The 12ft Skiff is a development dinghy class dating back to the early 20th century. It is sailed in New Zealand, it is 12 ft in length, hence the name, is a two-man boat. Both the crew and the helm are able to use the trapeze at the same time, it has a jib, in addition to the mainsail. The origin of the 12ft Skiff is dubious, but it is thought to have roots in the smaller skiffs sailed on Sydney Harbour in the late 1800s; the skiff became a class in its own right in 1926 when, at a meeting between Lane Cove 12ft Sailing Skiff Club, Greenwich 12ft Flying Squadron, The Spit 12ft Skiff Sailing Club and Vaucluse Amateur 12ft Sailing Skiff Club, the 12ft Sailing Skiff Council was formed. At this time the skiff was manned by a crew of five, but around the 1940s it changed to a three-man boat, became the two man boat, used today. In 1947 the Council changed its name to the NSW 12ft Sailing Skiff Association. After the 1940s the skiff went international. Overall length 3.7 metres Beam 1.8 metres Crewed by two people, both on trapeze Light weight 45 kilogram hull Sail area and rig design are unlimited Mast height is unlimited but can be up to 8.8 metres Most boats have three complete rigs Each skiff is individual, not an off the shelf product Simple measurement rules allow design development The asymmetrical spinnaker is set off a fixed bowsprit Today the 12ft Skiff is sailed in Australia and New Zealand.
Campaigning a 12 requires a range of skills, including boat handling, boat maintenance and training. However, with recent equipment developments, the introduction of carbon masts, 12ft Skiffs are manageable boats and any sailor with relative experience, such as Cherubs or Moths, would quite adapt; the 12ft Skiff is similar to the better known 18ft Skiff. Of all skiffs the 12 footer is known for being the most difficult to sail due to its short and narrow hull relative to its large sail area. A 12ft Skiff is capable of sailing at speeds of up to 25 knots; the 12ft Skiff generates considerable power by having two persons on the trapeze wire, suspended from the mast of the boat. This adds leverage to the crews' weight; the modern 12ft Skiffs have fixed bowsprits to from which they carry their spinnakers. This is a recent innovation, with the older style of skiff having an'end to end' spinnaker pole which would need to be positioned by the crew, would be stored against the skiff's boom when it was not being used.
New South Wales State Championship "The Morna Cup" Queensland State Championship Australia Championship "Norman Booth Trophy" New Zealand team trials New Zealand National Championship Interdominon Championship "Silasec Trophy" Australian 12 Foot Skiff Association Site New Zealand 12 Foot Skiff Association Site Sydney Flying Squadron Lane Cove 12 Foot Skiff Sailing Club Abbotsford 12 Foot Skiff Flying Squadron Flickr 12 Foot Skiff Photos
The term skiff is used for a number of unrelated styles of small boat. Traditionally, these are coastal craft or rivercrafts used for leisure, as a utility craft and for fishing, have a one-person or small crew. Sailing skiffs have developed into high performance competitive classes. Many of today's skiff classes are based in Australia and New Zealand in the form of 12 ft, 13 ft, 16 ft and 18 ft skiffs; the 29er, 49er, SKUD and Musto Skiff are all considered to developed from the skiff concept, all of which are sailed internationally. The term skiff is used for a racing shell called single scull for competitive rowing, rowed by one rower with two oars; as opposed to sweep boats, where the rowers only have one oar each - coxless pair, coxless four etc. Of course a lone rower must have two oars to row, so sweep oar does not exist for the skiff/single scull; the word is related to ship and has a complicated etymology: "skiff" comes from the Middle English skif, which derives from the Old French esquif, which in turn derives from the Old Italian schifo, itself of Germanic origin.
"Ship" comes from the Old English "scip". Danish “skib” and Swedish “skepp”; the term has been used for a number of styles of craft round the United Kingdom small river and sea going craft. They varied from double ended rowing boats to small sailing boats; the poet John Milton refers to a'night foundered skiff' in Paradise Lost as early as 1670. There are references to skiffs on the River Thames as early as 1824 at Oxford. In August 1815, the poet Percy Bysshe Shelley was taken on an expedition by skiff from Old Windsor to Lechlade by Charles Clairmont and Thomas Love Peacock, he subsequently settled at Marlow where he rowed his skiff through the locks. Shelley drowned sailing in a skiff off the coast of Italy, it was used in the Lady of the Lake by Sir Walter Scott. The Thames skiff became formalised as a specific design in the early part of the 19th century, it is a round-bottom clinker-built rowing boat, still common on the River Thames and other rivers in England. Rowing skiffs became popular in Victorian Britain and a skiff journey up the River Thames features in Three Men in a Boat by Jerome K. Jerome, These skiffs could carry a sail and could be used for camping.
Although general usage has declined, skiffs are still used for racing. During the year, skiffing regattas are held in various riverside towns in England—the major event being the Skiff Championships Regatta at Henley. Akin to the skiff is the Yoal or Yole, a clinker built boat used for fishing in the Orkney and Shetland Islands; the boat itself is a version of the Norwegian Oselvar, similar to a skiff in appearance, while the word is cognate with Yawl. The French Yole is a leisure craft similar to the Thames Skiff and is translated as "Skiff", while the French Skiff translates to a Single scull. In Dutch and German, "Skiff" means a single scull, while Czech Skif refers to sculling boats in general. Regattas take place across Northern Ireland with one of the largest being held in Portadown but smaller events take place throughout the year across County Down. In American usage, the term is used to apply to small sea-going fishing boats, it is referred to in literature in Moby-Dick by Herman Melville and The Old Man and the Sea by Ernest Hemingway.
The skiff could be powered by sails as well as oars. One usage of skiff is to refer to a small flat-bottomed open boat with a pointed bow and a flat stern developed as an inexpensive and easy to build boat for use by inshore fishermen. Designed to be powered by rowing, their form has evolved so that they are efficiently powered by outboard motors; the design is still in common use today for both pleasure craft. They can be made of wood or other materials. There is a similar style of craft in Central America and Mexico called a panga; the term skiff has been applied to motorized boats of small size and construction used as sea-going vessels for piracy or drug-smuggling. The skiff with a sail has developed into specific sailing boats bearing the name "skiff". In Sydney, the term was used for a number of racing classes; these were heavily crewed and canvassed boats that were short for the canvas and crew carried and were developed from working boats of the time. This style of boat is still active in the form of 18 foot classes.
The skiff classes developed to become much lighter and faster with smaller rigs and smaller crews. 12ft Skiff, 13 ft Skiff, 16ft Skiff, 18ft Skiff classes are raced in that form. With two crew on the 12 and 13 footer and three on the 16 and 18 these are still crewed boats for their size. Modern developments began with the introduction of carbon fibre reinforced composite hulls, allowing for a significant reduction in weight, an increase in rigidity. Following this, the use of carbon in masts and rigging allowed for more sail area, better gust response. Moulded sails are being tested in both 12 ft and 16 ft skiffs, with most modern Australian 18 ft Skiffs utilising the new technology; because the modern 18s have such a high profile, the term skiff is used internationally to refer to other high-performance sailing dinghy classes featuring asymmetrical spinnaker and trapeze which have been influenced by modern skiffs. Examples include: Cherub Skiff, International 14, 29er, 49er; these boats tend to be less crewed in relation to their length than the traditional Australian Skiff Classes.
The term is used for some
A genoa sail is a type of large jib or staysail that extends past the mast and so overlaps the main sail when viewed from the side, sometimes eliminating it. It was called an "overlapping jib" and a Genoa jib, it is used on twin-masted boats such as yawls and ketches. Its larger surface area increases the speed of the craft in light to moderate winds; the term jib is the generic term for any of an assortment of headsails. The term genoa refers to a type of jib, larger than the 100% foretriangle, the triangular area formed by the point at which the stay intersects the mast, deck or bowsprit, the line where the mast intersects deck at the rail. Colloquially the term is sometimes used interchangeably with jib. A working jib is no larger than the 100% foretriangle. A genoa is larger, with the leech overlapping the mainsail. To maximize sail area, the foot of the sail is parallel and close to the deck when close hauled. Genoas are categorized by a percentage representing their area relative to the 100% foretriangle.
Sail racing classes specify a limit to genoa size. Genoas are classified by their size. Number 2 genoas are in the range of 125–140%. Working jibs are defined by the same measure 100% or less of the foretriangle. Under Performance Handicap Racing Fleet rules, most boats are allowed 155% genoas without a penalty. Maximizing the sail area can cause more difficult handling, it may be harder to tack a genoa than a jib, since the overlapping area can become tangled with the shrouds and/or mast unless tended during the tack. Genoas are popular in some racing classes, since they count only the foretriangle area when calculating foresail size. In boats where sail restrictions do not apply, genoas of 180% overlap can be found, although those over 150% are rare because the additional area is shadowed by the mainsail when close hauled and generates diminishing returns in terms of power per actual sail area; the gennaker has been around for several decades now, as the name suggests, it is a hybrid between a genoa and a symmetrical spinnaker.
A brand name of North Sails, the gennaker started as a cruising sail based on the Code 0 spinnakers used on racing boats. Gennakers and similar code 0 variants offered by other makers are larger than genoas, they have a much greater camber for generating larger amounts of lift when reaching. Flat-cut gennakers can be effective for angles as low as 60–70 degrees. Spinnakers perform much better when running because the main sail blocks the wind of gennaker above 135–150 degrees; the famous Swedish sailor and shipowner Sven Salén first used the genoa on his 6 m R-yacht May-Be by the 1926 in Coppa di Terreno in Genoa, hence the name. He used it during the Scandinavian Gold Cup's races of 1927 in Oyster Bay. Sven Salén pioneered the parachute spinnacre. A similar type of jib was in use for centuries by the fishermen in the Netherlands with their Botter type ships; the fishermen relied on the combination of a large jib while fishing so the mainsail could remain unused. After fishing the fisherman's jib helped to get the fish to markets fast.
A correct explanation of the interaction between jib and mainsail was published by aerodynamicist and yachtsman Arvel Gentry in 1981, "is much more complicated than the old theories imply". This states that the believed explanation of the slot effect is "completely wrong" and shows that this is not due to the venturi effect accelerating the air in the slot. Instead it is shown that the air in the slot is slowed down and its pressure increased reducing the tendency of the mainsail to stall, that the mainsail reduces the air pressure on the lee side of the jib accelerating that airflow, that the mainsail increases the angle at which the air meets the luff of the jib, allowing the boat to point higher. Gentry points out that proper understanding of sail interaction allows better sail trimming
Minto Sailing Dinghy
The Minto Sailing Dinghy is a sailing dinghy first produced commercially in the early 1960 and still in production. The Minto Sailing Dinghy began its life as a skiff for a 24 foot sloop built by Hugh Rodd at Canoe Cove on Vancouver Island; the sloop was commissioned by a Vancouver Island printer who had made some money from an investment in the Minto Mine in British Columbia, hence he named the sloop "Minto". After returning from World War II in 1946 Rob Wittlesey purchased the Minto and shortly thereafter traded the skiff, with "MINTO RVYC" carved into its transom, to Bob Schoen of Orcas Island for a smaller dinghy; the Minto skiff got stored in Bob's barn, where his friend Heine Dole, a NW marine architect, saw it and convinced Bob it would make a great dinghy reproduced in fiberglass. Heine took the skiff to Ed Hoppen, the Gig Harbor boat builder, the original builder of the popular Thunderbird sailboats. After cutting out about two feet and reshaping the hull and Hoppen used the old Minto skiff as the plug for the first fiberglass Minto mold.
The objective was to only build five boats for themselves, Bob Schoen, some friends. Hull number one was destroyed in trying to remove it from the mold, but hulls two through six did survive and are still in use today; as interest in the attractive little boats grew Hoppen was prompted by numerous requests to put the Minto into regular production. Ed Hoppen produced a couple hundred EDDON Boat Yard Minto's in the early 1960s, in the mid-1960s licensed Howard Smith, the owner of Ranger Boats in Kent, Washington, to add the Minto to his increasing line of small rowing and sailing craft; until Ranger was sold in 1999, "Smitty" produced about 1000 Ranger Minto's, becoming one of the most popular and recognized yacht tenders in the NW. Although the little steamship graphic displayed on the sails of the EDDON, Ranger and Rich Passage Boats Minto dinghies implies a direct link to the SS Minto steamship that operated on Arrow Lake in British Columbia for over 50 years, the association was created by Ed and Heine.
They were looking for a way to make the new little fiberglass dinghy distinctive and they thought there was a similarity to the life boats used on the SS Minto and so chose the steamship graphic for the Minto. In 2005 Rich Passage Boats, LLC of Port Orchard WA put the Minto back into production as the Rich Passage Minto, using one of the two former Ranger Minto molds; the Three Tree Point Yacht Club of Des Moines, WA has been hosting the Minto Mingle for 29 years. To see a video clip of the 2007 TTPYC Minto Mingle go to YouTube and search for "Minto dinghy". Http://www.richpassage.com/
The 29er is a two-person high performance sailing skiff designed by Julian Bethwaite and first produced in 1998. Derived from the Olympic class 49er class, it is raced in the ISAF Youth Sailing World Championships; the 29er is able to reach high speeds quickly by having a sleek and hydrodynamic hull and will exceed the wind speed when planing both up and downwind. The 29er class is targeted at youth those training to sail the larger Olympic 49er; the Youth Sailing World Championships has adopted it to replace the Laser 2 -, designed by Julian Bethwaite's father Frank. The 29er has one on trapeze; the rig features a fractional asymmetric spinnaker. The spinnaker rigging set-up challenges crews to be fit and coordinated, maneuvers in the boat require athleticism due to its lack of inherent stability and the high speed with which the battened mainsail and jib power up; the hull construction is of fibreglass-reinforced polyester in a foam sandwich layout. The battened mainsail and jib are made from a transparent Mylar laminate with orange or red Dacron trimming, while the spinnaker is manufactured from ripstop Nylon.
The mast is in three parts - an aluminium bottom and middle section, with a polyester-fiberglass composite tip to increase mast bend and decrease both overall weight, the capsizing moment a heavy mast tip can generate. Foils are aluminium or fibreglass; the 29er has been used as equipment in the ISAF Youth Sailing World Championships. Bethwaite and Jen Glass have designed the 29erXX, a twin trapeze derivative of the 29er, it uses the same hull with some minor changes such as an extended gunwale and a rudder gantry, with a larger rig that includes a square-top main and masthead asymmetric spinnaker. The class became an International Sailing Federation recognised class in its own right in 2010. In late 2012 Bethwaite announced another new version, the 29erXS, aimed at younger and/or lighter sailors; the XS features a similar rig to the XX, but of smaller size fitted to a standard 29er hull and employing a single trapeze. The intention is that sailors can upgrade the rig when they are ready to move to full sized sails, keep the hull, which will remain standard across all 29er variants.
International Links 29er.org ISAF 29er MicrositeBuilders Ovington Boats Bethwaite DesignNational Class Associations 29er Class Association of New Zealand German 29er Association British 29er Association North American Class Page Danish 29er Association Swiss 29er Association 29er Class Organisation Swedish 9er Association Polish 9er Association
The draft or draught of a ship's hull is the vertical distance between the waterline and the bottom of the hull, with the thickness of the hull included. Draft determines the minimum depth of water a boat can safely navigate; the draft can be used to determine the weight of the cargo on board by calculating the total displacement of water and using Archimedes' principle. A table made by the shipyard shows the water displacement for each draft; the density of the water and the content of the ship's bunkers has to be taken into account. The related term "trim" is defined as the difference between the forward and aft drafts; the draft aft is measured in the perpendicular of the stern. The draft forward is measured in the perpendicular of the bow; the mean draft is obtained by calculating from the averaging of the stern and bow drafts, with correction for water level variation and value of the position of F with respect to the average perpendicular. The trim of a ship is the difference between the aft draft.
When the aft draft is greater the vessel is deemed to have a negative trim, it has a positive trim when the forward draft is the greater. In such a case it is referred to as being down-by-the-head. In commercial ship operations, the ship will quote the mean draft as the vessel's draft; however in navigational situations, the maximum draft the aft draft, will be known on the bridge and will be shared with the pilot. The draft of a ship can be affected by multiple factors, not considering the rise and fall of the ship by displacement: Variation by trim Variation by list Variation by water level change Allowance of fresh water draft variation by passage from fresh to sea water or vice versa Heat variation in navigating shallow waters Variation as a result of a ship moving in shallow waters, or squat The drafts are measured with a "banded" scale, from bow and to stern, for some ships, the average perpendicular measurement is used; the scale may use metric units. If the English system is used, the bottom of each marking is the draft in feet and markings are 6 inches high.
In metric marking schemes, the bottom of each draft mark is the draft in decimeters and each mark is one decimeter high. Larger ships try to maintain an average water draft when they are light, in order to make a better sea crossing and reduce the effects of the wind. In order to achieve this they use sailing ballasts to stabilize the ship, following the unloading of cargo; the water draft of a large ship has little direct link with its stability because stability depends on the respective positions of the metacenter of the hull and the center of gravity. It is true, that a "light" ship has quite high stability which can lead to implying too much rolling of the ship. A laden ship can have either a strong or weak stability, depending upon the manner by which the ship is loaded; the draft of ships can be increased when the ship is in motion in shallow water, a phenomenon known as squat. Draft is a significant factor limiting navigable waterways for large vessels; this includes many shallow coastal waters and reefs, but some major shipping lanes.
Panamax class ships—the largest ships able to transit the Panama Canal—do have a draft limit but are limited by beam, or sometimes length overall, for fitting into locks. However, ships can be longer and higher in the Suez Canal, the limiting factor for Suezmax ships is draft; some supertankers are able to transit the Suez Canal when unladen or laden, but not when laden. Canals are not the only draft-limited shipping lanes. A Malaccamax ship, is the deepest draft able to transit the busy but shallow Strait of Malacca; the Strait only allows ships to have.4 m more draft than the Suez Canal. Capesize, Ultra Large Crude Carriers and a few Chinamax carriers, are some of the ships that have too deep a draft when laden, for either the Strait of Malacca or the Suez Canal. A small draft allows pleasure boats to navigate through shallower water; this makes it possible for these boats to access smaller ports, to travel along rivers and to'beach' the boat. A large draft ensures a good level of stability in strong wind.
For example: Ballasts placed low in the keel of a boat such as a dragon boat with a draft of 1.20 m for a length of 8.90 m. A boat like a catamaran can mitigate the problem by retrieving good stability in a small draft, but the width of the boat increases. For submarines, which can submerge to different depths at sea, a term called keel depth is used, specifying the current distance from the water surface to the bottom of the submarine's keel, it is used in navigation to avoid underwater obstacles and hitting the ocean floor, as a standard point on the submarine for depth measurements. Submarines also have a specified draft used while operating on the surface, for navigating in harbors and at docks. Air draft Hull Naval architecture Waterline Hayler, William B.. American Merchant Seaman's Manual. Cornell Maritime Prress. ISBN 0-87033-549-9. Turpin, Edward A.. Merchant Marine Officers' Handbook. Centreville, MD: Cornell Maritime Press. ISBN 0-87033-056-X
The 3000 is a racing sailing dinghy crewed by two persons with a trapeze for the crew. Launched in 1996 as the Laser 3000, the 3000 was developed from the Laser 2, using the original Frank Bethwaite-designed planing hull combined with a new designed self-draining deck by Derek Clark. Clark re-designed the rig, using spars and sails from premium proprietary sources and replacing the symmetric spinnaker of the Laser 2 by a larger asymmetric spinnaker; the gennaker is chute-launched and retrieved using a single halyard line, is set on a retractable bowsprit. Helm balance and handling were improved using a shorter-footed mainsail with two full-width battens giving a larger roach. A mast with conventional spreaders replaced the now-unusual diamond arrangement of the Laser 2; the 3000 offers fast, exciting yet easy sailing for lighter sailors - couples, parent-child and teenage combinations are common at 3000 events. A modest rig size and forgiving nature means that if other classes are sailing on a windy day, any reasonably competently crewed 3000 will be able to join them and enjoy a sparkling sail.
The 3000 class organises racing for both the original boats built by Laser alongside boats sometimes tagged'V3000' and built to the same design by VanderCraft. The latter are constructed from woven glass and epoxy resin using vacuum-bagging to produce a boat, stiff and light yet durable; the mast on current boats uses externally run rigging to enable their being sealed and thus buoyant, reducing any tendency for the boat to invert in a capsize. Other innovations introduced with the boats included a centrally mounted bowsprit, a compression-strut kicker or'Gnav' in place of the conventional kicking strap or boom vang, ‘off-the-boom’ sheeting with a take-off block at mid-boom fed from an aft bridle; the latter two rigging variations give more room in the boat for the crew members, remove any objections levelled at the original boats of being cramped due to their centre-bridle and conventional kicker. The class rules permit all variations introduced since the original Laser 3000 to be retro-fitted to existing boats, which can be done with minimal trouble or expense.
While the original Hyde sails from Laser have proved to be still competitive, North Sails now offer an alternative using the latest cloth technology. North jibs require mounting right at the bow; the boat is easy to sail singlehanded, optionally using the jib, gennaker and/or trapeze, the latter being easy to use thanks to the deck layout and lack of racks. Most boats are sailed two-up, class events presently cater for this crew format; the class association organises open meetings, including a national championships and coaching days. The atmosphere at all these events is friendly for newcomers. DimensionsLength 4.40m Beam 1.46m Mast Height 6.02mSail areasMainsail 8.60m² Jib 3.2m² Gennaker 12.80m²WeightsHull 54 kg Trolley 28 kg Trailer 45 kgPortsmouth Yardstick Number: 1065 for Laser 3000.