Carlsberg A/S is a global brewer. Founded in 1847 by J. C. Jacobsen, the company's headquarters is located in Denmark. Since Jacobsen's death in 1887, the majority owner of the company has been the Carlsberg Foundation; the company's flagship brand is Carlsberg. It brews Tuborg, Somersby cider, Russia's best-selling beer Baltika, Belgian Grimbergen abbey beers, more than 500 local beers; the company employs around 41,000 people located in Western Europe, Eastern Europe and Asia. Carlsberg was founded by J. C. Jacobsen, a philanthropist and avid art collector. With his fortune he amassed an art collection, housed in the Ny Carlsberg Glyptotek in central Copenhagen; the first brew was finished on 10 November 1847, the export of Carlsberg beer began in 1868 with the export of one barrel to Edinburgh, Scotland. Some of the company's original logos include an elephant, after which some of its lagers are named, the swastika, the use of, discontinued in the 1930s because of its association with political parties in neighboring Germany.
Jacobsen's son Carl opened a brewery in 1882 named Ny Carlsberg forcing him to rename his brewery Gamle Carlsberg. The companies were merged and run under Carl's direction in 1906 and remained so until his death in 1914. Jacobsen set up the Carlsberg Laboratory in 1875, which worked on scientific problems related to brewing, it featured a Department of Physiology. The species of yeast used to make pale lager, Saccharomyces carlsbergensis, was isolated by Emil Christian Hansen at the laboratory in 1883 and bears its name; the Carlsberg Laboratory developed the concept of pH and made advances in protein chemistry. In 1972, the Carlsberg Research Centre was established and the Carlsberg Laboratory is an independent unit of the Centre. In 1876, J. C. Jacobsen established the Carlsberg Foundation, run by trustees from the Royal Danish Academy of Sciences and Letters, which managed the Carlsberg Laboratory as well as supporting scientific research within the fields of natural sciences, philosophy, the humanities and social sciences in Denmark.
Because of a conflict with his son Carl, Jacobsen's brewery was left to the Foundation upon his death in 1887. The first overseas license for brewing was given to the Photos Photiades Breweries, in 1966 Carlsberg beer was brewed for the first time outside Denmark at the Photiades breweries in Cyprus; the first brewery to be built outside Denmark was in Blantyre, Malawi in 1968. Carlsberg merged with Tuborg breweries in 1970 forming the United Breweries AS, merged with Tetley in 1992. Carlsberg became the sole owner of Carlsberg-Tetley in 1997. In 2008 Carlsberg Group, together with Heineken, bought Scottish & Newcastle, the largest brewer in the UK, for £7.8bn. In 2013 the company joined leading alcohol producers as part of a producers' commitments to reducing harmful drinking. In November 2014, Carlsberg agreed to take over Greece's third largest brewery, the Olympic Brewery, adding to its operations in the country and transforming the firm into the second biggest market player in Greece; the old brewery in Copenhagen is open for tours.
The Carlsberg Group divides their operations into three market areas: Northern and Western Europe, Eastern Europe and Asia. Baltic Beverages Holding is owned by Carlsberg, it was a joint venture between Carlsberg and Scottish & Newcastle in Russia. The company is a significant operator in the brewing industry in Russia, the Baltic countries and Uzbekistan, it has a majority interest in OAO Baltika Breweries, the largest brewery in the Russian Federation and Eastern Europe. The Uzbek government claimed. Lower courts claimed that Carlsberg illegally produced 1.6 million litres of beer from 2008 to 2010. For these reasons, in March 2012, Carlsberg suspended production at its Uzbek plant and asked its employees to take an unpaid leave. In late 2012, the Uzbek Court declined Carlsberg's tax appeal. Production resumed in April 2013; the brewery produces 1.3 million litres of beer under three local brands Sarbast Original, Sarbast Extra, Sarbast Special, plus the international brand Tuborg Green. Carlsberg acquired the Aldaris Brewery in Riga, Latvia, in 2008.
The brewery was founded in 1865, produces Aldaris brand beers. Carlsberg Polska is the Polish subsidiary of the Carlsberg Group. Carlsberg acquired 100% control of the Okocim Group, which included the Okocim Brewery, in 2004; the subsidiary owns four brewing plants and employs a staff of 1,250. It is the third largest brewing company in Poland with a 14.4% market share. Brands include Harnaś, Okocim, Piast and Carlsberg. Carlsberg Sweden is based in Stockholm, owns the Falcon Brewery in Falkenberg, the Ramlösa mineral water bottling facility in Helsingborg. Carnegie Porter, a 5.5% abv Baltic porter, along with the Pripps and Falcon brand lagers, are brewed in Falkenberg. Norway brands include: Arendals, Frydenlund, Nordlands and Tou. Other European brands include: Birrificio Angelo Poretti, Feldschlösschen, Jacobsen, Kronenbourg, Super Bock and Tetley. A result of the take over of Scottish & Newcastle, Carlsberg controls the San Miguel brand in the UK; the Carlsberg group brands are distributed by St. Killian Import Co. based in Everett, importing Carlsberg beer directly from Denmark.
Brands that are imported include: Carlsberg Beer, Carlsberg Elephant, Kronenbourg 1664, Tetley's English Ale, Okocim. Carls
Denmark the Kingdom of Denmark, is a Nordic country and the southernmost of the Scandinavian nations. Denmark lies southwest of Sweden and south of Norway, is bordered to the south by Germany; the Kingdom of Denmark comprises two autonomous constituent countries in the North Atlantic Ocean: the Faroe Islands and Greenland. Denmark proper consists of a peninsula, an archipelago of 443 named islands, with the largest being Zealand and the North Jutlandic Island; the islands are characterised by flat, arable land and sandy coasts, low elevation and a temperate climate. Denmark has a total area of 42,924 km2, land area of 42,394 km2, the total area including Greenland and the Faroe Islands is 2,210,579 km2, a population of 5.8 million. The unified kingdom of Denmark emerged in the 10th century as a proficient seafaring nation in the struggle for control of the Baltic Sea. Denmark and Norway were ruled together under one sovereign ruler in the Kalmar Union, established in 1397 and ending with Swedish secession in 1523.
The areas of Denmark and Norway remained under the same monarch until Denmark -- Norway. Beginning in the 17th century, there were several devastating wars with the Swedish Empire, ending with large cessions of territory to Sweden. After the Napoleonic Wars, Norway was ceded to Sweden, while Denmark kept the Faroe Islands and Iceland. In the 19th century there was a surge of nationalist movements, which were defeated in the 1864 Second Schleswig War. Denmark remained neutral during World War I. In April 1940, a German invasion saw brief military skirmishes while the Danish resistance movement was active from 1943 until the German surrender in May 1945. An industrialised exporter of agricultural produce in the second half of the 19th century, Denmark introduced social and labour-market reforms in the early 20th century that created the basis for the present welfare state model with a developed mixed economy; the Constitution of Denmark was signed on 5 June 1849, ending the absolute monarchy, which had begun in 1660.
It establishes a constitutional monarchy organised as a parliamentary democracy. The government and national parliament are seated in Copenhagen, the nation's capital, largest city, main commercial centre. Denmark exercises hegemonic influence in the Danish Realm, devolving powers to handle internal affairs. Home rule was established in the Faroe Islands in 1948. Denmark negotiated certain opt-outs, it is among the founding members of NATO, the Nordic Council, the OECD, OSCE, the United Nations. Denmark is considered to be one of the most economically and developed countries in the world. Danes enjoy a high standard of living and the country ranks in some metrics of national performance, including education, health care, protection of civil liberties, democratic governance and human development; the country ranks as having the world's highest social mobility, a high level of income equality, is among the countries with the lowest perceived levels of corruption in the world, the eleventh-most developed in the world, has one of the world's highest per capita incomes, one of the world's highest personal income tax rates.
The etymology of the word Denmark, the relationship between Danes and Denmark and the unifying of Denmark as one kingdom, is a subject which attracts debate. This is centered on the prefix "Dan" and whether it refers to the Dani or a historical person Dan and the exact meaning of the -"mark" ending. Most handbooks derive the first part of the word, the name of the people, from a word meaning "flat land", related to German Tenne "threshing floor", English den "cave"; the -mark is believed to mean woodland or borderland, with probable references to the border forests in south Schleswig. The first recorded use of the word Danmark within Denmark itself is found on the two Jelling stones, which are runestones believed to have been erected by Gorm the Old and Harald Bluetooth; the larger stone of the two is popularly cited as Denmark's "baptismal certificate", though both use the word "Denmark", in the form of accusative ᛏᛅᚾᛘᛅᚢᚱᚴ tanmaurk on the large stone, genitive ᛏᛅᚾᛘᛅᚱᚴᛅᚱ "tanmarkar" on the small stone.
The inhabitants of Denmark are there called "Danes", in the accusative. The earliest archaeological findings in Denmark date back to the Eem interglacial period from 130,000–110,000 BC. Denmark has been inhabited since around 12,500 BC and agriculture has been evident since 3900 BC; the Nordic Bronze Age in Denmark was marked by burial mounds, which left an abundance of findings including lurs and the Sun Chariot. During the Pre-Roman Iron Age, native groups began migrating south, the first tribal Danes came to the country between the Pre-Roman and the Germanic Iron Age, in the Roman Iron Age; the Roman provinces maintained trade routes and relations with native tribes in Denmark, Roman coins have been found in Denmark. Evidence of strong Celtic cultural influence dates from this period in Denmark and much of North-West Europe and is among other things reflected in the finding of the Gundestrup cauldron; the tribal Danes came from the east Danish islands and Scania and spoke an early form of North Germanic.
Historians believe that before their arrival, most of Jutland and the nearest islands were settled by tribal J
In Christian tradition, the Four Evangelists are Matthew, Mark and John, the authors attributed with the creation of the four Gospel accounts in the New Testament that bear the following titles: Gospel according to Matthew. The gospels of Matthew and Luke are known as the Synoptic Gospels, because they include many of the same stories in the same sequence. While the periods to which the gospels are dated suggest otherwise, convention traditionally holds that the authors were two of the Twelve Apostles of Jesus and Matthew, as well as two "apostolic men," Mark and Luke: Matthew – a former tax collector, called by Jesus to be one of the Twelve Apostles, Mark – a follower of Peter and so an "apostolic man," Luke – a doctor who wrote what is now the book of Luke to Theophilus. Known to have written the book of Acts and to have been a close friend of Paul of Tarsus, John – a disciple of Jesus and the youngest of his Twelve Apostles, they are called evangelists, a word meaning "people who proclaim good news," because their books aim to tell the "good news" of Jesus.
In iconography, the evangelists appear in Evangelist portraits derived from classical tradition, are frequently represented by the symbols which originate from the four "living creatures" that draw the throne-chariot of God, the Merkabah, in the vision in the Book of Ezekiel reflected in the Book of Revelation, though neither source links the creatures to the Evangelists. Images but not invariably, appear with wings like angels; when the symbols of the Four Evangelists appear together, it is called a Tetramorph, is common in the Romanesque art of Europe, in church frescoes or mural paintings, for instance. English trans. of 3rd edn, The meanings accruing to the symbols grew over centuries, with an early formulation by Jerome, were expressed by Rabanus Maurus, who set out three layers of meaning for the beasts, as representing firstly the Evangelists, secondly the nature of Christ, thirdly the virtues required of a Christian for salvation: These animals may have been seen as representing the highest forms of the various types of animals, i.e. man, the king of creation as the image of the creator.
Matthew the Evangelist, the author of the first gospel account, is symbolized by a winged man, or angel. Matthew's gospel starts with Joseph's genealogy from Abraham; this signifies. Mark the Evangelist, the author of the second gospel account, is symbolized by a winged lion – a figure of courage and monarchy; the lion represents Jesus' resurrection, Christ as king. This signifies. Luke the Evangelist, the author of the third gospel account, is symbolized by a winged ox or bull – a figure of sacrifice and strength. Luke's account begins with the duties of Zechariah in the temple; the ox signifies. John the Evangelist, the author of the fourth gospel account, is symbolized by an eagle – a figure of the sky, believed by Christian scholars to be able to look straight into the sun. John starts with an eternal overview of Jesus the Logos and goes on to describe many things with a "higher" christology than the other three gospels; this symbolizes that Christians should look on eternity without flinching as they journey towards their goal of union with God.
Each of the symbols is depicted with wings, following the biblical sources first in Ezekiel 1–2, in Revelation. The symbols are shown with, or in place of, the Evangelists in early medieval Gospel Books, are the usual accompaniment to Christ in Majesty when portrayed during the same period, reflecting the vision in Revelation, they were presented as one of the most common motifs found on church portals and apses, as well as many other locations. When surrounding Christ, the figure of the man appears at top left – above Christ's right hand, with the lion above Christ's left arm. Underneath the man is the underneath the lion is the eagle; this both reflects the medieval idea of the order of "nobility" of nature of the beasts and the text of Ezekiel 1:10. From the thirteenth century their use began to decline, as a new conception of Christ in Majesty, showing the wounds of the Passion, came into use. Sometimes in Evangelist portraits they appear to dictate to the writing evangelist. Matthew is cited as the "first Gospel account," not only owing to its place in the canon, but in view of the patristic witness to this effect.
Most biblical scholars however, see the gospel account of Mark as having been written first and John's gospel account as having been written last. It has become customary to speak of "the Gospel of Matthew"... "the Gospel of John", not least because it is shorter and rolls much more smoothly off the tongue.
Eagle is the common name for many large birds of prey of the family Accipitridae. Eagles belong to several groups of genera, not all of which are related. Most of the 60 species of eagle are from Africa. Outside this area, just 14 species can be found—2 in North America, 9 in Central and South America, 3 in Australia. Eagles are large, powerfully built birds of prey, with heavy beaks; the smallest eagles, such as the booted eagle, comparable in size to a common buzzard or red-tailed hawk, have longer and more evenly broad wings, more direct, faster flight – despite the reduced size of aerodynamic feathers. Most eagles are larger than any other raptors apart from some vultures; the smallest species of eagle is the South Nicobar serpent eagle, at 40 cm. The largest species are discussed below. Like all birds of prey, eagles have large, hooked beaks for ripping flesh from their prey, muscular legs, powerful talons; the beak is heavier than that of most other birds of prey. Eagles' eyes are powerful.
It is estimated that the martial eagle, whose eye is more than twice as long as a human eye, has a visual acuity 3.0 to 3.6 times that of humans. This acuity enables eagles to spot potential prey from a long distance; this keen eyesight is attributed to their large pupils which ensure minimal diffraction of the incoming light. The female of all known species of eagles is larger than the male. Eagles build their nests, called eyries, in tall trees or on high cliffs. Many species lay two eggs, but the older, larger chick kills its younger sibling once it has hatched; the dominant chick tends to be a female. The parents take no action to stop the killing. Due to the size and power of many eagle species, they are ranked at the top of the food chain as apex predators in the avian world; the type of prey varies by genus. The Haliaeetus and Ichthyophaga eagles prefer to capture fish, though the species in the former capture various animals other water birds, are powerful kleptoparasites of other birds.
The snake and serpent eagles of the genera Circaetus and Spilornis predominantly prey on the great diversity of snakes found in the tropics of Africa and Asia. The eagles of the genus Aquila are the top birds of prey in open habitats, taking any medium-sized vertebrate they can catch. Where Aquila eagles are absent, other eagles, such as the buteonine black-chested buzzard-eagle of South America, may assume the position of top raptorial predator in open areas. Many other eagles, including the species-rich genus Spizaetus, live predominantly in woodlands and forest; these eagles target various arboreal or ground-dwelling mammals and birds, which are unsuspectingly ambushed in such dense, knotty environments. Hunting techniques differ among the species and genera, with some individual eagles having engaged in quite varied techniques based their environment and prey at any given time. Most eagles grab prey without landing and take flight with it, so the prey can be carried to a perch and torn apart.
The bald eagle is noted for having flown with the heaviest load verified to be carried by any flying bird, since one eagle flew with a 6.8 kg mule deer fawn. However, a few eagles may target prey heavier than themselves. Golden and crowned eagles have killed ungulates weighing up to 30 kg and a martial eagle killed a 37 kg duiker, 7–8 times heavier than the preying eagle. Authors on birds David Allen Sibley, Pete Dunne, Clay Sutton described the behavioral difference between hunting eagles and other birds of prey thus: They have at least one singular characteristic, it has been observed. All hawks seem to have this habit, from the smallest kestrel to the largest Ferruginous – but not the Eagles. Among the eagles are some of the largest birds of prey: only the condors and some of the Old World vultures are markedly larger, it is debated which should be considered the largest species of eagle. They could be measured variously in body mass, or wingspan. Different lifestyle needs among various eagles result in variable measurements from species to species.
For example, many forest-dwelling eagles, including the large harpy eagle, have short wingspans, a feature necessary for being able to maneuver in quick, short bursts through densely forested habitats. Eagles in the genus Aquila, though found strictly in open country, are superlative soarers, have long wings for their size; these lists of the top five eagles are based on weight and wingspan, respectively. Unless otherwise noted by reference, the figures listed are the median reported for each measurement in the guide Raptors of the World in which only measurements that could be verified by the authors were listed. Australasian Australia: wedge-tailed eagle, white-bellied sea-eagle, little eagle. New Guinea: Papuan eagle, white-bellied sea-eagle, pygmy eagle. Nearctic: golden eagle, bald eagle. Neotropical: Spizaetus, solitary eagles, harpy eagle, crested eagle, black-chested buzzard-eagle
A column or pillar in architecture and structural engineering is a structural element that transmits, through compression, the weight of the structure above to other structural elements below. In other words, a column is a compression member; the term column applies to a large round support with a capital and a base or pedestal, made of stone, or appearing to be so. A small wooden or metal support is called a post, supports with a rectangular or other non-round section are called piers. For the purpose of wind or earthquake engineering, columns may be designed to resist lateral forces. Other compression members are termed "columns" because of the similar stress conditions. Columns are used to support beams or arches on which the upper parts of walls or ceilings rest. In architecture, "column" refers to such a structural element that has certain proportional and decorative features. A column might be a decorative element not needed for structural purposes. All significant Iron Age civilizations of the Near East and Mediterranean made some use of columns.
In Ancient Egyptian architecture as early as 2600 BC the architect Imhotep made use of stone columns whose surface was carved to reflect the organic form of bundled reeds, like papyrus and palm. Their form is thought to derive from archaic reed-built shrines. Carved from stone, the columns were decorated with carved and painted hieroglyphs, ritual imagery and natural motifs. Egyptian columns are famously present in the Great Hypostyle Hall of Karnak, where 134 columns are lined up in 16 rows, with some columns reaching heights of 24 metres. One of the most important type are the papyriform columns; the origin of these columns goes back to the 5th Dynasty. They are composed of lotus stems which are drawn together into a bundle decorated with bands: the capital, instead of opening out into the shape of a bellflower, swells out and narrows again like a flower in bud; the base, which tapers to take the shape of a half-sphere like the stem of the lotus, has a continuously recurring decoration of stipules.
Some of the most elaborate columns in the ancient world were those of the Persians the massive stone columns erected in Persepolis. They included double-bull structures in their capitals; the Hall of Hundred Columns at Persepolis, measuring 70 × 70 metres, was built by the Achaemenid king Darius I. Many of the ancient Persian columns are standing, some being more than 30 metres tall. Tall columns with bull's head capitals were used for porticoes and to support the roofs of the hypostylehall inspired by the ancient Egyptian precedent. Since the columns carried timber beams rather than stine, they could be taller and more widerly spaced than Egyptian ones; the Minoans used whole tree-trunks turned upside down in order to prevent re-growth, stood on a base set in the stylobate and topped by a simple round capital. These were painted as in the most famous Minoan palace of Knossos; the Minoans employed columns to create large open-plan spaces, light-wells and as a focal point for religious rituals.
These traditions were continued by the Mycenaean civilization in the megaron or hall at the heart of their palaces. The importance of columns and their reference to palaces and therefore authority is evidenced in their use in heraldic motifs such as the famous lion-gate of Mycenae where two lions stand each side of a column. Being made of wood these early columns have not survived, but their stone bases have and through these we may see their use and arrangement in these palace buildings; the Egyptians and other civilizations used columns for the practical purpose of holding up the roof inside a building, preferring outside walls to be decorated with reliefs or painting, but the Ancient Greeks, followed by the Romans, loved to use them on the outside as well, the extensive use of columns on the interior and exterior of buildings is one of the most characteristic features of classical architecture, in buildings like the Parthenon. The Greeks developed the classical orders of architecture, which are most distinguished by the form of the column and its various elements.
Their Doric and Corinthian orders were expanded by the Romans to include the Tuscan and Composite orders. Columns, or at least large structural exterior ones, became much less significant in the architecture of the Middle Ages; the classical forms were abandoned in both Byzantine architecture and the Romanesque and Gothic architecture of Europe in favour of more flexible forms, with capitals using various types of foliage decoration, in the West scenes with figures carved in relief. Furing the Romanesque period, builders continued to reuse and imitate ancient Roman columns wherever possible. Where new, the emphasis was as illustrated by twisted columns, they were decorated with mosaics. Renaissance architecture was keen to revive the classical vocabulary and styles, the informed use and variation of the classical orders remained fundamental to the training of architects throughout Baroque and Neo-classical architecture. Early columns were constructed of some out of a single piece of stone. Monolithic columns are among the heaviest stones used in architecture.
Other stone columns are created out of multiple sections of mortared or dry-fit together. In many classical sites, sectioned columns were carved with a centre hole or depression so that they could be pegged together, using stone or metal pins; the design of
Ravenna is the capital city of the Province of Ravenna, in the Emilia-Romagna region of Northern Italy. It was the capital city of the Western Roman Empire from 402 until that empire collapsed in 476, it served as the capital of the Ostrogothic Kingdom until it was re-conquered in 540 by the Byzantine Empire. Afterwards, the city formed the centre of the Byzantine Exarchate of Ravenna until the invasion of the Lombards in 751, after which it became the seat of the Kingdom of the Lombards. Although it is an inland city, Ravenna is connected to the Adriatic Sea by the Candiano Canal, it is known for its well-preserved late Roman and Byzantine architecture, with eight buildings comprising the UNESCO World Heritage Site "Early Christian Monuments of Ravenna". The origin of the name Ravenna is unclear; some have speculated that "ravenna" is related to "Rasenna", the term that the Etruscans used for themselves, but there is no agreement on this point. The origins of Ravenna are uncertain; the first settlement is variously attributed to the Etruscans and the Umbrians.
Afterwards its territory was settled by the Senones the southern countryside of the city, the Ager Decimanus. Ravenna consisted of houses built on piles on a series of small islands in a marshy lagoon – a situation similar to Venice several centuries later; the Romans ignored it during their conquest of the Po River Delta, but accepted it into the Roman Republic as a federated town in 89 BC. In 49 BC, it was the location. After his battle against Mark Antony in 31 BC, Emperor Augustus founded the military harbor of Classe; this harbor, protected at first by its own walls, was an important station of the Roman Imperial Fleet. Nowadays the city is landlocked, but Ravenna remained an important seaport on the Adriatic until the early Middle Ages. During the German campaigns, widow of Arminius, Marbod, King of the Marcomanni, were confined at Ravenna. Ravenna prospered under Roman rule. Emperor Trajan built a 70 km long aqueduct at the beginning of the 2nd century. During the Marcomannic Wars, Germanic settlers in Ravenna revolted and managed to seize possession of the city.
For this reason, Marcus Aurelius decided not only against bringing more barbarians into Italy, but banished those, brought there. In AD 402, Emperor Honorius transferred the capital of the Western Roman Empire from Milan to Ravenna. At that time it was home to 50,000 people; the transfer was made for defensive purposes: Ravenna was surrounded by swamps and marshes, was perceived to be defensible. However, in 409, King Alaric I of the Visigoths bypassed Ravenna, went on to sack Rome in 410 and to take Galla Placidia, daughter of Emperor Theodosius I, hostage. After many vicissitudes, Galla Placidia returned to Ravenna with her son, Emperor Valentinian III, due to the support of her nephew Theodosius II. Ravenna enjoyed a period of peace, during which time the Christian religion was favoured by the imperial court, the city gained some of its most famous monuments, including the Orthodox Baptistery, the misnamed Mausoleum of Galla Placidia, San Giovanni Evangelista; the late 5th century saw the dissolution of Roman authority in the west, the last person to hold the title of emperor in the West was deposed in 476 by the general Odoacer.
Odoacer ruled as King of Italy for 13 years, but in 489 the Eastern Emperor Zeno sent the Ostrogoth King Theoderic the Great to re-take the Italian peninsula. After losing the Battle of Verona, Odoacer retreated to Ravenna, where he withstood a siege of three years by Theoderic, until the taking of Rimini deprived Ravenna of supplies. Theoderic took Ravenna in 493 slew Odoacer with his own hands, Ravenna became the capital of the Ostrogothic Kingdom of Italy. Theoderic, following his imperial predecessors built many splendid buildings in and around Ravenna, including his palace church Sant'Apollinare Nuovo, an Arian cathedral and Baptistery, his own Mausoleum just outside the walls. Both Odoacer and Theoderic and their followers were Arian Christians, but co-existed peacefully with the Latins, who were Catholic Orthodox. Ravenna's Orthodox bishops carried out notable building projects, of which the sole surviving one is the Capella Arcivescovile. Theoderic allowed Roman citizens within his kingdom to be subject to Roman law and the Roman judicial system.
The Goths, lived under their own laws and customs. In 519, when a mob had burned down the synagogues of Ravenna, Theoderic ordered the town to rebuild them at its own expense. Theoderic died in 526 and was succeeded by his young grandson Athalaric under the authority of his daughter Amalasunta, but by 535 both were dead and Theoderic's line was represented only by Amalasuntha's daughter Matasuntha. Various Ostrogothic military leaders took the Kingdom of Italy, but none were as successful as Theoderic had been. Meanwhile, the orthodox Christian Byzantine Emperor Justinian I, opposed both Ostrogoth rule and the Arian variety of Christianity. In 535 his general Belisarius in 540 conquered Ravenna. After the conquest of Italy was completed in 554, Ravenna became the seat of Byzantine government in Italy. From 540 to 600, Ravenna'