Galileo was an American unmanned spacecraft that studied the planet Jupiter and its moons, as well as several other Solar System bodies. Named after the astronomer Galileo Galilei, it consisted of an orbiter and it was launched on October 18,1989, carried by Space Shuttle Atlantis, on the STS-34 mission. Galileo arrived at Jupiter on December 7,1995, after gravitational assist flybys of Venus and Earth and it launched the first probe into Jupiter, directly measuring its atmosphere. Despite suffering major antenna problems, Galileo achieved the first asteroid flyby, of 951 Gaspra, in 1994, Galileo observed Comet Shoemaker–Levy 9s collision with Jupiter. Jupiters atmospheric composition and ammonia clouds were recorded, the clouds possibly created by outflows from the depths of the atmosphere. Ios volcanism and plasma interactions with Jupiters atmosphere were recorded, Ganymede was shown to possess a magnetic field and the spacecraft found new evidence for exospheres around Europa and Callisto.
Galileo discovered that Jupiters faint ring system consists of dust from impacts on the four inner moons. The extent and structure of Jupiters magnetosphere was mapped, Jupiter was rated as the number one priority in the Planetary Science Decadal Survey published in the summer of 1968. In the early 1970s the first flybys of Jupiter were achieved by Pioneer 10 and Pioneer 11, work on the spacecraft began at Jet Propulsion Laboratory in 1977, while the Voyager 1 and 2 missions were still being prepared for launch. As the shuttle program got underway, Galileo was scheduled for launch in 1984, the mission was initially called the Jupiter Orbiter Probe, it was christened Galileo in 1978. Once the spacecraft was complete, its launch was scheduled for STS-61-G on-board Atlantis in 1986, the Inertial Upper Stage booster was going to be used at first, but this changed to the Centaur booster, back to IUS after Challenger. The Centaur-G liquid hydrogen-fueled booster stage allowed a direct trajectory to Jupiter, the mission was further delayed by the hiatus in launches that occurred after the Space Shuttle Challenger disaster.
New safety protocols introduced as a result of the disaster prohibited the use of the Centaur-G stage on the Shuttle and it was finally launched on October 18,1989, by Space Shuttle Atlantis on the STS-34 mission. Venus was flown by at 05,58,48 UTC on February 10,1990, at a range of 16,106 km. Galileo performed a flyby of Earth at 303.1 km at 15,09,25 UTC on December 8,1992. Galileo performed close observations of an asteroid,243 Ida, at 16,51,59 UTC on August 28,1993. The spacecraft discovered Ida has a moon, the first discovery of a satellite orbiting an asteroid. Galileos prime mission was a study of the Jovian system
Deep Impact (spacecraft)
Deep Impact was a NASA space probe launched from Cape Canaveral Air Force Station at 18,47 UTC on January 12,2005. It was designed to study the composition of the comet Tempel 1. At 05,52 UTC on July 4,2005, the impactor successfully collided with the comets nucleus, the impact excavated debris from the interior of the nucleus, forming an impact crater. Photographs taken by the spacecraft showed the comet to be more dusty, the impact generated an unexpectedly large and bright dust cloud, obscuring the view of the impact crater. Previous space missions to comets, such as Giotto and Stardust, were fly-by missions and these missions were able to photograph and examine only the surfaces of cometary nuclei, and even from considerable distances. The Deep Impact mission was the first to eject material from a surface, and the mission garnered large publicity from the media, international scientists. Upon the completion of its mission, proposals were made to further utilize the spacecraft. Consequently, Deep Impact flew by Earth on December 31,2007 on its way to a mission, designated EPOXI, with a dual purpose to study extrasolar planets.
By observing the composition of the comet, astronomers hoped to determine how comets form based on the differences between the interior and exterior makeup of the comet, observations of the impact and its aftermath would allow astronomers to attempt to determine the answers to these questions. The missions Principal Investigator was Michael AHearn, an astronomer at the University of Maryland, the Flyby spacecraft is about 3.2 meters long,1.7 meters wide and 2.3 meters high. It includes two panels, a debris shield, and several science instruments for imaging, infrared spectroscopy. The spacecraft carried two cameras, the High Resolution Imager, and the Medium Resolution Imager.05 to 4.8 micrometres and it has been optimized for observing the comets nucleus. The MRI is the device, and was used primarily for navigation during the final 10-day approach. It has a wheel, with a slightly different set of filters. The Impactor section of the spacecraft contains an instrument that is identical to the MRI, called the Impactor Targeting Sensor.
Its dual purpose was to sense the Impactors trajectory, which could be adjusted up to four times between release and impact, and to image the comet from close range, the final image taken by the impactor was snapped only 3.7 seconds before impact. The impactors payload, dubbed the Cratering Mass, was 100% copper, including this cratering mass, copper formed 49% of total mass of the impactor, this was to minimize interference with scientific measurements. Since copper was not expected to be found on a comet, instead of using explosives, it was cheaper to use copper as the payload
Mars Science Laboratory
Mars Science Laboratory is a robotic space probe mission to Mars launched by NASA on November 26,2011, which successfully landed Curiosity, a Mars rover, in Gale Crater on August 6,2012. The overall objectives include investigating Mars habitability, studying its climate and geology, the rover carries a variety of scientific instruments designed by an international team. MSL successfully carried out the most accurate Martian landing of any spacecraft, hitting a small target landing ellipse of only 7 by 20 km. In the event, MSL achieved a landing 2.4 km east and 400 m north of the center of the target and this location is near the mountain Aeolis Mons. The rover mission is set to explore for at least 687 Earth days over a range of 5 by 20 km, the total cost of the MSL project is about US$2.5 billion. Mars rovers include Sojourner from the Mars Pathfinder mission and the Mars Exploration Rovers Spirit, Curiosity is about twice as long and five times as heavy as Spirit and Opportunity, and carries over ten times the mass of scientific instruments.
The MSL mission has four scientific goals, Determine the landing sites habitability including the role of water, the study of the climate and it is useful preparation for a future manned mission to Mars. This data would be important for a manned mission. The MSL spacecraft includes spaceflight-specific instruments, in addition to utilizing one of the rover instruments—Radiation assessment detector —during the spaceflight transit to Mars. MSL EDL Instrument, The MEDLI projects main objective is to measure aerothermal environments, sub-surface heat shield material response, vehicle orientation, the MEDLI instrumentation suite was installed in the heatshield of the MSL entry vehicle. The acquired data will support future Mars missions by providing measured atmospheric data to validate Mars atmosphere models, MEDLI instrumentation consists of three main subsystems, MEDLI Integrated Sensor Plugs, Mars Entry Atmospheric Data System and the Sensor Support Electronics. Each computers memory includes 256 KB of EEPROM,256 MB of DRAM and this compares to 3 MB of EEPROM,128 MB of DRAM, and 256 MB of flash memory used in the Mars Exploration Rovers.
The RCE computers use the RAD750 CPU operating at 200 MHz, the RAD750 CPU is capable of up to 400 MIPS, while the RAD6000 CPU is capable of up to 35 MIPS. Of the two computers, one is configured as backup, and will take over in the event of problems with the main computer. The rover has an Inertial Measurement Unit that provides 3-axis information on its position, the rovers computers are constantly self-monitoring to keep the rover operational, such as by regulating the rovers temperature. Activities such as taking pictures and operating the instruments are performed in a sequence that is sent from the flight team to the rover. The rovers computers function on VxWorks, an operating system from Wind River Systems. Once landed, the applications were replaced with software for driving on the surface, Curiosity is equipped with several means of communication, for redundancy
The Solar System is the gravitationally bound system comprising the Sun and the objects that orbit it, either directly or indirectly. Of those objects that orbit the Sun directly, the largest eight are the planets, with the remainder being significantly smaller objects, such as dwarf planets, of the objects that orbit the Sun indirectly, the moons, two are larger than the smallest planet, Mercury. The Solar System formed 4.6 billion years ago from the collapse of a giant interstellar molecular cloud. The vast majority of the mass is in the Sun. The four smaller inner planets, Venus and Mars, are terrestrial planets, being composed of rock. The four outer planets are giant planets, being more massive than the terrestrials. All planets have almost circular orbits that lie within a flat disc called the ecliptic. The Solar System contains smaller objects, the asteroid belt, which lies between the orbits of Mars and Jupiter, mostly contains objects composed, like the terrestrial planets, of rock and metal.
Beyond Neptunes orbit lie the Kuiper belt and scattered disc, which are populations of trans-Neptunian objects composed mostly of ices, within these populations are several dozen to possibly tens of thousands of objects large enough that they have been rounded by their own gravity. Such objects are categorized as dwarf planets, identified dwarf planets include the asteroid Ceres and the trans-Neptunian objects Pluto and Eris. In addition to two regions, various other small-body populations, including comets and interplanetary dust clouds. Six of the planets, at least four of the dwarf planets, each of the outer planets is encircled by planetary rings of dust and other small objects. The solar wind, a stream of charged particles flowing outwards from the Sun, the heliopause is the point at which pressure from the solar wind is equal to the opposing pressure of the interstellar medium, it extends out to the edge of the scattered disc. The Oort cloud, which is thought to be the source for long-period comets, the Solar System is located in the Orion Arm,26,000 light-years from the center of the Milky Way.
For most of history, humanity did not recognize or understand the concept of the Solar System, the invention of the telescope led to the discovery of further planets and moons. The principal component of the Solar System is the Sun, a G2 main-sequence star that contains 99. 86% of the known mass. The Suns four largest orbiting bodies, the giant planets, account for 99% of the mass, with Jupiter. The remaining objects of the Solar System together comprise less than 0. 002% of the Solar Systems total mass, most large objects in orbit around the Sun lie near the plane of Earths orbit, known as the ecliptic
Deep Space 1
Deep Space 1 was a NASA technology demonstration spacecraft which flew by an asteroid and a comet. It was part of the New Millennium Program, dedicated to testing advanced technologies, launched on 24 October 1998, the Deep Space 1 spacecraft carried out a flyby of asteroid 9969 Braille, which was its primary science target. The mission was extended twice to include an encounter with comet 19P/Borrelly, problems during its initial stages and with its star tracker led to repeated changes in mission configuration. While the flyby of the asteroid was a success, the encounter with the comet retrieved valuable information. Three of twelve technologies on board had to work within a few minutes of separation from the rocket for the mission to continue. The Deep Space series was continued by the Deep Space 2 probes, Deep Space 1 was the first NASA spacecraft to use ion propulsion rather than the traditional chemical-powered rockets. The asteroids in the inner Solar System move in relation to other bodies at a noticeable, predictable speed, thus a spacecraft can determine its relative position by tracking such asteroids across the star background, which appears fixed over such timescales.
Two or more asteroids let the spacecraft triangulate its position, two or more positions in time let the spacecraft determine its trajectory, existing spacecraft are tracked by their interactions with the transmitters of the NASA Deep Space Network, in effect an inverse GPS. However, DSN tracking requires many skilled operators, and the DSN is overburdened by its use as a communications network, the use of Autonav reduces mission cost and DSN demands. The Autonav system can be used in reverse, tracking the position of relative to the spacecraft. This is used to acquire targets for the scientific instruments, the spacecraft is programmed with the targets coarse location. After initial acquisition, Autonav keeps the subject in frame, even commandeering the spacecrafts attitude control, the next spacecraft to use Autonav was Deep Impact. ABLE Engineering developed the technology and built the solar array for DS1, with Entech Inc, who supplied the Fresnel optics. The activity was sponsored by the Ballistic Missile Defense Organization, the SCARLET arrays generated 2.5 kilowatts at 1 AU, with less size and weight than conventional arrays.
This lack of a history in space meant that despite the potential savings in propellant mass. Furthermore, unforeseen side effects of ion propulsion might in some way interfere with scientific experiments, such as fields. Therefore, it was a mission of the Deep Space 1 demonstration to show long-duration use of an ion thruster on a scientific mission. The NASA Solar Technology Application Readiness electrostatic ion thruster, developed at NASA Glenn and this is an order of magnitude higher than traditional space propulsion methods, resulting in a mass savings of approximately half
W. M. Keck Observatory
The W. M. Keck Observatory is a two-telescope astronomical observatory at an elevation of 4,145 meters near the summit of Mauna Kea in the U. S. state of Hawaii. Both telescopes feature 10 m primary mirrors, currently among the largest astronomical telescopes in use, the combination of an excellent site, large optics and innovative instruments has created the two most scientifically productive telescopes on Earth. With a design in hand a search for the funding began, Keck of the W. M. Keck Foundation gave $70 million to fund the construction of the Keck I telescope. Construction of Keck I began in September 1985, with first light occurring on 24 November 1990 using only nine of the eventual 36 segments, with construction of the first telescope well advanced, further donations allowed the construction of a second telescope starting in 1991. The Keck I telescope began observations in May 1993, while first light for Keck II occurred on October 23,1996. The key advance that allowed the construction of the Keck Observatorys large telescopes was the ability to operate smaller mirror segments as a single, in the case of the Keck Observatory telescopes each of the primary mirrors is composed of 36 hexagonal segments that work together as a single unit.
Each segment is 1.8 meters wide,7.5 centimeters thick, the mirrors were made from Zerodur glass-ceramic by the German company Schott AG. On the telescope, each segment is kept stable by a system of active optics, during observation, the computer-controlled system of sensors and actuators adjusts the position of each segment, relative to its neighbors, to an accuracy of four nanometers. This twice-per-second adjustment counters the effect of gravity as the telescope moves, each Keck Observatory telescope sits on an altazimuth mount. Most current 8–10 m class telescopes use altazimuth designs due to the structural requirements compared to older equatorial designs. This mounting style provides the greatest strength and stiffness for the least amount of steel, the total weight of each telescope is more than 300 tons. Two of the designs for the next generation 30 and 40 m telescopes use the same basic technology pioneered at Keck Observatory. Because of this difference in design, Keck Observatorys telescopes arguably remain the largest steerable.
The telescopes are equipped with a suite of instruments, both cameras and spectrometers that allow observations across much of the visible and near infrared spectrum, construction of the telescopes was made possible through private grants totaling more than $140 million provided by the W. M. Keck Foundation. The National Aeronautics and Space Administration joined the partnership in October 1996, telescope time is allocated by the partner institutions. Caltech, the University of Hawaii System, and the University of California accept proposals from their own researchers, NASA accepts proposals from researchers based in the United States, while the National Optical Astronomy Observatory accept proposals from researchers around the world. MOSFIRE MOSFIRE is a third generation instrument for the W. M. Keck Observatory, MOSFIRE was delivered to Keck Observatory on February 8,2012 and first light on the Keck I telescope was obtained on April 4,2012. Bars move in each side to form up to 46 short slits
The term Engineering is derived from the Latin ingenium, meaning cleverness and ingeniare, meaning to contrive, devise. Engineering has existed since ancient times as humans devised fundamental inventions such as the wedge, wheel, each of these inventions is essentially consistent with the modern definition of engineering. The term engineering is derived from the engineer, which itself dates back to 1390 when an engineer originally referred to a constructor of military engines. In this context, now obsolete, a referred to a military machine. Notable examples of the obsolete usage which have survived to the present day are military engineering corps, the word engine itself is of even older origin, ultimately deriving from the Latin ingenium, meaning innate quality, especially mental power, hence a clever invention. The earliest civil engineer known by name is Imhotep, as one of the officials of the Pharaoh, Djosèr, he probably designed and supervised the construction of the Pyramid of Djoser at Saqqara in Egypt around 2630–2611 BC.
Ancient Greece developed machines in both civilian and military domains, the Antikythera mechanism, the first known mechanical computer, and the mechanical inventions of Archimedes are examples of early mechanical engineering. In the Middle Ages, the trebuchet was developed, the first steam engine was built in 1698 by Thomas Savery. The development of this gave rise to the Industrial Revolution in the coming decades. With the rise of engineering as a profession in the 18th century, similarly, in addition to military and civil engineering, the fields known as the mechanic arts became incorporated into engineering. The inventions of Thomas Newcomen and the Scottish engineer James Watt gave rise to mechanical engineering. The development of specialized machines and machine tools during the revolution led to the rapid growth of mechanical engineering both in its birthplace Britain and abroad. John Smeaton was the first self-proclaimed civil engineer and is regarded as the father of civil engineering.
He was an English civil engineer responsible for the design of bridges, harbours and he was a capable mechanical engineer and an eminent physicist. Smeaton designed the third Eddystone Lighthouse where he pioneered the use of hydraulic lime and his lighthouse remained in use until 1877 and was dismantled and partially rebuilt at Plymouth Hoe where it is known as Smeatons Tower. The United States census of 1850 listed the occupation of engineer for the first time with a count of 2,000, there were fewer than 50 engineering graduates in the U. S. before 1865. In 1870 there were a dozen U. S. mechanical engineering graduates, in 1890 there were 6,000 engineers in civil, mining and electrical. There was no chair of applied mechanism and applied mechanics established at Cambridge until 1875, the theoretical work of James Maxwell and Heinrich Hertz in the late 19th century gave rise to the field of electronics
Mars Pathfinder is an American robotic spacecraft that landed a base station with a roving probe on Mars in 1997. It consisted of a lander, renamed the Carl Sagan Memorial Station, and a lightweight wheeled robotic Mars rover named Sojourner, the lander opened, exposing the rover which conducted many experiments on the Martian surface. The mission carried a series of instruments to analyze the Martian atmosphere, geology. The mission was directed by the Jet Propulsion Laboratory, a division of the California Institute of Technology, the project manager was JPLs Tony Spear. This mission was the first of a series of missions to Mars that included rovers, although the Soviet Union successfully sent rovers to the Moon as part of the Lunokhod program in the 1970s, its attempts to use rovers in its Mars program failed. The Mars Pathfinder was remarkable for its low cost relative to other unmanned space missions to Mars. Originally, the mission was conceived as the first of the Mars Environmental Survey program, to prove that the development of faster and cheaper spacecraft was possible.
To show that it was possible to send a load of scientific instruments to another planet with a simple system, to demonstrate NASAs commitment to low-cost planetary exploration by finishing the mission with a total expenditure of $280 million, including the launch vehicle and mission operations. The Mars Pathfinder conducted different investigations on the Martian soil using three scientific instruments, the MET structure included three windsocks mounted at three heights on a pole, the topmost at about one meter and generally registered winds from the West. The Sojourner rover had an Alpha Proton X-ray Spectrometer, which was used to analyze the components of the rocks, the rover had two black-and-white cameras and a color one. A third camera with the resolution but taking color images was located on the back, near the APXS. It provided images of the APXSs target area and the tracks on the ground. All three cameras were CCDs manufactured by Eastman Kodak Company, and were controlled by the rovers CPU and they all had auto-exposure and capabilities for handling bad pixels, and the image parameters were included in the transmitted images as part of the image header.
The rover could compress the front cameras images using the block truncation coding algorithm, the cameras optical resolution was sufficient to resolve 0.6 cm details across a 0.65 m range. Scientists chose it because they found it to be a relatively safe surface to land on and one that contained a wide variety of rocks deposited during a catastrophic flood. After the landing, at 19. 13°N33. 22°W /19.13, -33.22, the landers on-board computer used redundant on-board accelerometers to determine the timing of the parachute inflation. Twenty seconds the heatshield was pyrotechnically released, another twenty seconds the lander was separated and lowered from the backshell on a 20 m bridle. When the lander reached 1.6 km above the surface and this information was used by the computer to determine the precise timing of the landing events that followed
It is used to establish or confirm facts, reaffirm the results of previous work, solve new or existing problems, support theorems, or develop new theories. A research project may be an expansion on past work in the field, to test the validity of instruments, procedures, or experiments, research may replicate elements of prior projects or the project as a whole. The primary purposes of research are documentation, interpretation, or the research and development of methods. Approaches to research depend on epistemologies, which vary considerably both within and between humanities and sciences, there are several forms of research, humanities, economic, business, practitioner research, technological, etc. The earliest recorded use of the term was in 1577, Research has been defined in a number of different ways. Another definition of research is given by John W. Creswell and it consists of three steps, pose a question, collect data to answer the question, and present an answer to the question. Original research is research that is not exclusively based on a summary and this material is of a primary source character.
The purpose of the research is to produce new knowledge. Original research can take a number of forms, depending on the discipline it pertains to, in analytical work, there are typically some new mathematical results produced, or a new way of approaching an existing problem. The degree of originality of the research is among major criteria for articles to be published in academic journals, graduate students are commonly required to perform original research as part of a dissertation. Scientific research is a way of gathering data and harnessing curiosity. This research provides scientific information and theories for the explanation of the nature, scientific research is funded by public authorities, by charitable organizations and by private groups, including many companies. Scientific research can be subdivided into different classifications according to their academic, Research in the humanities involves different methods such as for example hermeneutics and semiotics. Humanities scholars usually do not search for the correct answer to a question.
Context is always important, and context can be social, political, cultural, an example of research in the humanities is historical research, which is embodied in historical method. Historians use primary sources and other evidence to systematically investigate a topic, other studies aim to merely examine the occurrence of behaviours in societies and communities, without particularly looking for reasons or motivations to explain these. These studies may be qualitative or quantitative, and can use a variety of approaches, Artistic research, seen as practice-based research, can take form when creative works are considered both the research and the object of research itself. It is the body of thought which offers an alternative to purely scientific methods in research in its search for knowledge