Los Angeles Fashion District
The Los Angeles Fashion District is a design and distribution nexus of the clothing and fabric industry in Downtown Los Angeles. The Fashion District spans 90 blocks and is the hub of the apparel industry on the West Coast of the United States. Thousands of fast-fashion wholesale vendors line the streets of the Los Angeles Fashion District. Fast-fashion vendors stock the most recent fashion trends straight from the catwalk. Clothing companies that manufacture in the Fashion District include American Apparel and Andrew Christian. In March and October, the district is recognized for Los Angeles Fashion Week. Crowds. Celebrities, media, VIP’s from all over the country come to sneak the first peek at new collections and trends; the LA Fashion Magazine highlights new designers, trend reports, fashion news and photos straight from the catwalk during fashion week. The District is home to the Los Angeles Flower District and Santee Alley, the downtown open air bazaar. Designer showrooms and wholesale businesses are trade-only, but the district is open to the public Santee Alley and businesses in the surrounding area.
Many businesses on the west side of the district are open to the public on the last Friday of the month for sample sales. The Los Angeles garment industry was established early in the 20th century, grew in the 1920s and 1930s. In the 1950s, the area became a center for sportswear and women's clothing with the contributions of Jewish entrepreneurs who had moved to the area from New York City. Sephardic Jews from North Africa and France entered the area's garment trade in the 1970s. By 2000, the area's textile trade was dominated by Middle Easterners and North Africans, followed by Koreans; as of 2015, at least a third of the businesses were Korean, according to the Korean American Apparel Manufacturers Association. The garment district’s evolution to include retailing in addition to manufacturing and wholesale sales, began in the Santee Alley. An alley that serviced the back doors of manufacturing and wholesale businesses, these businesses would open retail outlets out their back doors for one or two days a week.
These retail operations grew into full-time businesses along four blocks and transformed the alley into a bazaar. In 1995, a group of business owners in the Garment District established a business improvement district to improve the neighborhood. In 1996 the new group formally changed the name of the Garment District to the Los Angeles Fashion District. At the time, the Garment District consisted of 56 blocks. Santee Alley is a populated shopping path in the Fashion District between Maple and Santee Streets, stretching from Olympic Boulevard to Pico Boulevard. Counterfeit goods have been sold in Santee Alley; the alley is known for its illegal trade in live animals, criticized by animal rights activists as cruel. At times the LAPD has raided the alley to arrest counterfeiters. During a two-day raid in 2006, authorities seized $18.4 million worth of counterfeit designer brand merchandise from two downtown locations. On May 23, 2006, police raided a swap meet located at 500 South Los Angeles Street and found fake Tiffany jewelry worth about $6.4 million and arrested two adults.
On May 24, 2006, police raided and seized 12 million worth of counterfeit handbags, sunglasses and wallets on Santee Alley between 12th Street and Olympic Boulevard. Fashion District site Fashion District Business Information LA Flower District LA Flower Market California Flower Mall Santee Alley Website Santee Alley Blog Fashion District Wholesale Market
State Theatre (Los Angeles)
The State Theatre known as Loew's State Theatre, at 703 S. Broadway, is a historic movie theatre which opened in November 1921 in the Broadway Theatre District of Downtown Los Angeles; the State Theatre was designed by Charles Peter Weeks and William Day, of architectural firm Weeks & Day, in a Spanish Renaissance style. The theatre is incorporated into a 12-story Beaux Arts style 1921 office block called the United Building, situated at the intersection of S. Broadway and 7th St; the building extends half a block along 7th St and one-third of a block along Broadway and is one of the city's largest brick-clad buildings. The theatre boasted two marquees with entrances on both Broadway and 7th; the 7th St entrance was closed in 1936. The theatre's location at the intersection of Downtown Los Angeles’ two busiest retail streets of the early 1920s ensured that the theatre was a consistent money maker. At the time of the State Theatre’s opening the theatre’s projection booth was proclaimed to be the largest in the world and boasted the unique feature of a shower bath, with hot and cold water, for the projectionist.
The theatre was equipped with a Moller organ, replaced with a Wurlitzer organ in 1925. The Gumm Sisters played vaudeville at the theatre in 1929, featuring a lead singer who earned the nickname “Leather Lungs” because of her ability to be heard at the rear of the 125 ft deep auditorium. Vaudeville ended at the State in 1935 and the Gumm Sisters moved to Culver City to appear in experimental Technicolor musicals where “Leather Lungs” changed her name to Judy Garland. In 1949 the theatre was taken over by United Artists and the name changed from Loew's State to the State Theatre. In 1963 the State was acquired by Metropolitan Theatres and it went on to feature many general release movies dubbed into Spanish. Metropolitan Theatres closed the State in 1997; the auditorium space is square in shape seating 2,450. Directly above the center of the proscenium arch, occupying a small niche, is a seated Billiken figure as a good luck charm; the theatre boasts a vibrant fire/safety curtain, by Armstrong-Powers, depicting a futuristic fantasy city of onion-domed towers surrounded by planets and comet trails.
The State Theatre is managed by the Broadway Theatre Group, who manage the Palace, Los Angeles, Tower theatres in the Broadway Theatre District. The theatre was on a long-term lease to the Universal Church of the Kingdom of God, who called it the "Cathedral of Faith", which came to an end in early 2018; as of January 2018 the owners are seeking a new tenant. Gypsy What's Love Got To Do With It Wild Bill Filming for Wild Bill involved re-draping the proscenium arch with swags and soft decorations that remain in place to this day
Historic Core, Los Angeles
The Historic Core is a neighborhood in Downtown Los Angeles between Hill Street on the West, Los Angeles Street on the East, Third Street on the North, Olympic Boulevard on the South. It overlaps with Skid Row on its eastern end; the Historic Core was the center of the city before World War II. With the general decline of downtown after World War II, the movement of all financial institutions several blocks to the west, ending up on Figueroa Street, Flower Street, Grand Avenue, the area suffered. In the 1950s it became the center of Latino entertainment in the city, e.g.: the Million Dollar Theatre featured the biggest names in the Spanish language entertainment world. This paralleled the general white flight occurring in Downtown Los Angeles at the time, which saw Broadway become a major center for Latino life in the city. Although prostitution and drug dealing had occurred in the area as far back as the early 1920s, they became epidemic in the 1960s; the area's movie palaces, built between 1911 and 1931, became grindhouses.
The last of them closed in the 1990s. Most of the older buildings have stores; the developing street gang problem in Los Angeles which began to worsen at the end of the 1960s and got worse in the late 1970s hurt traditional commercial activity in the area, as it did much of downtown. While the LAPD indicates that the area is a sort of neutral zone, which has not been claimed by any single gang and random gang violence is rare, the area remains one of the major areas for street drug sales in Los Angeles. In 1999, the Los Angeles City Council passed an Adaptive Re-Use Ordinance, allowing for the conversion of old, unused office buildings to apartments or "lofts." Developer Tom Gilmore purchased a series of century-old buildings and converted them into lofts near Main and Spring streets, a development now known as the "Old Bank District." Other notable redevelopment projects in the Historic Core have included the Eastern Columbia Building, Broadway Trade Center, Higgins Building, The Security Building, the Pacific Electric Building, The Judson, the Subway Terminal Building.
As of 2005, redevelopment projects in downtown Los Angeles have been divided about evenly between rentals and condominiums. The Eastern Columbia Building is considered the greatest surviving example of Art Deco architecture in the city. Gentrification Urban renewal Historic Core Business Improvement District
Gold is a chemical element with symbol Au and atomic number 79, making it one of the higher atomic number elements that occur naturally. In its purest form, it is a bright reddish yellow, soft and ductile metal. Chemically, gold is a group 11 element, it is solid under standard conditions. Gold occurs in free elemental form, as nuggets or grains, in rocks, in veins, in alluvial deposits, it occurs in a solid solution series with the native element silver and naturally alloyed with copper and palladium. Less it occurs in minerals as gold compounds with tellurium. Gold is resistant to most acids, though it does dissolve in aqua regia, a mixture of nitric acid and hydrochloric acid, which forms a soluble tetrachloroaurate anion. Gold is insoluble in nitric acid, which dissolves silver and base metals, a property that has long been used to refine gold and to confirm the presence of gold in metallic objects, giving rise to the term acid test. Gold dissolves in alkaline solutions of cyanide, which are used in mining and electroplating.
Gold dissolves in mercury, forming amalgam alloys. A rare element, gold is a precious metal, used for coinage and other arts throughout recorded history. In the past, a gold standard was implemented as a monetary policy, but gold coins ceased to be minted as a circulating currency in the 1930s, the world gold standard was abandoned for a fiat currency system after 1971. A total of 186,700 tonnes of gold exists above ground, as of 2015; the world consumption of new gold produced is about 50% in jewelry, 40% in investments, 10% in industry. Gold's high malleability, resistance to corrosion and most other chemical reactions, conductivity of electricity have led to its continued use in corrosion resistant electrical connectors in all types of computerized devices. Gold is used in infrared shielding, colored-glass production, gold leafing, tooth restoration. Certain gold salts are still used as anti-inflammatories in medicine; as of 2017, the world's largest gold producer by far was China with 440 tonnes per year.
Gold is the most malleable of all metals. It can be drawn into a monoatomic wire, stretched about twice before it breaks; such nanowires distort via formation and migration of dislocations and crystal twins without noticeable hardening. A single gram of gold can be beaten into a sheet of 1 square meter, an avoirdupois ounce into 300 square feet. Gold leaf can be beaten thin enough to become semi-transparent; the transmitted light appears greenish blue, because gold reflects yellow and red. Such semi-transparent sheets strongly reflect infrared light, making them useful as infrared shields in visors of heat-resistant suits, in sun-visors for spacesuits. Gold is a good conductor of electricity. Gold has a density of 19.3 g/cm3 identical to that of tungsten at 19.25 g/cm3. By comparison, the density of lead is 11.34 g/cm3, that of the densest element, osmium, is 22.588±0.015 g/cm3. Whereas most metals are gray or silvery white, gold is reddish-yellow; this color is determined by the frequency of plasma oscillations among the metal's valence electrons, in the ultraviolet range for most metals but in the visible range for gold due to relativistic effects affecting the orbitals around gold atoms.
Similar effects impart a golden hue to metallic caesium. Common colored gold alloys include the distinctive eighteen-karat rose gold created by the addition of copper. Alloys containing palladium or nickel are important in commercial jewelry as these produce white gold alloys. Fourteen-karat gold-copper alloy is nearly identical in color to certain bronze alloys, both may be used to produce police and other badges. White gold alloys can be made with nickel. Fourteen- and eighteen-karat gold alloys with silver alone appear greenish-yellow and are referred to as green gold. Blue gold can be made by alloying with iron, purple gold can be made by alloying with aluminium. Less addition of manganese, aluminium and other elements can produce more unusual colors of gold for various applications. Colloidal gold, used by electron-microscopists, is red. Gold has only one stable isotope, 197Au, its only occurring isotope, so gold is both a mononuclidic and monoisotopic element. Thirty-six radioisotopes have been synthesized, ranging in atomic mass from 169 to 205.
The most stable of these is 195Au with a half-life of 186.1 days. The least stable is 171Au. Most of gold's radioisotopes with atomic masses below 197 decay by some combination of proton emission, α decay, β+ decay; the exceptions are 195Au, which decays by electron capture, 196Au, which decays most by electron capture with a minor β− decay path. All of gold's radioisotopes with atomic masses above 197 decay by β− decay. At least 32 nuclear isomers have been characterized, ranging in atomic mass from 170 to 200. Within that range, only 178Au, 180Au, 181Au, 182Au, 188Au do not have isomers. Gold's most stable isomer is 198m2Au with a half-life of 2.27 days. Gold's least stable isomer is 177m2Au with a half-life of only 7 ns. 184m1Au has three decay paths: β+ decay, isomeric
Los Angeles County, California
Los Angeles County the County of Los Angeles, in the Los Angeles metropolitan area of the U. S. state of California, is the most populous county in the United States, with more than 10 million inhabitants as of 2017. As such, it is the largest non–state level government entity in the United States, its population is larger than that of 41 individual U. S. states. It is the third-largest metropolitan economy in the world, with a Nominal GDP of over $700 billion—larger than the GDPs of Belgium and Taiwan, it has 88 incorporated cities and many unincorporated areas and, at 4,083 square miles, it is larger than the combined areas of Delaware and Rhode Island. The county is home to more than one-quarter of California residents and is one of the most ethnically diverse counties in the U. S, its county seat, Los Angeles, is California's most populous city and the nation's second largest city with about 4 million people. Los Angeles County is one of the original counties of California, created at the time of statehood in 1850.
The county included parts of what are now Kern, San Bernardino, Inyo, Tulare and Orange counties. In 1851 and 1852, Los Angeles County stretched from the coast to the border of Nevada; as the population increased, sections were split off to organize San Bernardino County in 1853, Kern County in 1866, Orange County in 1889. Prior to the 1870s, Los Angeles County was divided into townships, many of which were amalgamations of one or more old ranchos, they were: Azusa El Monte Azusa and El Monte Townships were merged for the 1870 census. City of Los Angeles Los Angeles Township Los Nietos San Jose San Gabriel Santa Ana. For the 1870 census, Annaheim district was enumerated separately. San Juan. San Pedro. Tejon When Kern County was formed, the portion of the township remaining in Los Angeles County became Soledad Township According to the U. S. Census Bureau, the county has an area of 4,751 square miles, of which 4,058 square miles is land and 693 square miles is water. Los Angeles County borders 70 miles of coast on the Pacific Ocean and encompasses mountain ranges, forests, lakes and desert.
The Los Angeles River, Rio Hondo, the San Gabriel River and the Santa Clara River flow in Los Angeles County, while the primary mountain ranges are the Santa Monica Mountains and the San Gabriel Mountains. The western extent of the Mojave Desert begins in the Antelope Valley, in the northeastern part of the county. Most of the population of Los Angeles County is located in the south and southwest, with major population centers in the Los Angeles Basin, San Fernando Valley and San Gabriel Valley. Other population centers are found in the Santa Clarita Valley, Pomona Valley, Crescenta Valley and Antelope Valley; the county is divided west-to-east by the San Gabriel Mountains, which are part of the Transverse Ranges of southern California, are contained within the Angeles National Forest. Most of the county's highest peaks are in the San Gabriel Mountains, including Mount San Antonio 10,068 feet ) at the Los Angeles-San Bernardino county lines, Mount Baden-Powell 9,399 feet, Mount Burnham 8,997 feet and Mount Wilson 5,710 feet.
Several lower mountains are in the northern and southwestern parts of the county, including the San Emigdio Mountains, the southernmost part of Tehachapi Mountains and the Sierra Pelona Mountains. Los Angeles County includes San Clemente Island and Santa Catalina Island, which are part of the Channel Islands archipelago off the Pacific Coast. East: Eastside, San Gabriel Valley, portions of the Pomona Valley West: Westside, Beach Cities South: South Bay, South Los Angeles, Palos Verdes Peninsula, Gateway Cities, Los Angeles Harbor Region North: San Fernando Valley, Crescenta Valley, portions of the Conejo Valley, portions of the Antelope Valley and Santa Clarita Valley Central: Downtown Los Angeles, Mid-Wilshire, Northeast Los Angeles Angeles National Forest Los Padres National Forest Santa Monica Mountains National Recreation Area Los Angeles County had a population of 9,818,605 in the 2010 United States Census; the racial makeup of Los Angeles County was 4,936,599 White, 1,346,865 Asian, 856,874 African American, 72,828 Native A
Spring Street Financial District
The Spring Street Financial District, referred to as the Wall Street of the West, is a historic district in Downtown Los Angeles. The historic district includes 23 financial structures, including the city's first skyscraper, three hotels all located along a stretch of South Spring Street from just north of Fourth Street to just south of Seventh Streets. In the first half of the 20th Century, this stretch of Spring Street was the financial center of Los Angeles, with the important banks and financial institutions being concentrated there. At least ten of the buildings in the district were designed in whole or in part by John Parkinson, who designed many of the city's landmark buildings in the early 20th Century, including the Los Angeles Memorial Coliseum, Los Angeles City Hall, Bullocks Wilshire, Union Station. Ten of the buildings in the district have been designated as Historic-Cultural Monuments by the Los Angeles Cultural Heritage Commission. In the 1890s, the city's business center was further north near South Temple Streets.
The street can claim credit as the birthplace of the motion picture business in Los Angeles. In 1898, Thomas Edison filmed a 60-second film titled "South Spring Street Los Angeles California", mounting a giant camera on a wagon to film the bustling action along South Spring Street. In the early 1900s, the city center began spreading south, the city's banks and financial institutions began concentrating along South Spring Street; the first two important buildings to make the move south were the Hellman and Continental Buildings, with the Continental Building being considered the city's first skyscraper. In 1911, the Los Angeles Times boasted about the building boom on Spring Street: The visitor to this city can at this moment observe skyscrapers in all stages of construction, it is a study which will provide the most comprehensible kind of answer to the query as to why Los Angeles is leading San Francisco, Seattle, St. Louis, Cleveland, Baltimore, Minneapolis, New Orleans, Boston and all other cities of anything near her in building activity as revealed by the monthly expenditures for construction work.
The building boom along South Spring Street continued into the 1920s as the population and economy of Los Angeles boomed. South Spring Street remained the city's financial center after World War II. In the 1960s, many of the banks and financial institutions began moving to the western part of the downtown area, along Figueroa Street and Wilshire Boulevard. By the early 1980s, South Spring Street had become known for "transients who sleep in doorways and urinate on sidewalks." In 1982, the Los Angeles Times commented on the district's decline from "Wall Street of the West" to a blighted area with empty office buildings lining both sides of the street:"When the banks and law firms moved to the'Gold Coast' typified by Arco Towers, six blocks to the west, Spring Street plummeted to become a neighborhood of hoodlums and winos—a neighborhood of echoing buildings full of nothing above the ground floor." Since the early 1980s, South Spring Street has been the subject of numerous redevelopment projects.
In recent years, numerous art galleries have moved into the old financial district, now known as Gallery Row. Many of the old bank buildings have been converted into upscale lofts; as wealthier residents have moved into the district's lofts, older residents and artists have complained about the increased rents. One artist who had lived in the district for years said: The real problem with downtown Gronk and his friends half-jokingly agreed is'those people.' Westsiders. Trust-fund babies. New tenants who demand their bohemian pleasures be liberally sweetened with suburban amenities. Landlords who recruited artists to help make downtown'safe' for gentrification jacked up their rents so only lawyers and screenwriters could afford it; the strength of the district remains its period architecture. Many of the Beaux Arts facades along Spring Street remain intact, making the district a popular shooting location for motion picture and television productions seeking authentic period cityscapes. In 1985, noted Los Angeles Times columnist Jack Smith pointed to the Spring Street Financial District as proof that "Los Angeles was never the cultural wasteland it was alleged to be."
He hailed the district's "financial palaces" as "a solid architectural achievement" which give the street "beauty, strength and dignity." Notable buildings in the district include: The Hellman Building NE corner of 4th and Spring – Built in 1902, the Hellman and Continental Buildings were the first major structures to anchor the Spring Street Financial District. The Hellman Building, now known as Banco Popular, is an eight-story brick and concrete structure designed by Alfred Rosenheim. In 1998, Gilmore Associates announced plans to convert the Hellman Building, the Continental Building, the San Fernando Building into 230 lofts; the converted buildings consisted of large, open lofts with high ceilings and no interior walls except for the bathrooms. The conversion was designed by architect Wade Killefer, who noted: "What lends these buildings to residential use is lots of windows and high ceilings, offering wonderful light." The combined project became known as the Old Bank District lofts. The Continental Building 408 S. Spring Street – Built in 1902, the Continental Building was known as the Braly Building.
The 12-story building was designed by John Parkinson and is considered the first "skyscraper" in Los Angeles. It was the tallest building in Los Angeles until 1907, it is known for its ornamental cornice and bands. The Continental Building was converted into lofts as part of Tom
Chinatown, Los Angeles
Chinatown is a neighborhood in Downtown Los Angeles, California that became a commercial center for Chinese and other Asian businesses in Central Los Angeles in 1938. The area includes restaurants and art galleries but has a residential neighborhood with a low-income, aging population of about 20,000 residents; the original Chinatown developed in the late 19th century, but it was demolished to make room for Union Station, the city's major ground-transportation center. A separate commercial center, known as "New Chinatown," opened for business in 1938. Street and natural limits of the Chinatown neighborhood are: north, Beaudry Avenue, Stadium Way, North Broadway. Chinatown beyond the concentrated business center is flanked by the Elysian Park to the north, Lincoln Heights to the east, Downtown to the south and southwest and Echo Park to the west and northwest. There are a branch library in Chinatown, as well as a city park and a state park. Many motion pictures have been filmed in the area. In the early 1860s, thousands of Chinese men, most of them originating from Guangdong province in southern China, were hired by Central Pacific Railroad Co. to work on the western portion of the first transcontinental railroad.
Many of them settled in Los Angeles. In 1871, 19 Chinese men and boys were killed by a mob of about 500 white men in one of the most serious incidents of racial violence that has occurred in the American West; this incident became known as "Massacre of 1871". The first Chinatown, centered on Alameda and Macy Streets, was established in 1880. Reaching its heyday from 1890 to 1910, Chinatown grew to fifteen streets and alleys containing some two hundred buildings, it boasted three temples, a newspaper and a telephone exchange. But laws prohibiting most Chinese from citizenship and property ownership, as well as legislation curtailing immigration, inhibited future growth. From the early 1910s, Chinatown began to decline. Symptoms of a corrupt Los Angeles discolored the public's view of Chinatown; as tenants and lessees rather than outright owners, the residents of Old Chinatown were threatened with impending redevelopment, as a result the owners neglected upkeep of their buildings. The entire area was sold and resold, as entrepreneurs and developers fought the area.
After thirty years of decay, a Supreme Court ruling approved condemnation of the area to allow for construction of a major rail terminal, Union Station. Residents were evicted to make room for Union Station without a plan for the relocation of the Chinatown community. Chinatown was demolished, leaving many businesses without a place to do business and forcing some to close. A remnant of Old Chinatown persisted into the early 1950s, situated between Union Station and the Old Plaza. Several businesses and a Buddhist temple lined Ferguson Alley, a narrow one-block street running between the Plaza and Alameda; the most notable of the surviving buildings was the old Lugo house, having been built in 1838 by the prominent Californio family. Some decades the Lugo house became the original home of Loyola Marymount University, it was rented to Chinese-Americans who ran shops on the ground floor and a lodging house upstairs. Christine Sterling, who had brought to fruition the Olvera Street and China City projects, argued that remaining buildings of Old Chinatown were an eyesore and advocated for the razing of all the remaining structures between the Plaza and Union Station."The original Chinatown's only remaining edifice is the two-story Garnier Building, once a residence and meeting place for immigrant Chinese," according to Angels Walk – Union Station/El Pueblo/Little Tokyo/Civic Center guide book.
The Chinese American Museum is now situated in Garnier Building. Seven years passed before an acceptable relocation proposal was put into place, situating a new Chinatown in its present location. In the late 1950s the covenants on the use and ownership of property were removed, allowing Chinese Americans to live in other neighborhoods and gain access to new types of employment. Christine Sterling, who worked on the conversion of a neglected street into the Mexican-themed Olvera Street, conceived of a similar plan for the displaced Chinese American population. In 1938, she opened China City, a walled enclave featuring Chinese-style architecture, shops, rickshaw rides, a lotus pond, a temple. Costumed workers greeted tourists, a Chinese opera troupe performed live shows in front of the shops; some replica buildings in China City came from the set of the 1937 Hollywood blockbuster, The Good Earth. China City received mixed support from businessmen. Many welcomed the economic opportunity. Others preferred the New Chinatown project, considered less distorted by the stereotyping lens of Hollywood.
During its eleven-year existence, China City was rebuilt numerous times. In 1949, an act of arson destroyed China City; the neighborhood that has become Chinatown was Little Italy. In the early 20th century, Italian immigrants settled in the area north of the Old Plaza. Many built businesses, including wineries; the Italian American Museum of Los Angeles in the El Pueblo de Los Ángeles Historical Monument opened in 2016. In the 1930s, under the efforts of Chinese-American community leader Peter Soo Hoo Sr. the design and operational concepts for a New Chinatown evolved through a collective community process, resulting in a blend of Chinese and American architecture. The Los Angeles Chinatown