classified as a UNESCO Heritage Site. Popular landmarks in the centre of the city include the Cathedral of Notre Dame de Paris and the Gothic royal chapel of Sainte-Chapelle, both on the Île de la Cité. Paris received 23 million visitors in 2017, measured by hotel stays, with the largest numbers of foreign visitors coming from the United States, the UK, Germany and China.
It was ranked as the third most visited travel destination in the world in 2017, after Bangkok and London. The football club Paris Saint-Germain and the rugby union club Stade Français are based in Paris; the 80,000-seat Stade de France, built for the 1998 FIFA World Cup, is located just north of Paris in the neighbouring commune of Saint-Denis. Paris hosts the annual French Open Grand Slam tennis tournament on the red clay of Roland Garros. Paris will host the 2024 Summer Olympics; the 1938 and 1998 FIFA World Cups, the 2007 Rugby World Cup, the 1960, 1984, 2016 UEFA European Championships were held in the city and, every July, the Tour de France bicycle race finishes there. The name "Paris" is derived from the Celtic Parisii tribe; the city's name is not related to the Paris of Greek mythology. Paris is referred to as the City of Light, both because of its leading role during the Age of Enlightenment and more because Paris was one of the first large European cities to use gas street lighting on a grand scale on its boulevards and monuments.
Gas lights were installed on the Place du Carousel, Rue de Rivoli and Place Vendome in 1829. By 1857, the Grand boulevards were lit. By the 1860s, the boulevards and streets of Paris were illuminated by 56,000 gas lamps. Since the late 19th century, Paris has been known as Panam in French slang. Inhabitants are known in French as Parisiens, they are pejoratively called Parigots. The Parisii, a sub-tribe of the Celtic Senones, inhabited the Paris area from around the middle of the 3rd century BC. One of the area's major north–south trade routes crossed the Seine on the île de la Cité; the Parisii minted their own coins for that purpose. The Romans began their settlement on Paris' Left Bank; the Roman town was called Lutetia. It became a prosperous city with a forum, temples, an amphitheatre. By the end of the Western Roman Empire, the town was known as Parisius, a Latin name that would become Paris in French. Christianity was introduced in the middle of the 3rd century AD by Saint Denis, the first Bishop of Paris: according to legend, when he refused to renounce his faith before the Roman occupiers, he was beheaded on the hill which became known as Mons Martyrum "Montmartre", from where he walked headless to the north of the city.
Clovis the Frank, the first king of the Merovingian dynasty, made the city his capital from 508. As the Frankish domination of Gaul began, there was a gradual immigration by the Franks to Paris and the Parisian Francien dialects were born. Fortification of the Île-de-la-Citie failed to avert sacking by Vikings in 845, but Paris' strategic importance—with its bridges prevent
Johns Hopkins University
Johns Hopkins University is a private research university in Baltimore, Maryland. Founded in 1876, the university was named for its first benefactor, the American entrepreneur and philanthropist Johns Hopkins, his $7 million bequest —of which half financed the establishment of Johns Hopkins Hospital—was the largest philanthropic gift in the history of the United States up to that time. Daniel Coit Gilman, inaugurated as the institution's first president on February 22, 1876, led the university to revolutionize higher education in the U. S. by integrating teaching and research. Adopting the concept of a graduate school from Germany's ancient Heidelberg University, Johns Hopkins University is considered the first research university in the United States. Over the course of several decades, the university has led all U. S. universities in annual research and development expenditures. In fiscal year 2016, Johns Hopkins spent nearly $2.5 billion on research. Johns Hopkins is organized into 10 divisions on campuses in Maryland and Washington, D.
C. with international centers in Italy and Singapore. The two undergraduate divisions, the Zanvyl Krieger School of Arts and Sciences and the Whiting School of Engineering, are located on the Homewood campus in Baltimore's Charles Village neighborhood; the medical school, the nursing school, the Bloomberg School of Public Health are located on the Medical Institutions campus in East Baltimore. The university consists of the Peabody Institute, the Applied Physics Laboratory, the Paul H. Nitze School of Advanced International Studies, the School of Education, the Carey Business School, various other facilities. Johns Hopkins was a founding member of the American Association of Universities. Johns Hopkins University is cited as among the world's top universities; the university is ranked 10th among undergraduate programs at National Universities in U. S. News & World Report latest rankings, 10th among global universities by U. S. News & World Report in its 2019 rankings, as well as 12th globally in the Times Higher Education World University Rankings.
Over the course of more than 140 years, 37 Nobel laureates and 1 Fields Medalist have been affiliated with Johns Hopkins. Founded in 1883, the Blue Jays men's lacrosse team has captured 44 national titles and joined the Big Ten Conference as an affiliate member in 2014. On his death in 1873, Johns Hopkins, a Quaker entrepreneur and childless bachelor, bequeathed $7 million to fund a hospital and university in Baltimore, Maryland. At that time this fortune, generated from the Baltimore and Ohio Railroad, was the largest philanthropic gift in the history of the United States; the first name of philanthropist Johns Hopkins is the surname of his great-grandmother, Margaret Johns, who married Gerard Hopkins. They named their son Johns Hopkins. Samuel named one of his sons for his father and that son would become the university's benefactor. Milton Eisenhower, a former university president, once spoke at a convention in Pittsburgh where the Master of Ceremonies introduced him as "President of John Hopkins."
Eisenhower retorted that he was "glad to be here in Pittburgh." The original board opted for an novel university model dedicated to the discovery of knowledge at an advanced level, extending that of contemporary Germany. Building on the Humboldtian model of higher education, the German education model of Wilhelm von Humboldt, it became dedicated to research. Johns Hopkins thereby became the model of the modern research university in the United States, its success shifted higher education in the United States from a focus on teaching revealed and/or applied knowledge to the scientific discovery of new knowledge. The trustees worked alongside four notable university presidents – Charles W. Eliot of Harvard, Andrew D. White of Cornell, Noah Porter of Yale College and James B. Angell of Michigan, they each vouched for Daniel Coit Gilman to lead the new University and he became the university's first president. Gilman, a Yale-educated scholar, had been serving as president of the University of California prior to this appointment.
In preparation for the university's founding, Gilman visited University of Freiburg and other German universities. Gilman launched what many at the time considered an audacious and unprecedented academic experiment to merge teaching and research, he dismissed the idea that the two were mutually exclusive: "The best teachers are those who are free and willing to make original researches in the library and the laboratory," he stated. To implement his plan, Gilman recruited internationally known luminaries such as the mathematician James Joseph Sylvester. Gilman focused on the expansion of graduate support of faculty research; the new university fused advanced scholarship with such professional schools as medicine and engineering. Hopkins became the national trendsetter in doctoral programs and the host for numerous scholarly journals and associations; the Johns Hopkins University Press, founded in 1878, is the oldest American university press in continuous operation. With the completion of Johns Hopkins Hospital in 1889 and the medical school in 1893, the university's research-focused mode of instruction soon began attracting world-renowned faculty members who would become major figures in the emerging field of acad
Aristides Agramonte y Simoni was a Cuban American physician and bacteriologist with expertise in tropical medicine. In 1898 George Miller Sternberg appointed him as an Acting Assistant Surgeon in the U. S. Army and sent him to Cuba to study a yellow fever outbreak, he served on the Yellow Fever Commission, a U. S. Army Commission led by Walter Reed. In addition to this research, he studied plague, trachoma, tuberculosis, typhoid fever and more. After serving on the Yellow Fever Commission, he served as a professor at the University of Havana as well as many government positions. James Carroll Carlos J. Finlay Jesse William Lazear "ARISTIDES AGRAMONTE, M. D.", American journal of public health and the nation's health, 21, pp. 1136–7, 1931, doi:10.2105/AJPH.21.10.1136, PMC 1556463, PMID 18013369 Reed, W. Feb 16, 1901: The etiology of yellow fever. An additional note. By Walter Reed, Jas. Carroll and Aristides Agramonte", JAMA, 250, pp. 649–58, doi:10.1001/jama.250.5.649, PMID 6345833 Anonymous, "Biography of Aristides Agramonte", Military medicine, 166, p. 23, PMID 11569380 Pierce, John R, ""In the interest of humanity and the cause of science": the yellow fever volunteers", Military medicine, 168, pp. 857–63, PMID 14680037 University of Virginia Health Sciences Library: A Guide to the Philip S. Hench Walter Reed Yellow Fever Commission This extensive collection includes 154 boxes of items