David Rosen (rabbi)
Rabbi David Shlomo Rosen CBE, born in 1951 in Newbury, England, is the former Chief Rabbi of Ireland and serves as the Director of the American Jewish Committee's Department of Interreligious Affairs and the Robert and Harriet Heilbrunn Institute for International Interreligious Understanding. From 2005 until 2009 he headed the International Jewish Committee for Inter-religious Consultations, the broad based coalition of Jewish organizations and denominations that represents World Jewry in its relations with other world religions. Before being appointed Chief Rabbi of Ireland, he was the Senior Rabbi of the largest Orthodox Jewish congregation in South Africa and served as a judge on the Cape Beth Din, he is a board member of the Brussels-based organization CEJI - A Jewish Contribution to an Inclusive Europe that promotes a Europe of diversity and respect. Based in Jerusalem, he serves as the Advisor on Interreligious Affairs to the Chief Rabbinate of Israel, serving on the latter's Commission for Interreligious Relations.
He is an International President of the World Conference of Religions for Peace. In November 2005, Rabbi Rosen was made a Knight Commander of the Order of St. Gregory the Great in recognition of his contribution to Jewish-Catholic reconciliation, making him the first Israeli citizen and the first Orthodox rabbi to receive this honor. In the same year he won the Mount Zion Award for Interreligious Understanding. In December 2006, Rabbi Rosen received the Raphael Lemkin Human Rights Award from Rabbis for Human Rights – North America for having founded the organization Rabbis for Human Rights. Rosen was appointed Commander of the Order of the British Empire in the 2010 New Year Honours. Rabbi Rosen was appointed as the only Jewish representative on the Board of Directors of the KAICIID Dialogue Centre established in Vienna in 2012 by King Abdullah of Saudi Arabia together with the governments of Austria and Spain. In 2016, he was awarded the Hubert Walter Award for Reconciliation and Interfaith Cooperation by the Archbishop of Canterbury "for his commitment and contribution to the work of Inter Religious relations between the Jewish and Catholic faiths".
He is married to Sharon. They have three daughters, Yakarah and Amirit, he is a son of Rabbi Dr. Kopul Rosen, as are his brothers Jeremy Michael Rosen. Rabbi Rosen's views on a variety of topics may be found in the Media section of his website, www.rabbidavidrosen.net. Rabbi Rosen is Honorary President of the International Jewish Vegetarian and Ecology society, he is a vigorous critic of factory farming, noting that "much of the current treatment of animals in the livestock trade makes the consumption of meat produced through such cruel conditions halachically unacceptable as the product of illegitimate means." In addition, he has argued that the waste of natural resources and the damage done to the environment by "meat production" make a compelling Jewish moral argument for adopting a vegetarian diet. He has written extensively on a wide variety of interfaith issues. History of the Jews in Ireland Jewish vegetarianism Official website
Shmuly Yanklowitz is an Open Orthodox rabbi and author. In March 2012 and March 2013, Newsweek and The Daily Beast listed Yanklowitz as one of the 50 most influential rabbis in America; the Forward named Yanklowitz one of the 50 most influential Jews of 2016. Yanklowitz was ordained as a rabbi at Yeshivat Chovevei Torah, received a second rabbinic ordination from Rabbi Shlomo Riskin, the chief rabbi of Efrat, a third rabbinic ordination from Rabbi Nathan Lopes Cardozo of Jerusalem, he earned a master's degree at Harvard University in Leadership and Psychology and a second master's degree in Jewish Philosophy at Yeshiva University. Yanklowitz earned his Doctorate of Education from the Department of Human Development at Teachers College, Columbia University, has taught at UCLA Law School and Barnard College. Yanklowitz worked in corporate and non-profit consulting and was the Director of Panim JAM in Washington D. C. training others in leadership and advocacy. While in rabbinical school, Yanklowitz served at four different Orthodox congregations.
Following his ordination, Yanklowitz served as Senior Jewish Educator and Director of Jewish Life at UCLA Hillel from 2010 to 2012. Yanklowitz has served as a delegate to the World Economic Forum. From August 2012 to May 2013, Yanklowitz served as the Senior Rabbi of Kehilath Israel Synagogue in Overland Park, Kansas. In July 2013, he became Executive Director later President and Dean, of Valley Beit Midrash in Phoenix, Arizona. Yanklowitz is the founder of multiple nonprofit organizations that engage in activism: He founded Uri L'Tzedek, an Orthodox social justice organization, he founded an animal welfare spiritual activist center. He founded YATOM: The Jewish Adoption Network, he founded a "progressive-minded" Orthodox rabbinic association. In 2012, Yanklowitz co-founded “Jews for Human Rights in Syria." Yanklowitz leads the Jewish social justice group Arizona Jews for Justice. Yanklowitz has advocated for regulated organ market, cadaveric organ donation as well as for living kidney donation.
Yanklowitz is an organ donor. Phoenix mayor Greg Stanton appointed Yanklowitz to be a commissioner on the Phoenix Human Relations Commission. A film crew followed Yanklowitz for over a year to produce a PBS documentary named The Calling, a documentary series that follows seven Muslims, Evangelical Christians, Jews as they train to become professional clergy; the program aired in the United States in December 2010. Under Yanklowitz's direction, the Shamyaim V'Aretz Institute launched the Synagogue Vegan Challenge in Summer 2017. Yanklowitz has written extensively on questions of Jewish vegetarianism, he has argued that Jewish animal ethics can encompass both speciest frameworks and more egalitarian frameworks. In 2017, Yanklowitz was one of the rabbis who signed a statement by Jewish Veg encouraging veganism for all Jews. Yanklowitz's books include the following: The Soul of Activism: A Spirituality for Social Change - 2019 Jewish Veganism and Vegetarianism: Studies and New Directions - 2019 Kashrut & Jewish Food Ethics - 2019 The Jewish Spirituality of Service: Giving Back Rather Than Giving In! ( - 2018 Pirkei Avot: A Social Justice Commentary - 2018 A Torah Giant: The Intellectual Legacy of Rabbi Dr. Irving Greenberg - 2018 Postmodern Jewish Ethics: Emerging Social Justice Paradigms - 2017 Torah of the Street, Torah of the Heart - 2016 Existing Eternally, Existing Tomorrow: Essays on Jewish Ethics & Social Justice - 2015 The Jewish Vegan - 2015 SPARKS!
Bringing Light Back into the World - 2014 Soul Searching: A Jewish Workbook for Spiritual Exploration and Growth - 2014 Bringing Heaven Down To Earth: Jewish Ethics for a Complex and Evolving World - 2014 Spiritual Courage: Vignettes on Jewish Leadership for the Twenty-First Century - 2014 The Soul of Jewish Social Justice - 2014 Epistemic Development in Talmud Study - 2013 Jewish Ethics & Social Justice: A Guide for the 21st Century - 2012Yanklowitz’s writing has been described as challenging Jews to seek social justice. Regarding Jewish Ethics & Social Justice, Peter L. Rothholz wrote that “in language, at once passionate and direct, the author tackles a number of delicate subjects head on and makes practical suggestions for dealing with them.” Regarding Pirkei Avot: A Social Justice Commentary, David Ellenson wrote that Yanklowitz "inspires" and "challenges his readers... to improve the world." Yanklowitz is married and lives in Phoenix, AZ. Yanklowitz himself underwent Orthodox conversion to Judaism, as he is the son of a Jewish father and a Christian mother.
He is an advocate for greater inclusion of Jewish converts. Yanklowitz is vegan. Official Website
Daniel Sperber is a British-born Israeli academic and open Orthodox rabbi. He is a professor of Talmud at Bar-Ilan University in Israel, an expert in classical philology, history of Jewish customs, Jewish art history, Jewish education, Talmudic studies. Daniel Sperber was born on November 1940, in Gwrych Castle, Wales, he studied for rabbinical ordination at Yeshivat Kol Torah in Israel, earned a doctorate from University College, London, in the departments of Ancient History and Hebrew Studies. He is married to Phyllis Magnus, a couples therapist of Highland Park, Illinois, they have ten children. One of their daughters, Abigail, is the founder of a Jewish religious lesbian group, he is the Milan Roven professor of Talmud at Bar-Ilan University in Israel, where he is the President of the Ludwig and Erica Jesselson Institute for Advanced Torah Studies. He serves as rabbi of Menachem Zion Synagogue in the Old City of Jerusalem. In 2010, Rabbi Sperber accepted an appointment as honorary Chancellor of the Canadian Yeshiva & Rabbinical School in Toronto.
Sperber is the author of Minhagei Yisrael: Origins and History on the character and evolution of Jewish customs. He has written extensively on many issues regarding how Jewish law has evolved; this includes a call for a greater inclusion of women in certain ritual services, including ordination. He is a critic of how certain halachic rules have become too strict in recent years. Regarding kitniyot, he has said, "The attitude in the last few decades has changed and become stricter, to the point of absurdity", pointing out that non-kitniyot items have been added to the list, including "cottonseed oil, sunflower oil, peanut oil, hemp". Sperber explains his rationale for allowing a greater role for women in Orthodox practice: "The first is that in the same way it is forbidden to permit that, forbidden, it's forbidden to forbid that, permitted; the second is that it is not forbidden to permit that, permitted if it wasn't practiced in the past, because halakha is dynamic, when cultural circumstances change, one has to face up to these changes and accommodate them.
The third principle is. So, when things are permitted, they should be encouraged." In 1992, Sperber won the Israel Prize, for Jewish studies. Material Culture in Eretz Israel during the Talmudic Period, Vol. 1, Bar-Ilan University Press, 1993. Minhagei Yisrael: Origins and History. Mossad Harav Kook, 1998–2007, 8 vol.. Masekhet Derekh erets zuṭa u-Fereḳ ha-shalom, 1994. OCLC 31267940 Magic and Folklore in Rabbinic Literature, Bar-Ilan University Press, 1994. ISBN 965-226-165-3 Great is Peace, Jerusalem, 1979. OCLC 9368592 Roman Palestine 200-400: Money and Prices, Bar-Ilan University Press, 1974. ISBN 965-226-147-5 Daniel Sperber. Roman Palestine, 200-400, the land: crisis and change in agrarian society as reflected in rabbinic sources. Ramat-Gan: Bar-Ilan University. OCLC 5222104. Daniel Sperber. A dictionary of Greek and Latin legal terms in Rabbinic Literature. Ramat-Gan, Israel: Bar-Ilan University Press. ISBN 965-226-050-9. Nautica Talmudica, Bar-Ilan University Press and E. J. Brill, 1986. ISBN 90-04-08249-2 A Commentary on Derech Eretz Zuta Chapters 5-8, Bar-Ilan University Press, 1990.
OCLC 10107498 Sperber, Daniel. The City in Roman Palestine. Oxford Oxfordshire: Oxford University Press. ISBN 0-585-25475-3. Essays on Greek and Latin in the Mishna and midrashic 1982 David Sperber. Re'ayot ha-Re'iyah: masot u-meḥḳarim be-torato shel ha-Rav Ḳuḳ. Yerushalayim: Bet ha-Rav. OCLC 34010082. Chana Sperber. Ten Best Jewish Children's Stories. New York: Pitspopany. ISBN 0-943706-58-0. Sperber, Daniel. Why Jews Do. New York: Ktav Pub. House. ISBN 0-88125-604-8. Nautica in Talmudic Palestine. Mediterranean History Review, vol. 15, 2001 Paralysis in Contemporary Halakhah? Tradition 36:3, 1-13. Tarbut Homrit Be'eretz Yisrael Beyemai Hatalmud, Vol. 2, Yad Yitzhak Ben Zvi & Bar Ilan University The Path of Halacha, Women Reading the Torah: A Case of Pesika Policy, Rubin Mass, Jerusalem, 2007 Daniel Sperber. Resh Kalah u-mai ḥupah. Yerushalayim. OCLC 57331845. Serber, Daniel. On Changes in Jewish Liturgy: Options and Limitations. Jerusalem: Urim Publications. ISBN 965-524-040-1; the Jewish Life Cycle: Custom and Iconography—Jewish Customs from the Cradle to the Grave Why Jews Do What They Do: The History of Jewish Customs Throughout the Cycle of the Jewish Year by Daniel Sperber and Yaakov Elman.
Women and Men in Communal Prayer: Halakhic Perspectives by Rabbi Professor Daniel Sperber, Rabbi Mendel Shapiro, Professor Eliav Shochetman and Rabbi Dr. Shlomo Riskin. Greek in Talmudic Palestine, Bar-Ilan University Press, 2012. Contributor to the Talmud El Am on Kiddushin; the Paths of Daniel: Studies in Judaism and Jewish Culture in Honor of Rabbi Professor Daniel Sperber Edited By: Adam S. Ferziger, Bar-Ilan University Press, 2017. List of Israel Prize recipients Erica and Ludwig Jesselson Institute for Advanced Torah Studies Sherman Lectures, University of Manchester, 2004 Sperber, D. "Congregational Dignity and Human Dignity: Women and Public Torah Reading” Edah 3:2, 2002 Bar-Ilan University Talmud Department Sperber, D. "'Friendly' Pesaq and the'Friendly' Poseq" Edah 5:2, 2006 Edah, Daniel Sperber speaker information
History of vegetarianism
The earliest records of vegetarianism as a concept and practice amongst a significant number of people are from ancient India and the ancient Greek civilizations in southern Italy and Greece. In both instances, the diet was connected with the idea of nonviolence toward animals, was promoted by religious groups and philosophers. Following the Christianization of the Roman Empire in late antiquity, vegetarianism nearly disappeared from Europe. Several orders of monks in medieval Europe restricted or banned the consumption of meat for ascetic reasons, but none of them abstained from the consumption of fish. Vegetarianism was to reemerge somewhat in Europe during the Renaissance and became a more widespread practice during the 19th and 20th centuries; the figures for the percentage of the Western world, vegetarian varies between 0.5% and 4% per Mintel data in September 2006. Jain and Buddhist sources show that the principle of nonviolence toward animals was an established rule in both religions as early as the 6th-century BCE.
The Jain concept, strict, maybe much older. Parshva, the earliest Jain leader whom modern historians consider to be a historical figure, lived in the 8th or 7th century BCE, he is said to have preached nonviolence no less radically than it was practiced in the Jain community in the times of Mahavira. Between 4th and 1st centuries BCE, ancient Indian philosopher Valluvar wrote an exclusive chapter on veganism or vegetarianism in his work Tirukkural, emphasizing unambiguously on non-animal diet, non-harming, non-killing. Not everyone who refused to participate in any killing or injuring of animals abstained from the consumption of meat. Hence the question of Buddhist vegetarianism in the earliest stages of that religion's development is controversial. There are two schools of thought. One says that the Buddha and his followers ate meat offered to them by hosts or alms-givers if they had no reason to suspect that the animal had been slaughtered for their sake; the other one says that the Buddha and his community of monks were strict vegetarians and the habit of accepting alms of meat was only tolerated on, after a decline of discipline.
The first opinion is supported by several passages in the Pali version of the Tripitaka, the opposite one by some Mahayana texts. All those sources were put into writing several centuries after the death of the Buddha, they may reflect the conflicting positions of different wings or currents within the Buddhist community in its early stage. According to the Vinaya Pitaka, the first schism happened when the Buddha was still alive: a group of monks led by Devadatta left the community because they wanted stricter rules, including an unconditional ban on meat eating; the Mahaparinibbana Sutta, which narrates the end of the Buddha's life, states that he died after eating sukara-maddava, a term translated by some as pork, by others as mushrooms. The Buddhist emperor Ashoka was a vegetarian, a determined promoter of nonviolence to animals, he promulgated detailed laws aimed at the protection of many species, abolished animal sacrifice at his court, admonished the population to avoid all kinds of unnecessary killing and injury.
Ashoka has asserted protection to fauna, from his edicts: Beloved-of-the-Gods, King Piyadasi, has caused this Dhamma edict to be written. Here no living beings are to be offered in sacrifice. Nor should festivals be held, for Beloved-of-the-Gods, King Piyadasi, sees much to object to in such festivals, although there are some festivals that Beloved-of-the-Gods, King Piyadasi, does approve of. In the kitchen of Beloved-of-the-Gods, King Piyadasi, hundreds of thousands of animals were killed every day to make curry, but now with the writing of this Dhamma edict only three creatures, two peacocks and a deer are killed, the deer not always. And in time, not these three creatures will be killed.—Edicts of Ashoka on 1st Major Rock Edict Twenty-six years after my coronation various animals were declared to be protected—parrots, aruna, ruddy geese, wild ducks, gelatas, queen ants, boneless fish, gangapuputaka, sankiya fish, porcupines, deer, okapinda, wild asses, wild pigeons, domestic pigeons and all four-footed creatures that are neither useful nor edible.
Those nanny goats and sows which are with young or giving milk to their young are protected, so are young ones less than six months old. Cocks are not to be caponized, husks hiding living beings are not to be burnt and forests are not to be burnt either without reason or to kill creatures. One animal is not to be fed to another. —Edicts of Ashoka on Fifth Pillar Theravada Buddhists used to observe the regulation of the Pali canon which allowed them to eat meat unless the animal had been slaughtered for them. In the Mahayana school some scriptures advocated vegetarianism. In the ancient Vedic period, although the laws allowed the consumption of some kinds of meat, vegetarianism was encouraged; the Manusmriti law book states, "There is no sin in eating meat... but abstention brings great rewards." According to Veda, food was not just a means of sustenance but your choice of diet determined your social status. Food was equated with wealth because a person who had an unending access to food was a successful person.
Consuming food was considered an act of dominance or of wielding power over th
Carnism is a concept used in discussions of humanity's relation to other animals, defined as a prevailing ideology in which people support the use and consumption of animal products meat. Carnism is presented as a dominant belief system supported by a variety of defense mechanisms and unchallenged assumptions; the term carnism was coined by social psychologist and author Melanie Joy in 2001 and popularized by her book Why We Love Dogs, Eat Pigs, Wear Cows. Central to the ideology, according to the theory, is the acceptance of meat-eating as "natural", "normal", "necessary", "nice". An important feature of carnism is the classification of only particular species of animal as food, the acceptance of practices toward those animals that would be rejected as unacceptable cruelty if applied to other species; this classification is culturally relative, so that, for example, dogs are eaten by some people in Korea but may be pets in the West, while cows are eaten in the West but protected in much of India.
Analyzing the history of vegetarianism and opposition to it from ancient Greece to the present day, literary scholar Renan Larue found certain commonalities in what he described as carnist arguments. According to him, carnists held that vegetarianism is a ludicrous idea unworthy of attention, that mankind is invested with dominion over animals by divine authority, that abstaining from violence against animals would pose a threat to humans, he found that the views that farmed animals do not suffer, that slaughter is preferable to death by disease or predation, gained currency in the nineteenth century, but that the former had precedent in the writings of Porphyry, a vegetarian who advocated the humane production of animal products which do not require animals to be slaughtered, such as wool. In the 1970s traditional views on the moral standing of animals were challenged by animal rights advocates, including psychologist Richard Ryder, who in 1971 introduced the notion of speciesism; this is defined as the assignment of value and rights to individuals on the basis of their species membership.
In 2001 psychologist and animal rights advocate Melanie Joy coined the term carnism for a form of speciesism that she argues underpins using animals for food, killing them for meat. Joy compares carnism to patriarchy, arguing that both are dominant normative ideologies that go unrecognized because of their ubiquity: We don't see meat eating as we do vegetarianism – as a choice, based on a set of assumptions about animals, our world, ourselves. Rather, we see it as a given, the "natural" thing to do, the way things have always been and the way things will always be. We eat animals without thinking about what we are doing and why, because the belief system that underlies this behavior is invisible; this invisible belief system is. Sandra Mahlke argues that carnism is the "central crux of speciesism" because the eating of meat motivates ideological justification for other forms of animal exploitation. A central aspect of carnism is that animals are categorized as edible, pets, predators, or entertainment animals, according to people's schemata – mental classifications that determine, are determined by, our beliefs and desires.
There is cultural variability regarding. Dogs are eaten in China, South Korea, but elsewhere are not viewed as food, either because they are loved or, as in the Middle East and parts of India, regarded as unclean. Cows revered in much of India. Pigs are rejected by Muslims and Jews but regarded by other groups as edible. Joy and other psychologists argue that these taxonomies determine how the animals within them are treated, influence subjective perceptions of their sentience and intelligence, reduce or increase empathy and moral concern for them. Jeff Mannes writes that carnism is rooted in a paradox between most people's values and actions: they oppose harming animals, yet eat them, he argues that this conflict leads to cognitive dissonance, which people attempt to attenuate through psychic numbing. The apparent conflict between caring about animals and embracing diets which require them to be harmed has been termed the "meat paradox". There is experimental evidence supporting the idea that the meat paradox induces cognitive dissonance in Westerners.
Westerners are more willing to eat animals which they regard as having lesser mental capacities and moral standing, conversely, to attribute lesser mental faculties and moral standing to animals which are eaten. Furthermore, the relationship is causative: the categorization of animals as food or not affects people's perception of their mental characteristics, the act of eating meat itself causes people to attribute diminished mental capacity to animals. For example, in one study people rated an unfamiliar exotic animal as less intelligent if they were told native people hunted it, in another they regarded cows as less intelligent after eating beef jerky. Avoiding consideration of the provenance of animal products is another strategy. Joy argues that this is why meat is served with the animal's head or other intact body parts. Joy introduced the idea of the "Three Ns of Justification", writing that meat-eaters regard meat consumption as "normal and necessary", she argues that the "Three Ns" have been invoked to justify other ideologies, including slavery and denying women the right to vote, are recognized as problematic only after the ideology they support has been dismantled.
The argument holds that people are conditioned to believe that humans evolved to eat meat, that it is expected of them, that they need it to survive or be strong. These beliefs are said to be reinforced by various institu
Yonassan Gershom is a Rabbi and writer, ordained in the Jewish Renewal movement during the 1980s and is now a follower of Breslov Hasidism. He was associated with the early days of the B'nai Or movement, a forerunner of Jewish Renewal, in which he was ordained by Rabbi Zalman Schachter-Shalomi in 1986, although he is not in agreement with the direction that the movement has taken in more recent yearsGershom lives on a farm in rural Minnesota, where he writes and conducts himself as a "cyber-rabbi" on the Internet. In 1997 he made a pilgrimage to the grave of Rabbi Nachman of Breslov in Uman, Ukraine, a trip that has influenced his writings; until this point, "he wasn't aware. It gave him a deeper understanding of Hasidic stories and the Torah." He has served on the Advisory Board of the Jewish Vegetarians of North America and is active in the vegetarian and animal welfare movements. In 2013 he was quoted as opposing the use of live chickens for Kapparot ceremonies. Gershom is best known for having written several books on the topic of the Holocaust and reincarnation.
Beyond the Ashes and From Ashes to Healing recount stories of people who claim to have died in the Holocaust and are now reincarnated, while Jewish Tales of Reincarnation deals with Jewish accounts of reincarnation, including a few from the Holocaust but others from classical Jewish texts and oral tradition. In his books on reincarnation, he discusses theories concerning whether Jews who died in the Holocaust did so as punishment for their sins in their previous lives, he argues that in the Jewish conception of evil and reincarnation, suffering in this life is not punishment for wrongdoing in a previous life. Rather, he argues, undeserved suffering in this life can be purely due to the wrongdoing of the perpetrators and not some punishment for the victims, he does, argue that, according to the Jewish concept, wickedness can be accumulated over a succession of reincarnations. Thus, he argues, it is possible that the Nazis committed the Holocaust due to the evil they had accumulated through many lifetimes of persecuting and killing Jews throughout the preceding centuries.
He cites. Gershom has appeared on several TV programs in connection with his reincarnation work, including Sightings and Unexplained Mysteries; the Duluth, Minnesota PBS station, WDSE featured him on their Venture North news magazine show in connection with his philosophy on gardening and Jewish spirituality. He appears in the 2007 documentary film, A Sacred Duty: Applying Jewish Values to Help Heal the World, directed by Lionel Friedberg for the Jewish Vegetarians of North America. Although he is best known for his books on reincarnation, Gershom is a lifelong pacifist and peace activist, who has written many articles on Judaism and nonviolence collected into an anthology entitled Eight Candles of Consciousness, he was active in the peace movement in Minneapolis during the 1980s, publicly protested against the policies of Meir Kahane. He is a supporter of gay rights, basing his stance on equal rights under the law rather than theology, he graduated from Mankato State University in 1975 with a Bachelor of Science degree in German language and Native American Studies.
On reincarnation: Beyond the Ashes: Cases of Reincarnation from the Holocaust, A. R. E. Press, 1992. From Ashes to Healing: Mystical Encounters with the Holocaust, A. R. E. Press, 1996. Jewish Tales of Reincarnation, Jason Aronson, Inc. 2000. Are Holocaust Victims Returning?" ebook anthology of articles on reincarnation reprinted from various periodicals, 2007. On other topics 49 Gates of Light: Kabbalistic Meditations for Counting the Omer, Crown Point Enterprises, Minneapolis, 1987, reprinted as 49 Gates of Light: a course in kabbalah, Lulu Press, Inc. 2010. "Shamanism in the Jewish Tradition," included in Nicholson, Shamanism: An Expanded View of Reality, Quest Books, Illinois, 1996. "The Peace Stone" included in Seeing the Light: Personal Encounters with the Middle East and Islam, Richard H. and McMahon, American Educational Trust, Washington DC, 1997. Eight Candles of Consciousness: Essays on Jewish Nonviolence, Lulu Press, Inc. Raleigh, NC, 2009. Jewish Themes in Star Trek, Lulu Press, Inc. Raleigh, NC, 2009.
Two dialogues with him on animal rights issues in Judaism are included in Who Stole My Religion?: Revitalizing Judaism and Applying Jewish Values to Help Heal our Imperiled Planet by Richard H. Schwartz, Lulu Press, Inc. Raleigh, NC, 2011. Kapporos Then and Now: Toward a More Compassionate Tradition, Lulu Press, Inc. 2015. "Spock and Jews in the 1960s," included in Spockology:Essays on Spock and Leonard Nimoy from The Undiscovered Country Project and Friends, Kvin C. Createspace, 2015. "Rabbi Birds and Rooster Chicks: how I Became a Vegetarian," included in Yanklowitz, The Jewish Vegan, Shamyim v'Aretz Institute, 2015. Jewish vegetarianism A Sacred Duty: Applying Jewish Values to Heal the World, homepage for this documentary film, which includes interview footage with Yonassan Gershom. You can Video on YouTube. "The Soul of Every Living Thing," a 5-minute video from the Shamayim v'Aretz Institute, featuring Yonassan Gershom speaking on nature and animals, Video on YouTube
Buddhist vegetarianism is the belief that following a vegetarian diet is implied in the Buddha's teaching. In Buddhism, the views on vegetarianism vary between different schools of thought. According to Theravada, the Buddha allowed his monks to eat pork and fish if the monk was aware that the animal was not killed on their behalf; the Mahayana schools recommend a vegetarian diet. Monks of the Mahayana traditions that follow the Brahma Net Sutra are forbidden by their vows from eating flesh of any kind; the earliest surviving written accounts of Buddhism are the Edicts of Asoka written by King Asoka, a well-known Buddhist king who propagated Buddhism throughout Asia and is honored by both Theravada and Mahayana schools of Buddhism. The authority of the Edicts of Asoka as a historical record is suggested by the mention of numerous topics omitted as well as corroboration of numerous accounts found in the Theravada and Mahayana Tripitakas written down centuries later. Asoka Rock Edict 1 dated to c. 257 BCE mentions the prohibition of animal sacrifices in Asoka’s Maurya Empire as well as his commitment to vegetarianism.
However, Asoka’s personal commitment to, advocating of, vegetarianism suggests Early Buddhism most already had a vegetarian tradition There is a divergence of views within Buddhism as to whether vegetarianism is required, with some schools of Buddhism rejecting such a requirement. The first precept in Buddhism is translated as "I undertake the precept to refrain from taking life"; some Buddhists see this as implying that Buddhists should avoid meat consumption, whereas other Buddhists argue that this is untrue. Some Buddhists do oppose meat-eating on the basis of scriptural injunctions against flesh-eating accorded in Mahayana sutras. According to the Mahāyāna Mahāparinirvāṇa Sūtra, a Mahayana sutra purporting to give Gautama Buddha's final teachings, the Buddha insisted that his followers should not eat any kind of meat or fish those not included in the 10 types, that vegetarian food, touched by meat should be washed before being eaten, it is not permissible for the monk or nun just to pick out the non-meat portions of a diet and leave the rest: the whole meal must be rejected.
The Aṅgulimālīya Sūtra quotes a dialogue between Gautama Buddha and Manjushri on meat eating: Mañjuśrī asked, “Do Buddhas not eat meat because of the tathāgata-garbha?” The Blessed One replied, “Mañjuśrī, so. There are no beings who have not been one’s mother, who have not been one’s sister through generations of wandering in beginningless and endless saṃsāra. One, a dog has been one’s father, for the world of living beings is like a dancer. Therefore, one's own flesh and the flesh of another are a single flesh. “Moreover, Mañjuśrī, the dhātu of all beings is the dharmadhātu, so Buddhas do not eat meat because they would be eating the flesh of one single dhātu.” Certain Mahayana sutras do present the Buddha as vigorously and unreservedly denouncing the eating of meat on the grounds that such an act is linked to the spreading of fear amongst sentient beings and violates the bodhisattva's fundamental cultivation of compassion. Moreover, according to the Buddha in the Angulimaliya Sutra, since all beings share the same "Dhatu" and are intimately related to one another and eating other sentient creatures is tantamount to a form of self-killing and cannibalism.
The sutras which inveigh against meat-eating include the Nirvana Sutra, the Shurangama Sutra, the Brahmajala Sutra, the Angulimaliya Sutra, the Mahamegha Sutra, the Lankavatara Sutra. In the Mahayana Mahaparinirvana Sutra, which presents itself as the final elucidatory and definitive Mahayana teachings of the Buddha on the eve of his death, the Buddha states that "the eating of meat extinguishes the seed of Great Kindness", adding that all and every kind of meat and fish consumption is prohibited by him, he rejects the idea that monks who go out begging and receive meat from a donor should eat it: "... it should be rejected... I say that meat, game, dried hooves and scraps of meat left over by others constitutes an infraction... I teach the harm arising from meat-eating." The Buddha predicts in this sutra that monks will "hold spurious writings to be the authentic Dharma" and will concoct their own sutras and falsely claim that the Buddha allows the eating of meat, whereas he says he does not.
A long passage in the Lankavatara Sutra shows the Buddha speaking out forcefully against meat consumption and unequivocally in favor of vegetarianism, since the eating of the flesh of fellow sentient beings is said by him to be incompatible with the compassion that a Bodhisattva should strive to cultivate. This passage has been seen as questionable. In a translation by D. T. Suzuki, a note is made that this section: This chapter on meat-eating is another addition to the text, done earlier than the Rāvaṇa chapter.... It is quite that meat-eating was practised more or less among the earlier Buddhists, made a subject of severe criticism by their opponents; the Buddhists at the time of the Laṅkāvatāra did not like it, hence this addition in which an apologetic