Beta Israel known as Ethiopian Jews, are Jews whose community developed and lived for centuries in the area of the Kingdom of Aksum and the Ethiopian Empire, divided between the Amhara and Tigray Regions of Ethiopia and Eritrea. Most of these peoples have emigrated to Israel since the late 20th century; the Beta Israel lived in northern and northwestern Ethiopia, in more than 500 small villages spread over a wide territory, alongside populations that were Muslim and predominantly Christian. Most of them were concentrated on what are today, North Gondar Zone, Shire Inda Selassie, Tselemti, Segelt and Belesa; the Beta Israel made renewed contacts with other Jewish communities in the 20th century. After Halakhic and constitutional discussions, Israeli officials decided, in 1977, that the Israeli Law of Return applied to the Beta Israel; the Israeli and American governments mounted aliyah operations to transport the people to Israel. These activities included Operation Brothers in Sudan between 1979 and 1990, in the 1990s from Addis Ababa.
By the end of 2008, there were 119,300 people of Ethiopian descent in Israel, including nearly 81,000 people born in Ethiopia and about 38,500 native-born Israelis with at least one parent born in Ethiopia or Eritrea. Throughout its history, the community has been referred to by numerous names. According to tradition the name "Beta Israel" originated in the 4th century CE, when the community refused to convert to Christianity during the rule of Abreha and Atsbeha, the monarchs of the Kingdom of Aksum who embraced Christianity; this name contrasts with "Beta Kristiyan". It did not have any negative connotations, the community has since used Beta Israel as its official name. Since the 1980s, it has become the official name used in the scholarly and scientific literature to refer to the community; the term Esra'elawi "Israelites" –, related to the name Beta Israel – is used by the community to refer to its members. The name Ayhud, "Jews", is used in the community, as the Christians had used it as a derogatory term.
The community has begun to use it only since strengthening ties with other Jewish communities in the 20th century. The term Ibrawi "Hebrew" was used to refer to the Chawa in the community, in contrast to Barya "slave"; the term Oritawi "Torah-true" was used to refer to the community members. The derogatory term Falasha, meaning "landless, wanderers", was given to the community by the Emperor Yeshaq I in the 15th century, is to be avoided as offensive. Zagwe, referring to the Agaw people of the Zagwe dynasty, among the original inhabitants of northwest Ethiopia, is considered derogatory, since it incorrectly associates the community with the pagan Agaw. Haymanot is the colloquial term for "faith" used in the Jewish religion in the community, although it is used by Ethiopian Orthodox Christians for their religion. Mäṣḥafä Kedus is the name for their religious literature; the language of the writings is Ge'ez, the liturgical language of the Ethiopian Orthodox Church. The holiest book is the Orit, which consists of the Octateuch: Five Books of Moses with Joshua and Ruth.
The rest of the Bible has secondary importance. Sources are lacking on whether the Book of Lamentations is excluded from the canon, or whether it forms part of the Book of Jeremiah, as it does in the Orthodox Tewahedo biblical canon. Deuterocanonical books that make up part of the canon are Sirach, Esdras 1 and 2, Jubilees, Baruch 1 and 4, Tobit and the testaments of Abraham and Jacob. Important non-Biblical writings include: Nagara Muse, Mota Aaron, Mota Muse, Te'ezaza Sanbat, Arde'et, Gorgorios, Mäṣḥafä Sa'atat, Abba Elias, Mäṣḥafä Mäla'əkt, Mäṣḥafä Kahan, Dərsanä Abrəham Wäsara Bägabs, Gadla Sosna, Baqadāmi Gabra Egzi'abḥēr. Zëna Ayhud and Fālasfā are two books that have had great influence; the synagogue is called masgid bet maqdas or ṣalot bet. Beta Israel kashrut law is based on the books of Leviticus and Jubilees. Permitted and forbidden animals and their signs appear in Leviticus 11:3–8 and Deuteronomy 14:4–8. Forbidden birds are listed in Leviticus 11:13–23 and Deuteronomy 14:12–20. Signs of permitted fish are written on Leviticus 11:9–12 and Deuteronomy 14:9–10.
Insects and larvae are forbidden according to Leviticus 11:41–42. Waterfowl are forbidden according to Leviticus 11:46. Gid hanasheh is forbidden per Genesis 32:33. Mixtures of milk and meat are not prepared or eaten, but are not banned either: Haymanot interpreted the verses Exodus 23:19, Exodus 34:26, Deuteronomy 14:21 "shalt not seethe a kid in its mother's milk" as in Karaite Judaism. Nowadays, under the influence of Rabbinic Judaism, mixing dairy products with meat
University of Chicago Divinity School
The University of Chicago Divinity School is a private graduate institution at the University of Chicago dedicated to the training of academics and clergy across religious boundaries. Formed under Baptist auspices, the school today lacks any sectarian affiliations, it is ranked number one in the field of the study of religion according to the National Research Council's measure of faculty quality in its survey of all doctoral granting programs in religious studies. The scholarly work of the School is organized through the work of three faculty committees, each of, further subdivided into areas of study. PhD students concentrate their work in one of the eleven areas of study. Students in the various master's programs combine study in these areas with courses specific to their programs. All students are taught by the same faculty. A distinguished Semiticist and a member of the Baptist clergy, Chicago's first university president William Rainey Harper believed that a great research university ought to have as one central occupation the scholarly study of religion, to prepare scholars for careers in teaching and research, ministers for service to the church.
He brought what was the Baptist Theological Union seminary to the University, making the Divinity School the first professional school at the University of Chicago. The Baptist Theological Union had been associated with the Old University of Chicago which had opened in 1856 and whose other departments ceased operations in 1886 with the exception of its law school which had become was absorbed by Northwestern University; the Divinity School is located in Swift Hall, on the main quadrangle of the University's campus in close proximity to the Divisions of the Humanities and the Social Sciences for interdisciplinary work. The University of Chicago Divinity School grants Doctor of Philosophy, Master of Divinity, Master of Arts, Master of Arts in Religious Studies degrees, it offers several dual-degree programs with other schools at the University of Chicago. Candidates for the Ph. D. choose among 11 areas of academic focus: Anthropology and Sociology of Religion Bible History of Christianity History of Judaism History of Religions Islamic Studies Philosophy of Religion Religion and Visual Culture Religion in America Religious Ethics TheologyThe Faculty are organized into three Committees of Study: The Committee on Religion and the Human Sciences History of Religions Anthropology and Sociology of Religion Religion and Visual CultureThe Committee on Historical Studies in Religion History of Judaism History of Christianity Biblical StudiesThe Committee on Constructive Studies in Religion Philosophy of Religion Ethics Theology The vision of establishing an institute for the advanced study of religion at the University of Chicago came from Joseph M. Kitagawa, the Dean of the Divinity School from 1970 to 1980.
Martin E. Marty, a historian of modern Christianity, worked with Dean Kitagawa to formulate the purposes and operation of the institute within the context of the Divinity School's general mission of teaching and graduate research; the Institute for the Advanced Study of Religion opened in October 1979, with Professor Marty as its director. Subsequent directors have been Bernard McGinn, a historian of medieval Christianity. In 1998, the Institute for the Advanced Study of Religion was renamed the Martin Marty Center, to honor its founding director for his singular distinction as historian and commentator on religion and public life. A number of faculty in the Divinity School and the humanities departments of South Asian Languages and Civilizations, East Asian Languages and Civilizations and Art History participate in an interdisciplinary program in the study of the Buddhist Traditions. Degrees are offered through the other of these programs; the program sponsors seminars throughout the academic year.
Affiliated faculty include Daniel A. Arnold, Steven Collins, Paul Copp, Matthew Kapstein, James Ketelaar, Gary A. Tubb, Christian K. Wedemeyer. Completed in 1926, Swift Hall was designed by Coolidge and Hodgdon in the collegiate Gothic style of architecture, it contains lecture halls, seminar rooms, faculty offices, a student-run coffee shop, a commons, administrative offices. The lecture hall was the home of the Divinity Library, before its holdings were consolidated into the central research library, the Joseph Regenstein Library. Southwest of Swift Hall and connected to it by a beautiful stone cloister is the Joseph Bond Chapel. Both Swift Hall and Bond Chapel were designed by the architects Coolidge and Hodgdon at the end of the Gothic revival period in America; the Chapel was given by Mrs. Joseph Bond in memory of her husband, a former Trustee of the Baptist Theological Union, the predecessor institution of the Divinity School. Mr. and Mrs. Bond's daughter, married Edgar J. Goodspeed, a member of the university faculty noted for his translation of the New Testament.
After her death in 1949, Mr. Goodspeed donated the stained-glass windows in her memory; the cornerstone of the chapel was laid by Mrs. Bond on April 30, 1925, the chapel was opened in October, 1926. In 2012-13, the Chapel was renovated and its organ was replaced by the Reneker Organ. Inspired by instruments built in northern Germany in the seventeenth and eighteenth centuries, the Reneker Organ was built by Canadian master organ builde
1970s Soviet Union aliyah
Aliyah was the mass emigration of Soviet Jews during the 1970s to Israel after the Soviet Union lifted its ban on Jewish Refusenik emigration. In 1967, the USSR broke diplomatic relations with Israel in the wake of the Six-Day War. During this time, popular discrimination against Soviet Jewry increased, led by an anti-Semitic propaganda campaign in the state-controlled mass media. By the end of the 1960s, Jewish cultural and religious life in the Soviet Union suffered from a strict policy of discrimination; this state-sponsored atheism persecution denied Jews the ethnic-cultural rights experienced by other Soviet ethnic groups. After the Dymshits–Kuznetsov hijacking affair in 1970 following the crackdown, international condemnations caused the Soviet authorities to increase emigration quotas. Between 1960 and 1970, only 4,000 people had left the USSR; the number rose to 250,000 in the following decade. In 1972, the USSR imposed a so-called "diploma tax" on would-be emigrants who had received higher education in the USSR.
The fee reached as high as twenty times an annual salary. This measure was designed to combat the brain drain caused by the growing emigration of Soviet Jews and other members of the intelligentsia to the West. Following international protests, the Kremlin soon revoked the tax, but continued to sporadically impose various limitations. Prior to the Six-Day War, few Soviet Jews emigrated to Israel. Israel's decisive victory changed the opinion of many Soviet Jews towards Israel. After the war, many Soviet Jews began to demand the right to move to Israel. However, given a choice, many Soviet Jews chose to emigrate to the United States. In 1968, 231 Jews were granted exit visas to Israel, followed by 3,033 in 1969. From that point on, the USSR began granting exit visas in growing numbers. During the late 1960s and the 1970s, some 163,000 Soviet Jews emigrated to Israel. While many Jews emigrated to Israel, others chose the United States instead. Known as "dropouts", the emigres applied for US refugee visas while waiting at transit centers in Austria and Italy.
In March 1976, the "dropout rate" rose to over 50%. Most of the Soviet Jews who wanted to emigrate to Israel out of religious and/or ideological reasons had done so by 1973. Many were non-religious and saw themselves as Jews by nationality only, thus they had little religious or ideological motivation to move to Israel, which they saw as having fewer opportunities than the United States. There were thousands of non-Jews who used the opening to escape the Soviet Union. Most Soviet Jews who emigrated to Israel who had stronger Jewish identities came from the Baltic states and Georgia, while the "dropouts" were assimilated Jews from the Russian heartland. Overall, between 1970 and 1988, some 291,000 Soviet Jews were granted exit visas, of whom 165,000 migrated to Israel, 126,000 migrated to the United States. Refusenik Dymshits–Kuznetsov hijacking affair Jackson–Vanik amendment History of the Jews in Russia and the Soviet Union 1990s Post-Soviet aliyah Russian Jews in Israel USSR anti-religious campaign
Volunteering is considered an altruistic activity where an individual or group provides services for no financial or social gain "to benefit another person, group or organization". Volunteering is renowned for skill development and is intended to promote goodness or to improve human quality of life. Volunteering may have positive benefits for the volunteer as well as for the person or community served, it is intended to make contacts for possible employment. Many volunteers are trained in the areas they work, such as medicine, education, or emergency rescue. Others serve on an as-needed basis, such as in response to a natural disaster; the verb was first recorded in 1755. It was derived from the noun volunteer, in C.1600, "one who offers himself for military service," from the Middle French voluntaire. In the non-military sense, the word was first recorded during the 1630s; the word volunteering has more recent usage—still predominantly military—coinciding with the phrase community service. In a military context, a volunteer army is a military body whose soldiers chose to enter service, as opposed to having been conscripted.
Such volunteers are given regular pay. During this time, America experienced the Great Awakening. People realized the cause for movement against slavery. Younger people started helping the needy in their communities. In 1851, the first YMCA in the United States was started, followed seven years by the first YWCA. During the American Civil War, women volunteered their time to sew supplies for the soldiers and the "Angel of the Battlefield" Clara Barton and a team of volunteers began providing aid to servicemen. Barton founded the American Red Cross in 1881 and began mobilizing volunteers for disaster relief operations, including relief for victims of the Johnstown Flood in 1889; the Salvation Army is one of the largest organizations working for disadvantaged people. Though it is a charity organization, it has organized a number of volunteering programs since its inception. Prior to the 19th century, few formal charitable organizations existed to assist people in need. In the first few decades of the 20th century, several volunteer organizations were founded, including the Rotary International, Kiwanis International, Association of Junior Leagues International, Lions Clubs International.
The Great Depression saw one of the first large-scale, nationwide efforts to coordinate volunteering for a specific need. During World War II, thousands of volunteer offices supervised the volunteers who helped with the many needs of the military and the home front, including collecting supplies, entertaining soldiers on leave, caring for the injured. After World War II, people shifted the focus of their altruistic passions to other areas, including helping the poor and volunteering overseas. A major development was the Peace Corps in the United States in 1960; when President Lyndon B. Johnson declared a War on Poverty in 1964, volunteer opportunities started to expand and continued into the next few decades; the process for finding volunteer work became more formalized, with more volunteer centers forming and new ways to find work appearing on the World Wide Web. According to the Corporation for National and Community Service, about 64.5 million Americans, or 26.5 percent of the adult population, gave 7.9 billion hours of volunteer service worth $175 billion.
This calculates at 3 hours per week at a rate of $22 per hour. Volunteer hours in the UK are similar. In 1960, after the so called revolutionary war in Cuba ended, Ernesto Che Guevara created the concept of volunteering work, it was created with the intention that workers across the country volunteer a few hours of work on their work centers. Many schools on all education levels offer service-learning programs, which allow students to serve the community through volunteering while earning educational credit. According to Alexander Astin in the foreword to Where's the Learning in Service-Learning? by Janet Eyler and Dwight E. Giles, Jr."...we promote more wide-spread adoption of service-learning in higher education because we see it as a powerful means of preparing students to become more caring and responsible parents and citizens and of helping colleges and universities to make good on their pledge to'serve society.'" When describing service learning, the Medical Education at Harvard says, "Service learning unites academic study and volunteer community service in mutually reinforcing ways....service learning is characterized by a relationship of partnership: the student learns from the service agency and from the community and, in return, gives energy, commitment and skills to address human and community needs."
Volunteering in service learning seems to have the result of engaging both mind and heart, thus providing a more powerful learning experience. While not recognized by everyone as a legitimate approach, research on the efficacy of service learning has grown. Janet Eyler and Dwight E. Giles conducted a national study of American college students to ascertain the significance of service learning programs, According to Eyler and Giles,"These surveys, conducted before and after a semester of community service, examine the impact of service-learning on students." They describe their experience with students involved in service-learning in this way: "Students like service-learning. When we sit down with a group of students to discuss service-learning experiences, their enthusiasm is unmistakable....it is clear that believe that what they
Julius Rosenwald was an American businessman and philanthropist. He is best known as a part-owner and leader of Sears and Company, for establishing the Rosenwald Fund, which donated millions in matching funds to support the education of African American children in the rural South, as well as other philanthropic causes in the first half of the 20th century, he was the principal founder and backer for the Museum of Science and Industry in Chicago, to which he gave more than $5 million and served as president from 1927 to 1932. Julius Rosenwald was born in 1862 to the clothier Samuel Rosenwald and his wife Augusta, a Jewish immigrant couple from Germany, he was born and raised just a few blocks from Abraham Lincoln’s residence in Springfield, during Lincoln’s presidency By his sixteenth year, Rosenwald was apprenticed by his parents to his uncles in New York City to learn the clothing trades. While in New York, he befriended Henry Morgenthau, Sr.. With his younger brother Morris, Rosenwald started a clothing manufacturing company.
They were ruined by a recession in 1885. Rosenwald had heard about other clothiers who had begun to manufacture clothing according to standardized sizes from data collected during the American Civil War, he decided to try the system but to move his manufacturing facility closer to the rural population that he anticipated would be his market. He and his brother moved to Illinois. Once in Chicago, the Rosenwald brothers enlisted more help from Julius Weil. In 1890, Rosenwald married a daughter of a competing clothier. Together they had five children: Lessing J. Rosenwald, Adele Deutsch Levy, Edith Stern, Marion Ascoli and William Rosenwald, their son Lessing Rosenwald became a prominent businessman, following his father in the chairmanship of Sears, Roebuck & Company. Edith was married to businessman Edgar B. Stern Sr. One of his grandchildren is Nina Rosenwald, he was the maternal grandfather of the Hollywood film producer Armand Deutsch, who believed that he was the intended target of the thrill killers Leopold and Loeb, who went on to kidnap and murder his schoolmate Robert "Bobby" Franks on May 21, 1924.
In 1893, Richard Sears and Alvah C. Roebuck renamed their watch company Sears, Roebuck & Company and began to diversify. Rosenwald and Weil was a principal supplier of men's clothing for Roebuck; the volumes of unsold merchandise caused by the Panic of 1893 and his declining health led Roebuck to leave the company. Roebuck placed his interest in the company in the hands of Sears who, in turn, offered that half of the company be sold to Chicago businessman Aaron Nusbaum, who in turn brought in Rosenwald, to whom Sears owed money. In August 1895, Sears sold Roebuck's half of the company to Nusbaum and Rosenwald for $75,000; the new Sears and Company was re-incorporated in Illinois with a capital stock of $150,000 in August 1895. Sears and Rosenwald got along well. Sears and Rosenwald bought him out for $1.3 million in 1903. Rosenwald brought to the company a rational management philosophy and diversified product lines: dry goods, consumer durables, hardware and nearly anything else a farm household could desire.
From 1895 to 1907, under Rosenwald's leadership as vice president and treasurer, annual sales of the company climbed from $750,000 to upwards of $50 million. The prosperity of the company and their vision for greater expansion led Sears and Rosenwald to take the company public in 1906, with $40 million in stock. Rosenwald turned to his old friend Henry Goldman, now a senior partner at Goldman Sachs, to handle the initial public offering of the stock. After Sears resigned the presidency in 1908 due to declining health, Rosenwald was named president. On January 2, 1915, Rosenwald was indicted in Chicago for a failure to file a personal property tax schedule. One commenter described the indictment as "a shot heard around the world". Prior to the indictment the Tax Board of Review scheduled the value of Rosenwald's Sears' stock at $7,500,000. Rosenwald declared this to be excessive and additionally claimed that the stock of the New York company did not represent tangible assets; the indictment was quashed in March 1915 when Rosenwald's attorneys convinced the Court that the section of law which provided for prosecution of such cases had been repealed.
The company was laid low during the post-World War I recession as a severe depression hit the nation's farms after farmers had over-expanded their holdings. To bail out the company, Rosenwald pledged $21 million of his personal wealth. By 1922, Sears had regained financial stability. Two years in 1924, Rosenwald resigned the presidency, but remained as chairman. First he oversaw the design and construction of the company's first department store within Sears, Roebuck's massive 16-hectare headquarters complex of offices and mail-order operations at Homan Ave. and Arthington St. on Chicago's West Side. The store opened on February 2, 1925. After leaving the presidency, Rosenwald was appointed chairman of the Board of Sears, a position he held until his death in 1932. After the 1906 financial reorganization of Sears, Rosenwald became friends with Goldman Sachs's other senior partner, Paul J. Sachs, who stayed with Rosenwald during his many trips to Chicago and the two would discuss America's social situation, agreeing that the plight of African Americans was the most serious in the U.
S. Sachs introduced Rosenwald to two prominent educators and proponents of African-American education, William H. Baldwin and Booker T. Wa
Greek Orthodox Metropolis of Chicago
The Metropolis of Chicago is an ecclesiastical territory, a metropolis, large diocese, of the Greek Orthodox Church in the North-Central Midwest, United States, with its see city of Chicago. It is part of the Archdiocese of America and is led by a metropolitan who serves as the priest of the mother church, Annunciation Cathedral in the City of Chicago. Metropolitan Iakovos was enthroned as the Bishop of Chicago on May 1, 1979, following his election to that post by the Holy Synod of the Ecumenical Patriarchate in Phanar, Turkey. In 2002, the diocese was raised to Metropolitan status. Aurora – St. Athanasios Church Champaign – Three Hierarchs Church Chicago – Assumption Church Chicago – Annunciation Cathedral Chicago – Assumption Church Chicago – Holy Trinity Church Chicago – St. Andrew Church Chicago – St. Basil Church Chicago – St. Demetrios Church Chicago – St. George Church Chicago – St. Nicholas Albanian Church DeKalb – St. George Church Decatur – Annunciation Church Des Plaines – St. John the Baptist Church East Moline – Assumption Church Elgin – St. Sophia Church Elmhurst – St. Demetrios Church Glenview – SS.
Peter and Paul Church Joliet – All Saints Church Justice – Holy Cross Church Kankakee – Annunciation Church Libertyville – St. Demetrios Church Lincolnshire – Ascension of Our Lord Church Niles – Holy Taxiarchai-St. Haralambos Oak Lawn – Saint Nicholas Greek Orthodox Church Homer Glen – Assumption Greek Orthodox Church Palatine – St. Nectarios Church Palos Heights – St. Spyridon Church Palos Hills – SS. Constantine & Helen Church Peoria – All Saints Greek Orthodox Church Rock Island – St. George Church Rockford – SS. Constantine & Helen Church Springfield – St. Anthony Church Swansea – SS. Constantine & Helen Church Westchester – Holy Apostles Greek Orthodox Church Hammond – Saint Demetrios Greek Orthodox Church Merrillville – Saints Constantine and Helen Greek Orthodox Church Schereville – Saint George Greek Orthodox Church South Bend – St. Andrew Church Valparaiso – St. Iakovos Church Cedar Rapids – St. John the Baptist Church Des Moines – St. George Church Dubuque – St. Elias the Prophet Church Mason City – Holy Transfiguration Church Sioux City – Holy Trinity Greek Orthodox Church Waterloo – St. Demetrios Church Duluth – Twelve Holy Apostles Church Minneapolis – St. Mary's Greek Orthodox Church Rochester – SS.
Anargyroi Church St. Paul – St. George Church Columbia – St. Luke the Evangelist Church St. Louis – St. Nicholas Church Town and Country – Assumption Greek Orthodox Church Appleton – St. Nicholas Church Fond du Lac – Holy Trinity Church Madison – Assumption Church Milwaukee – Annunciation Greek Orthodox Church Racine – Dormition of the Theotokos Church Sheboygan – St. Spyridon Church Wauwatosa – SS. Constantine and Helen Church Illinois – Holy Transfiguration Wisconsin – St. John Chrysostomos
Chicago the City of Chicago, is the most populous city in Illinois, as well as the third most populous city in the United States. With an estimated population of 2,716,450, it is the most populous city in the Midwest. Chicago is the principal city of the Chicago metropolitan area referred to as Chicagoland, the county seat of Cook County, the second most populous county in the United States; the metropolitan area, at nearly 10 million people, is the third-largest in the United States, the fourth largest in North America and the third largest metropolitan area in the world by land area. Located on the shores of freshwater Lake Michigan, Chicago was incorporated as a city in 1837 near a portage between the Great Lakes and the Mississippi River watershed and grew in the mid-nineteenth century. After the Great Chicago Fire of 1871, which destroyed several square miles and left more than 100,000 homeless, the city made a concerted effort to rebuild; the construction boom accelerated population growth throughout the following decades, by 1900 Chicago was the fifth largest city in the world.
Chicago made noted contributions to urban planning and zoning standards, including new construction styles, the development of the City Beautiful Movement, the steel-framed skyscraper. Chicago is an international hub for finance, commerce, technology, telecommunications, transportation, it is the site of the creation of the first standardized futures contracts at the Chicago Board of Trade, which today is the largest and most diverse derivatives market gobally, generating 20% of all volume in commodities and financial futures. O'Hare International Airport is the one of the busiest airports in the world, the region has the largest number of U. S. highways and greatest amount of railroad freight. In 2012, Chicago was listed as an alpha global city by the Globalization and World Cities Research Network, it ranked seventh in the entire world in the 2017 Global Cities Index; the Chicago area has one of the highest gross domestic products in the world, generating $680 billion in 2017. In addition, the city has one of the world's most diversified and balanced economies, not being dependent on any one industry, with no single industry employing more than 14% of the workforce.
Chicago's 58 million domestic and international visitors in 2018, made it the second most visited city in the nation, behind New York City's approximate 65 million visitors. The city ranked first place in the 2018 Time Out City Life Index, a global quality of life survey of 15,000 people in 32 cities. Landmarks in the city include Millennium Park, Navy Pier, the Magnificent Mile, the Art Institute of Chicago, Museum Campus, the Willis Tower, Grant Park, the Museum of Science and Industry, Lincoln Park Zoo. Chicago's culture includes the visual arts, film, comedy and music jazz, soul, hip-hop and electronic dance music including house music. Of the area's many colleges and universities, the University of Chicago, Northwestern University, the University of Illinois at Chicago are classified as "highest research" doctoral universities. Chicago has professional sports teams in each of the major professional leagues, including two Major League Baseball teams; the name "Chicago" is derived from a French rendering of the indigenous Miami-Illinois word shikaakwa for a wild relative of the onion, known to botanists as Allium tricoccum and known more as ramps.
The first known reference to the site of the current city of Chicago as "Checagou" was by Robert de LaSalle around 1679 in a memoir. Henri Joutel, in his journal of 1688, noted that the eponymous wild "garlic" grew abundantly in the area. According to his diary of late September 1687:...when we arrived at the said place called "Chicagou" which, according to what we were able to learn of it, has taken this name because of the quantity of garlic which grows in the forests in this region. The city has had several nicknames throughout its history such as the Windy City, Chi-Town, Second City, the City of the Big Shoulders, which refers to the city's numerous skyscrapers and high-rises. In the mid-18th century, the area was inhabited by a Native American tribe known as the Potawatomi, who had taken the place of the Miami and Sauk and Fox peoples; the first known non-indigenous permanent settler in Chicago was Jean Baptiste Point du Sable. Du Sable arrived in the 1780s, he is known as the "Founder of Chicago".
In 1795, following the Northwest Indian War, an area, to be part of Chicago was turned over to the United States for a military post by native tribes in accordance with the Treaty of Greenville. In 1803, the United States Army built Fort Dearborn, destroyed in 1812 in the Battle of Fort Dearborn and rebuilt; the Ottawa and Potawatomi tribes had ceded additional land to the United States in the 1816 Treaty of St. Louis; the Potawatomi were forcibly removed from their land after the Treaty of Chicago in 1833. On August 12, 1833, the Town of Chicago was organized with a population of about 200. Within seven years it grew to more than 4,000 people. On June 15, 1835, the first public land sales began with Edmund Dick Taylor as U. S. Receiver of Public Monies; the City of Chicago was incorporated on Saturday, March 4, 1837, for several decades was the world's fastest-growing city. As the site of the Chicago Portage, the city became an important transportation hub between the eastern and western United States.
Chicago's first railway and Chicago Union Railroad, the Illi