FAW Group Corporation is a Chinese state-owned automotive manufacturing company headquartered in Changchun, China. Its principal products are automobiles. FAW became China's first automobile manufacturer when it unveiled the nation's first domestically produced passenger car, the Hong Qi, in 1958. FAW is one of the "Big Four" Chinese automakers alongside Changan Automobile, Dongfeng Motor, SAIC Motor. In 2014, the company ranked third in terms of output making 2.7 million whole vehicles. The company has three publicly traded subsidiaries: FAW Car Co. Ltd. Tianjin FAW Xiali Automobile Co. Ltd. and Changchun FAWAY Automobile Components Co. Ltd.. In 1953, the first year of the first five-year plan, First Automobile Works broke ground on its first factory although it didn't produce its first product, the 4-ton Jie Fang CA-10 truck, until 1956. Soviet Russia lent assistance during these early years providing technical support and production machinery. Before its first factory opened, 39 Chinese FAW employees traveled to the Stalin Truck Factory for instruction in truck production.
Operations were conducted in the Soviet mold, Russia is credited with choosing Changchun as the location for the first FAW vehicle-manufacturing facility. The city boasted an industrial base left over from Japanese occupation and, situated in northeastern China, is near Russia. First Automobile Works made only commercial trucks but started producing passenger cars in 1958; these vehicles, the Hong Qi luxury sedans, were the first domestically produced Chinese automobiles. Only for party elite, the design changed little over their thirty-year production run. Following this, FAW's Audi products are the traditionally favored choice for ranking Chinese state officials; these Audis are, alongside Beijing Benz Mercedes Benzes some of the only Western luxury cars to have gained popularity in the Chinese market. In 1992, the name First Automobile Works was changed to China FAW Group Corporation. Though FAW was the fourth Chinese automaker to take on Western partners, its early joint venture with Volkswagen in 1990 saw it become the second Chinese auto company to develop a strong cooperative relationship with a foreign counterpart.
SAIC was the first, in 1984 and with VW. Other, failed foreign-Chinese joint ventures preceding FAW-VW are what is now Beijing Benz and the failed Guangzhou Peugeot Automobile Company. Volkswagen was the first foreign partner for FAW; the company acquired 50% ownership of Tianjin Automotive Xiali in September, 2002, renamed the brand FAW Tianjin. As a result, FAW ended up with Toyota as a foreign joint venture partner. FAW established a joint venture with General Motors in 2009 and has joint ventures with a handful of other foreign companies as well; the company produced more than 1.5 million vehicles in 2008, in 2009 it was the largest machinery corporation and the second largest auto manufacturer in China. In 2010, the 2.56 million units sold made it the third most-productive vehicle maker in China that year, one of its offerings, the FAW Xiali, was the 7th most-purchased car in China in 2010. It produced 2.6 million vehicles in the third-largest output of any China-based company. While it retained its third place rank, the number of whole vehicles produced in 2012 slowed to 2.3 million.
Passenger cars made up a scant 64% of total production that year. FAW sells products under at least ten different brands including its own; the following is an incomplete list. SiTech, a brand that focuses on electric vehicles. Established in 2018 with the first car called SiTech DEV1 launched. Besturn, established on August 18, 2006, It may be known as Ben Teng. Senia Dario Haima, a brand for Mazda-based vehicles built in Hainan Hong Qi Jiaxing, a brand of Tianjin FAW Xiali Automobile Company, a car manufacturing subsidiary of FAW Jie Fang Jilin, a maker of mini-vehicles, small trucks and vans that see commercial use, in Jilin City, Jilin province Junpai Oley, a new brand, targeting young buyers but was withdrawn. Pengxiang Shenli Yuan Zheng Tianjin XialiIts foreign joint ventures manufacture the following brands for sale in the Chinese market: Audi General Motors Mazda Toyota Volkswagen Hongqi E-HS3 Hongqi H5 Hongqi H7 Hongqi L5 Besturn B30 Besturn B50 Besturn B70 Besturn B70 RS Besturn B90 Besturn X40 Besturn X80 Besturn T77 Junpai A50 Junpai CX65 Junpai A70 Junpai D60 Junpai D80 Senia R7 Senia R9 Haima 1 Haima 2 Haima 3 Haima 7 Haima Family Haima Freema Haima M3 Haima M5 Haima M6 Haima M8 Haima S5 Haima S7 Haima V70 Including the Xiali passenger vehicle series.
FAW Weizhi V2 FAW Weizhi V5 FAW Weizhi Hatchback FAW Weizhi Sedan FAW Vita FAW Vizi FAW Xiali N3 FAW Xiali N5 FAW Xiali N7 FAW has at least 28 wholly owned subsidiaries and controlling shares in 18 owned subsidiaries. These include the wholly owned subsidiaries FAW Jie Fang Truck Co Ltd and FAW Bus and Coach Co Ltd, the foreign joint venture FAW-Volkswagen Automobile Co Ltd, the publicly traded FAW Car Co Ltd, Tianjin FAW Xiali Automobile Co Ltd, Changchun FAWAY Automobile Components Co Ltd. Unit/year production capacity figures may consider whole vehicles as discrete; the following is an incomplete list. The 9th Industrial Machinery Design and Research Institute A wholly owned subsidiary since 1958, this institute is responsible for production base design. Chengdu FAW Automobile Co Ltd Becoming a owned subsidiary in 2002 after the acquisition of the
A car is a wheeled motor vehicle used for transportation. Most definitions of car say they run on roads, seat one to eight people, have four tires, transport people rather than goods. Cars came into global use during the 20th century, developed economies depend on them; the year 1886 is regarded as the birth year of the modern car when German inventor Karl Benz patented his Benz Patent-Motorwagen. Cars became available in the early 20th century. One of the first cars accessible to the masses was the 1908 Model T, an American car manufactured by the Ford Motor Company. Cars were adopted in the US, where they replaced animal-drawn carriages and carts, but took much longer to be accepted in Western Europe and other parts of the world. Cars have controls for driving, passenger comfort, safety, controlling a variety of lights. Over the decades, additional features and controls have been added to vehicles, making them progressively more complex; these include rear reversing cameras, air conditioning, navigation systems, in-car entertainment.
Most cars in use in the 2010s are propelled by an internal combustion engine, fueled by the combustion of fossil fuels. Electric cars, which were invented early in the history of the car, began to become commercially available in 2008. There are benefits to car use; the costs include acquiring the vehicle, interest payments and maintenance, depreciation, driving time, parking fees and insurance. The costs to society include maintaining roads, land use, road congestion, air pollution, public health, health care, disposing of the vehicle at the end of its life. Road traffic accidents are the largest cause of injury-related deaths worldwide; the benefits include on-demand transportation, mobility and convenience. The societal benefits include economic benefits, such as job and wealth creation from the automotive industry, transportation provision, societal well-being from leisure and travel opportunities, revenue generation from the taxes. People's ability to move flexibly from place to place has far-reaching implications for the nature of societies.
There are around 1 billion cars in use worldwide. The numbers are increasing especially in China and other newly industrialized countries; the word car is believed to originate from the Latin word carrus or carrum, or the Middle English word carre. In turn, these originated from the Gaulish word karros, it referred to any wheeled horse-drawn vehicle, such as a cart, carriage, or wagon. "Motor car" is attested from 1895, is the usual formal name for cars in British English. "Autocar" is a variant, attested from 1895, but, now considered archaic. It means "self-propelled car"; the term "horseless carriage" was used by some to refer to the first cars at the time that they were being built, is attested from 1895. The word "automobile" is a classical compound derived from the Ancient Greek word autós, meaning "self", the Latin word mobilis, meaning "movable", it entered the English language from French, was first adopted by the Automobile Club of Great Britain in 1897. Over time, the word "automobile" fell out of favour in Britain, was replaced by "motor car".
"Automobile" remains chiefly North American as a formal or commercial term. An abbreviated form, "auto", was a common way to refer to cars in English, but is now considered old-fashioned; the word is still common as an adjective in American English in compound formations like "auto industry" and "auto mechanic". In Dutch and German, two languages related to English, the abbreviated form "auto" / "Auto", as well as the formal full version "automobiel" / "Automobil" are still used — in either the short form is the most regular word for "car"; the first working steam-powered vehicle was designed — and quite built — by Ferdinand Verbiest, a Flemish member of a Jesuit mission in China around 1672. It was a 65-cm-long scale-model toy for the Chinese Emperor, unable to carry a driver or a passenger, it is not known with certainty if Verbiest's model was built or run. Nicolas-Joseph Cugnot is credited with building the first full-scale, self-propelled mechanical vehicle or car in about 1769, he constructed two steam tractors for the French Army, one of, preserved in the French National Conservatory of Arts and Crafts.
His inventions were, handicapped by problems with water supply and maintaining steam pressure. In 1801, Richard Trevithick built and demonstrated his Puffing Devil road locomotive, believed by many to be the first demonstration of a steam-powered road vehicle, it was unable to maintain sufficient steam pressure for long periods and was of little practical use. The development of external combustion engines is detailed as part of the history of the car but treated separately from the development of true cars. A variety of steam-powered road vehicles were used during the first part of the 19th century, including steam cars, steam buses and steam rollers. Sentiment against them led to the Locomotive Acts of 1865. In 1807, Nicéphore Niépce and his brother Claude created what was the world's first internal combustion engine, but they chose to install it in a boat on the river Saone in France. Coincidentally, in 1807 the Swiss inventor François Isaac de Rivaz designed his own'de Rivaz internal combustion engine' and used it to develop the world's first vehicle to be powered by such an engine.
Volkswagen. It is the flagship marque of the Volkswagen Group, the largest automaker by worldwide sales in 2016 and 2017; the group's main market is in China, which delivers 40 % of its profits. Volkswagen translates to "people's car" in German; the company's current international advertising slogan is just "Volkswagen", referencing the name's meaning. Volkswagen was established in 1937 by the German Labour Front in Berlin. In the early 1930s cars were a luxury: most Germans could afford nothing more elaborate than a motorcycle. Only one German out of 50 owned a car. Seeking a potential new market, some car makers began independent "people's car" projects – the Mercedes 170H, Adler AutoBahn, Steyr 55, Hanomag 1.3L, among others. The trend was not new, as Béla Barényi is credited with having conceived the basic design in the mid-1920s. Josef Ganz developed the Standard Superior. In Germany, the company Hanomag mass-produced the 2/10 PS "Kommissbrot", a small, cheap rear-engined car, from 1925 to 1928.
In Czechoslovakia, the Hans Ledwinka's penned Tatra T77, a popular car amongst the German elite, was becoming smaller and more affordable at each revision. Ferdinand Porsche, a well-known designer for high-end vehicles and race cars, had been trying for years to get a manufacturer interested in a small car suitable for a family, he built a car named the "Volksauto" from the ground up in 1933, using many popular ideas and several of his own, putting together a car with an air-cooled rear engine, torsion bar suspension, a "beetle" shape, the front hood rounded for better aerodynamics. In 1934, with many of the above projects still in development or early stages of production, Adolf Hitler became involved, ordering the production of a basic vehicle capable of transporting two adults and three children at 100 km/h, he wanted all German citizens to have access to cars. The "People's Car" would be available to citizens of the Third Reich through a savings plan at 990 Reichsmarks —about the price of a small motorcycle.
Despite heavy lobbying in favour of one of the existing projects, it soon became apparent that private industry could not turn out a car for only 990 RM. Thus, Hitler chose to sponsor an state-owned factory using Ferdinand Porsche's design; the intention was that ordinary Germans would buy the car by means of a savings scheme, which around 336,000 people paid into. However, the entire project was financially unsound, only the Nazi party made it possible to provide funding. Prototypes of the car called the "KdF-Wagen", appeared from 1938 onwards; the car had its distinctive round shape and air-cooled, flat-four, rear-mounted engine. The VW car was just one of many KdF programs, which included things such as outings; the prefix Volks— was not just applied to cars, but to other products in Germany. On 28 May 1937, Gesellschaft zur Vorbereitung des Deutschen Volkswagens mbH, or Gezuvor for short, was established by the Deutsche Arbeitsfront in Berlin. More than a year on 16 September 1938, it was renamed to Volkswagenwerk GmbH.
Erwin Komenda, the longstanding Auto Union chief designer, part of Ferdinand Porsche's hand-picked team, developed the car body of the prototype, recognizably the Beetle known today. It was one of the first cars designed with the aid of a wind tunnel—a method used for German aircraft design since the early 1920s; the car designs were put through rigorous tests, achieved a record-breaking million miles of testing before being deemed finished. The construction of the new factory started in May 1938 in the new town of "Stadt des KdF-Wagens", purpose-built for the factory workers; this factory had only produced a handful of cars by the time war started in 1939. None were delivered to any holder of the completed saving stamp books, though one Type 1 Cabriolet was presented to Hitler on 20 April 1944. War changed production to military vehicles—the Type 82 Kübelwagen utility vehicle, the amphibious Schwimmwagen—manufactured for German forces; as was common with much of the production in Nazi Germany during the war, slave labor was utilized in the Volkswagen plant, e.g. from Arbeitsdorf concentration camp.
The company would admit in 1998. German historians estimated. Many of the slaves were reported to have been supplied from the concentration camps upon request from plant managers. A lawsuit was filed in 1998 by survivors for restitution for the forced labor. Volkswagen would set up a voluntary restitution fund; the company owes its post-war existence to one man, wartime British Army officer Major Ivan Hirst, REME. In April 1945, KdF-Stadt and its bombed factory were captured by the Americans, subsequently handed over to the British, within whose occupation zone the town and fa
FAW-Volkswagen Automobile Co. Ltd. is a joint venture between FAW Group and Volkswagen Group which manufactures Audi and Volkswagen marque passenger cars for sale in China. Ownership of the company is: FAW – 51%, Volkswagen AG – 20%, Audi AG – 10%, Volkswagen Invest – 19%. FAW-VW was founded on 6 February 1991. FAW-VW is headquartered in the south-western fringes of Changchun, Jilin Province, where it has two vehicle assembly plants, it has an additional assembly plant in Chengdu, Sichuan Province, a fourth plant is under construction in Foshan, Guangdong Province. FAW-VW is capable of producing the cars based on the platforms of PQ34, PQ35 and PQ46. FAW-VW's year-on-year production volume exceeded 513,000 units as of 31.07.2009. In 2011, FAW-VW sold just over 1,000,000 automobiles. On November 20, 1990, the official contract of an annual capacity of 150,000 cars for the joint venture between FAW Group and Volkswagen AG was signed by Geng Zhaojie, President of FAW and Dr. Carl Hahn, CEO of Volkswagen AG in the Great Hall of the People, Beijing.
All of the facilities in the first car plant, including the body shop, paint shop and assembly shop came together from the abandoned factory of VW's in Westmoreland, USA. The company started its business on September 1, 1992. On December 5, 1991, the first Volkswagen Jetta Mk2 rolled off the line. Two years on February 7, 1993, the 10,000th car rolled off the line. In 1995 FAW Group, Volkswagen AG and Audi AG decided to integrate Audi to the product line of the joint ventures, the equity holdings were changed with 60% for FAW, 30% for VW and 10% Audi. On May 20, 1996, the first Audi 200 rolled off the line. On July 10, 1996, the engine shop started running. By July 1996, the company was capable of producing 150,000 cars, 270,000 engines and 180,000 gearboxes in one year. In 1997 FAW-Volkswagen Sales Company Ltd. was established as a joint venture between FAW-VW and FAW Group with the equity holdings of 50% for each, it was a smart idea of avoiding the Germans to take control of the sales department under the policy of the governing body then.
By 2002 FAW-VW took the majority of the equities back from FAW Group. In 1998 the Jetta King became the first car equipped with ABS system in the Chinese A-class market. In 1999 the Jetta was registered in FIA Group N category, it entered a lot of Rally events in China with FRD Sport and Qingyang Racing from the late 1990s to early 2000s. In 2002 the Jetta became the first mass production passenger car in China to be available with a diesel engine. On January 7, 2004, the 1,000,000 car rolled off the line. On December 7, 2004, FAW-VW's second car plant began operating. On August 4, 2009, the 3,000,000th car rolled off the line in car plant #2. By 2010 FAW-VW had sold over 1,000,000 Audis in China. With the celebration, a sculpture named'Ode to Audi' from Gerry Judah was set at the entrance of the company. According to Chinese government policy, foreign auto manufactures should develop domestic brands with their local partners, thus FAW-VW revealed its own brand'Kaili' in May 2011. On August 15, 2011, FAW-VW celebrated its twentieth anniversary with its one millionth car in 2011.
November 2016: Changchun FAW-VW agency workers organize and file a report on unfair labor conditions to the All-China Federation of Trade Unions December 2016-January 2017: With the intervention of Changchun ACFTU, worker representatives engage in two collective bargaining sessions with FAW-VW and Hongxin Youye. The two CB sessions don’t seem to have yielded any outcomes. January–February 2017: Over one thousand FAW-VW agency workers present their case to the district’s labor arbitration committee, they get no official replyFebruary 2017: Agency workers present their cases to court, which rejects their claims. 500 plus agency workers hold a protest in front of the local Ministry of Human Resources and Social Security office. April 2017: Agency workers organize a May Day protest, but they cancel their plans under police pressureMay 21, 2017: Agency workers gather at the gates of the company and chant slogans during the Changchun International Marathon May 26, 2017: Worker representatives Fu Tianbo, Wang Shuai and Ai Zhenyu are detained for “gathering crowds to disrupt public order”.
Not long after, Wang and Ai are released, Fu remains in detention. June 7, 2017: Worker representative Fu Tianbo is put under arrestJuly 2017: Police harassment of Fu Tianbo’s family increases, Fu’s mother publishes video demanding to see her son, otherwise she will go to Beijing to present her grievances to higher government officials. July 19, 2017: The three arrested workers send a letter to Volkswagen, its World Works Council and its European Works CouncilAugust 2, 2017: Officers of IG Metal send a letter to VW China demanding an end to the judicial persecution of the three arrested workers. Automobile production started in December 1991, the current manufactured range includes: Audi A3 Type 8V Audi A4L Type B9 Audi A6L Type C7 Audi Q3 Audi Q5 Volkswagen Jetta Night Volkswagen Bora Mk. II Volkswagen C-Trek Volkswagen Golf Mk. VII Volkswagen Golf GTI Mk. VII Volkswagen Golf Sportsvan Volkswagen Sagitar Mk. II Volkswagen Magotan Type B8L Volkswagen T-Roc Volkswagen CC The new Jetta marque is scheduled to be on sale in 2019 with three models: VA3 VA5 VA7 Audi 100 Audi 200 Lang Audi A4 Type B6 Audi A4 Type
Volkswagen Jetta (China)
The Mark 2 Jetta went on to become the first Volkswagen model produced in China by Volkswagen Group China's second joint venture partner FAW-Volkswagen. Production began on 5 December 1991. Sold as complete knock down kits, local manufacturing has taken over in the form of Semi-Knocked Down kits in 1992, full local production in 1995; the car has had three revisions since its inception in China. The Volkswagen Jetta King, is a Chinese Volkswagen model produced by FAW-Volkswagen at its plants in Changchun and Chengdu, it was replaced the Volkswagen Jetta. The Jetta King was the result of the technical combination between the Volkswagen Jetta and design scheme from the fourth generation Volkswagen Passat in 1997. Production started in August 1998, its name was changed to "Jetta King"; the second facelift was revealed in March 2004. On 29 July 2007, it was announced that First Automotive Works expanded its production of the Mark 2 Jetta by building a new assembly plant in Chengdu, Sichuan Province in Southwest China.
The expansion was driven by the high demand for the car, a desire to expand in the western part of the country, as well as the long-term goal of FAW to develop new derivatives from the car's platform independently of Volkswagen. The most striking feature of the Jetta King was the new front end; the interior of the different equipment lines came from the Corrado and Passat B5. The dimensions of the vehicles are different depending on the chosen equipment line. Only the trunk volume of 660 liters is the same for all units, it was only the 1.6-liter four-cylinder engine with 5 valves per cylinder and a displacement of 1595 cc available. The power of it was 74 kW, it had a manual four-speed gearbox, replaced by a five speed gearbox. From November 1998 onward, there was an option for a 4-speed automatic. A month earlier, the first units were made with ABS. In April 2001, the equipment line Meeresbrise was launched with an EFI engine and a power of 64 kW. A 1.9-liter engine with a displacement of 1896 cc and a power output of 47 kW was added to the lineup in April 2002.
The 1.6-liter engine was removed from the engine range. At the same time, the Jetta König was facelifted in 2002 with new rear fascias. A 1.6-liter EFI engine producing 70 kW was included in the range. At the same time the prestige model Meeresbrise was replaced by the new Avantgarde, it can be recognized on the green or black tinted windows. From June 2009 the 1.6-liter RSH engine engine with a power of 70 kW was available. Following equipment lines of the Jetta King were offered: AT, ATF, Avantgarde, CDX, CiF, CiX, CT, GDF, GiF, GT, GTI, GTX and Meeresbrise; the Volkswagen Jetta King was available in the form of a 2 door pickup truck. Few of these were produced; the third facelift called the Volkswagen Jetta Pioneer, is a Chinese Volkswagen model produced by FAW-Volkswagen at its plants in Changchun and Chengdu. It was released in March 2010 replacing the Volkswagen Jetta King and taking some inspirations from stylings of Volkswagen models of the newest generation. A diesel version of the Jetta is on sale, but a large proportion are in service as taxis in many cities in China, rather than as private cars.
The new exterior brought new production and sales records. It received rear bumpers, along with new grill and lights. Furthermore, there was a new instrument panel with a three-spoke steering wheel to give the impression of a sporty car and driver's airbag as standard. Other standard features were a CD player that could read MP3 CDs, an ISOFIX system for child seats, the seat belt alarm for the driver and an antilock braking system and EBD for better distribution of the braking force. Only the taxi version had electrically adjustable rear view mirrors; the 1.6-liter RSH with an output of 70 kW served as the standard engine. The consumption is indicated at 7.5 liters per 100 km. However, the favorable fuel consumption was the optional 1.9L SDI engine with a power of 47 kW. The consumption of this engine was indicated at 4.5 liters per 100 km. This version of the Jetta was not offered in different trim levels, it was a single model for the Chinese market. It varied in two forms only, one as the other as a taxi.
The Volkswagen Jetta Night is a Chinese Volkswagen model produced by FAW-Volkswagen at its plants in Changchun and Chengdu. It was replaced the Volkswagen Jetta Pioneer; the Jetta Night is available with two different engines of the type EA211. These are corresponding by region to the China China V emission standard, it is a four-cylinder in-line engine with 4 valves per cylinder. The fuel injection is controlled electronically, as in all modern engines; the performance is 66 or 81 kW. Following equipment lines are offered: Avantgarde and Luxury. There's a 6-speed automatic transmission option; the Jetta was given a facelift in 2017 with a new front and rear design and a brand new 1.5 litre engine and 7 speed dual clutch gearbox for the 230TSI model. Volkswagen Jetta Volkswagen Santana Skoda Rapid FAW-VW Volkswagen Jetta King official website Volkswagen Jetta Pioneer official website Volkswagen Jetta Night official website
SEAT Ateca is a compact crossover vehicle manufactured by Spanish automaker SEAT. It is the successor to the SEAT Altea; the Ateca debuted as a concept vehicle, the SEAT IBX at the 2011 Geneva Motor Show followed by the SEAT 20v20 Concept in the 2015 Geneva Motor Show. The car is named after the Spanish town of Ateca in Aragon; as part of Volkswagen's policy of making similar models with shared platforms in the same factory, the Ateca is produced at Škoda's production facility in Kvasiny, alongside the Škoda Karoq. The top of the range model is the Xcellence; this model boasts leather seats, an 8 inch touchscreen, 18 inch alloy wheels and a drive setting wheel, which lets you choose from sport, eco, off road and snow. Mid range is the SE version, the bottom of the range is the S version. Media related to SEAT Ateca at Wikimedia Commons
The automotive industry is a wide range of companies and organizations involved in the design, manufacturing and selling of motor vehicles. It is one of the world's largest economic sectors by revenue; the automotive industry does not include industries dedicated to the maintenance of automobiles following delivery to the end-user, such as automobile repair shops and motor fuel filling stations. The word automotive is from the Greek autos, Latin motivus to refer to any form of self-powered vehicle; this term, as proposed by Elmer Sperry, first came into use with reference to automobiles in 1898. The automotive industry began in the 1860s with hundreds of manufacturers that pioneered the horseless carriage. For many decades, the United States led the world in total automobile production. In 1929, before the Great Depression, the world had 32,028,500 automobiles in use, the U. S. automobile industry produced over 90% of them. At that time the U. S. had one car per 4.87 persons. After World War II, the U.
S. produced about 75 percent of world's auto production. In 1980, the U. S. was overtaken by Japan and became world's leader again in 1994. In 2006, Japan narrowly passed the U. S. in production and held this rank until 2009, when China took the top spot with 13.8 million units. With 19.3 million units manufactured in 2012, China doubled the U. S. production, with 10.3 million units, while Japan was in third place with 9.9 million units. From 1970 over 1998 to 2012, the number of automobile models in the U. S. has grown exponentially. Safety is a state that implies to be protected from any risk, damage or cause of injury. In the automotive industry, safety means that users, operators or manufacturers do not face any risk or danger coming from the motor vehicle or its spare parts. Safety for the automobiles themselves, implies that there is no risk of damage. Safety in the automotive industry is important and therefore regulated. Automobiles and other motor vehicles have to comply with a certain number of norms and regulations, whether local or international, in order to be accepted on the market.
The standard ISO 26262, is considered as one of the best practice framework for achieving automotive functional safety. In case of safety issues, product defect or faulty procedure during the manufacturing of the motor vehicle, the maker can request to return either a batch or the entire production run; this procedure is called product recall. Product recalls happen in every industry and can be production-related or stem from the raw material. Product and operation tests and inspections at different stages of the value chain are made to avoid these product recalls by ensuring end-user security and safety and compliance with the automotive industry requirements. However, the automotive industry is still concerned about product recalls, which cause considerable financial consequences. Around the world, there were about 806 million cars and light trucks on the road in 2007, consuming over 980 billion litres of gasoline and diesel fuel yearly; the automobile is a primary mode of transportation for many developed economies.
The Detroit branch of Boston Consulting Group predicts that, by 2014, one-third of world demand will be in the four BRIC markets. Meanwhile, in the developed countries, the automotive industry has slowed down, it is expected that this trend will continue as the younger generations of people no longer want to own a car anymore, prefer other modes of transport. Other powerful automotive markets are Iran and Indonesia. Emerging auto markets buy more cars than established markets. According to a J. D. Power study, emerging markets accounted for 51 percent of the global light-vehicle sales in 2010; the study, performed in 2010 expected this trend to accelerate. However, more recent reports confirmed the opposite. In the United States, vehicle sales peaked in 2000, at 17.8 million units. The OICA counts over 50 countries which assemble, manufacture or disseminate automobiles. Of that figure, only 13, boldfaced in the list below, possess the capability to design automobiles from the ground up; this is a list of the 15 largest manufacturers by production in 2016.
It is common for automobile manufacturers to hold stakes in other automobile manufacturers. These ownerships can be explored under the detail for the individual companies. Notable current relationships include: Daimler AG holds a 10.0% stake in KAMAZ. Daimler AG holds an 89.29% stake in Mitsubishi Fuso Truck and Bus Corporation. Daimler AG holds a 3.1% in the Renault-Nissan Alliance. Daimler AG holds a 12% stake in Beijing Automotive Group, Daimler AG holds an 85% stake in Master Motors. Dongfeng Motor holds a 12.23% stake and a 19.94% exercisable voting rights in PSA Groupe. FAW Group owns 49% of Haima Automobile. FCA holds a 10% stake in Ferrari. FCA holds a 67% stake in Fiat Automobili Srbija. FCA holds 37.8% of Tofaş with another 37.8% owned by Koç Holding. Fiat Automobili Srbija owns a 54% stake in Zastava Trucks. Fiat Industrial owns a 46% stake in Zastava Trucks. Fujian Motors Group holds a 15% stake in King Long. FMG, Beijing Automotive Group, China Motor, Daimler has a joint venture called Fujian Benz.
FMG, China Motor, Mitsubishi Motors has a joint venture called Soueast, FMG holds a 50% stake, both China Motor and Mitsubishi Motors holds an equal 25% stake. Geely Automobile holds a 23% stake in The London Taxi Company. Geely Automobile holds a 49.9% stake in PROTON Holdings and a 51% stake in Lotus Cars. Geely Holding Group holds a 9.69% stake in Daimle