Scottish Church College
Scottish Church College is the oldest continuously running Christian liberal arts and sciences college in India. It has been highly rated by the National Assessment and Accreditation Council, an autonomous organization that evaluates academic institutions in India, it is affiliated with the University of Calcutta for degree courses for postgraduates. It is a selective coeducational institution, known for its high academic standards. Students and alumni call themselves "Caledonians" in the name of the college festival, "Caledonia"; the origins are traceable to the life of Alexander Duff, the first overseas missionary of the Church of Scotland, to India. Known as the General Assembly's Institution, it was founded on 13 July 1830. Alexander Duff was born on 25 April 1806, in Moulin, located in the Scottish countryside, he attended the University of St Andrews. Subsequently, he undertook his evangelical mission to India. In a voyage that involved two shipwrecks and the loss of his personal library consisting of 800 volumes, college prizes, he arrived in Calcutta on 27 May 1830.
Supported by the Governor-General of India Lord William Bentinck, Rev. Alexander Duff opened his institution in Feringhi Kamal Bose's house, located in upper Chitpore Road, near Jorasanko. In 1836 the institution was moved to Gorachand Bysack's house at Garanhatta. Mr. MacFarlane, the Chief-Magistrate of Calcutta, laid the foundation stone on 23 February 1837. Mr. John Gray, elected by Messrs. Burn & Co. and superintended by Captain John Thomson of the East India Company designed the building. It is possible that he may have been inspired by the facade of the Holy House of Mercy in Macau, which reflects the influence of Portuguese Renaissance and Mannerist and colonial architecture. Traces of English Palladianism are evident in the design of the college; the construction of the building was completed in 1839. In the early 1800s, under the regime of the East India Company, English education and Missionary activities were suspect. While the East India Company supported Orientalist instruction in the vernacular languages like Persian and Sanskrit, helped to establish institutions like Calcutta Madrasah College, Sanskrit College, in general, colonial administrative policy discouraged the dissemination of knowledge in their language, in English.
The general apathy of the Company towards the cause of education and improvement of natives is in many ways, the background for the agency of missionaries like Duff. Inspired by the General Assembly of the Church of Scotland, Reverend Alexander Duff a young missionary, arrived in India's colonial capital to set up an English-medium institution. Though Bengalis had shown some interest in the spread of Western education from the beginning of the 19th century, both the local church and government officers were skeptical about the high-caste Bengali's response to the idea of an English-medium institution. While Orientalists like James Prinsep were supportive of the idea of vernacular education and prominent Indians like Raja Ram Mohan Roy supported the use of English as a medium of instruction, his emphasis on the use of English on Indian soil was prophetic: The English language, I repeat it, is the lever which, as the instrument of conveying the entire range of knowledge, is destined to move all Hindustan.
Raja Ram Mohan Roy helped Duff by organizing the venue and bringing in the first batch of students. He assured the guardians that reading the King James's Bible did not imply religious conversion, unless, based on inner spiritual conviction. Imbibing the tenets of the Scottish educational system that shaped his ideals, Duff was, unlike the missionaries and scholars at the Serampore College, wholeheartedly committed to the cause of instruction in the English language, as that facilitated the advanced study of European religion and science. By selecting teachers and Indian, who brought out the best of Christian and secular understandings, by emphasizing advanced pedagogical techniques that emphasized the Socratic method of classroom debate and rational thinking and his followers established an educational system, whose impact in spreading progressive values in contemporary Bengal would be profound. Although his ultimate aim was the spread of English education, Duff was aware that a foreign language could not be mastered without command of the native language.
Hence in his General Assembly's Institution and learning in the dominant vernacular Bengali language was emphasized. Duff and his successors underscored the necessity of sports among his students; when he introduced political economy as a subject in the curricula, his faced his church's criticism. In 1840, Duff returned to India. At the Disruption of 1843, Duff sided with the Free Church, he gave up the college buildings, with all their effects and established a new institution, called the Free Church Institution. He had the support of Sir James Outram and Sir Henry Lawrence, the encouragement of seeing a new band of converts, including several young men born of high caste. In 1844, governor-general Viscount Hardinge opened government appointments to all who had studied in institutions similar to Duff's institution. In the same year, Duff co-founded the Calcutta Review, of which he served as editor from 1845 to 1849. In 1857, when the University of Calcutta was established, the Free Church Institution was one of its earliest affiliates, Duff would serve in the universit
The Lok Sabha is the lower house of India's bicameral Parliament, with the upper house being the Rajya Sabha. Members of the Lok Sabha are elected by adult universal suffrage and a first-past-the-post system to represent their respective constituencies, they hold their seats for five years or until the body is dissolved by the President on the advice of the council of ministers; the house meets in the Lok Sabha Chambers of the Sansad Bhavan in New Delhi. The maximum strength of the House allotted by the Constitution of India is 552; the house has 545 seats, made up by the election of up to 543 elected members and at a maximum, 2 nominated members of the Anglo-Indian Community by the President of India. A total of 131 seats are reserved for representatives of Scheduled Tribes; the quorum for the House is 10% of the total membership. The Lok Sabha, unless sooner dissolved, continues to operate for five years from the date appointed for its first meeting. However, while a proclamation of emergency is in operation, this period may be extended by Parliament by law.
An exercise to redraw Lok Sabha constituencies' boundaries is carried out by the Boundary Delimitation Commission of India every decade based on the Indian census, last of, conducted in 2011. This exercise earlier included redistribution of seats among states based on demographic changes but that provision of the mandate of the commission was suspended in 1976 following a constitutional amendment to incentivise the family planning programme, being implemented; the 16th Lok Sabha is the latest to date. The schedule for the 2019 Lok Sabha Election has been announced by the Election Commission of India. Broken into seven phases the General Elections will be held from 11th April 2019 till 19th May 2019; the Lok Sabha has its own television channel, Lok Sabha TV, headquartered within the premises of Parliament. A major portion of the Indian subcontinent was under British rule from 1858 to 1947. During this period, the office of the Secretary of State for India was the authority through whom British Parliament exercised its rule in the Indian sub-continent, the office of Viceroy of India was created, along with an Executive Council in India, consisting of high officials of the British government.
The Indian Councils Act 1861 provided for a Legislative Council consisting of the members of the Executive Council and non-official members. The Indian Councils Act 1892 established legislatures in each of the provinces of British India and increased the powers of the Legislative Council. Although these Acts increased the representation of Indians in the government, their power still remained limited, the electorate small; the Indian Councils Act 1909 and the Government of India Act 1919 further expanded the participation of Indians in the administration. The Government of India Act 1935 introduced provincial autonomy and proposed a federal structure in India; the Indian Independence Act 1947, passed by the British parliament on 18 July 1947, divided British India into two new independent countries and Pakistan, which were to be dominions under the Crown until they had each enacted a new constitution. The Constituent Assembly was divided into two for the separate nations, with each new Assembly having sovereign powers transferred to it for the respective dominion.
The Constitution of India was adopted on 26 November 1949 and came into effect on 26 January 1950, proclaiming India to be a sovereign, democratic republic. This contained the founding principles of the law of the land which would govern India in its new form, which now included all the princely states which had not acceded to Pakistan. According to Article 79 of the Constitution of India, the Parliament of India consists of the President of India and the two Houses of Parliament known as the Council of States and the House of the People; the Lok Sabha was duly constituted for the first time on 17 April 1952 after the first General Elections held from 25 October 1951 to 21 February 1952. Article 84 of Indian Constitution sets qualifications for being a member of Lok Sabha, which are as follows: He / She should be a citizen of India, must subscribe before the Election Commission of India an oath or affirmation according to the form set out for the purpose in the Third Schedule of Indian Constitution.
He / She should not be less than 25 years of age. He / She possesses such other qualifications as may be prescribed in that behalf by or under any law made by Parliament, he / She should not be proclaimed criminal i.e. they should not be a convict, a confirmed debtor or otherwise disqualified by law. However, a member can be disqualified of being a member of Parliament: If he / she holds office of profit. A seat in the Lok Sabha will become vacant in the following circumstances: When the holder of the seat, by writing to the speaker, resigns; when the holder of the seat is absent from 60 consecutive days of proceedings of the House, without prior permission of the Speaker. When the holder of the seat is subject to any dis
A zamindar, zomidar, or jomidar, in the Indian subcontinent was an aristocrat. The term means land owner in Persian. Hereditary, zamindars held enormous tracts of land and control over their peasants, from whom they reserved the right to collect tax on behalf of imperial courts or for military purposes, their families carried titular suffixes of lordship. In the 19th and 20th centuries, with the advent of British imperialism, many wealthy and influential zamindars were bestowed with princely and royal titles such as Maharaja and Nawab. During the Mughal Empire, zamindars belonged to the nobility and formed the ruling class. Emperor Akbar granted them mansabs and their ancestral domains were treated as jagirs. Under British colonial rule in India, the permanent settlement consolidated what became known as the zamindari system; the British rewarded supportive zamindars by recognizing them as princes. Many of the region's princely states were pre-colonial zamindar holdings elevated to a greater protocol.
However, the British reduced the land holdings of many pre-colonial aristocrats, demoting their status to a zamindar from higher ranks of nobility. The system was abolished during land reforms in East Bengal in 1950, India in 1951 and West Pakistan in 1959; the zamindars played an important role in the regional histories of the subcontinent. One of the most notable examples is the 16th century confederation formed by twelve zamindars in the Bhati region, according to the Jesuits and Ralph Fitch, earned a reputation for successively repelling Mughal invasions through naval battles; the confederation was led by a zamindar-king, Isa Khan, included both Muslims and Hindus, such as Pratapaditya. The zamindars were patrons of the arts; the Tagore family produced India's first Nobel laureate in literature in 1913, Rabindranath Tagore, based at his estate. The zamindars promoted neoclassical and Indo-Saracenic architecture. Before Mughal rule in India, the aristocracy collected and retained revenue from land and production.
The Mughals appointed people to act as tax officers, sending them around the country to oversee collection of revenue and remit it to the capital city of Delhi. These people were known as the zamindari and they collected revenue from the Ryots The zamindari system was more prevalent in the north of India because Mughal influence in the south was less apparent. Primary and secondary zamindars were a landowning class with superior rights in the land, but working as part of the Mughal administration for the collection of land revenue; the third category was of semiautonomous rulers. These hereditary rulers were known by various names such as Rais, Rajas and Rawals; the zamindari system ensured proper collection of taxes in a period when the power and influence of the Mughal emperors were in decline. With the Mughal conquest of Bengal, "zamindar" became a generic title embracing people with different kinds of landholdings and responsibilities ranging from the autonomous or semi-independent chieftains to the peasant-proprietors.
All categories of zamindars under the Mughals were required to perform certain police and military duties. Zamindars under the Mughals were, in fact, more the public functionaries than revenue collecting agents. Although zamindaris were allowed to be held hereditarily, the holders were not considered to be the proprietors of their estates; the territorial zamindars had judicial powers also. This conferred status with attendant power, which made them the lords of their domains, they held regular courts, called zamindari adalat. The courts gave them not only power and status but some income as well by way of fines and perquisites; the petty zamindars had some share in the dispensation of criminal justice. Many zamindars had authority to deal with the complaints of debts and petty quarrels and to impose paltry fines; the British colonists of India adopted the extant zamindari system of revenue collection in the north of the country. They recognised the zamindars as landowners and proprietors as opposed to Mughal government and in return required them to collect taxes.
Although some zamindars were present in the south, they were not so in large numbers and the British administrators used the ryotwari method of collection, which involved selecting certain farmers as being land owners and requiring them to remit their taxes directly. The Zamindars of Bengal were influential in the development of Bengal, they played pivotal part during the Indian Rebellion of 1857. Unlike the autonomous or frontier chiefs, the hereditary status of the zamindar class was circumscribed by the Mughals, the heir depended to a certain extent on the pleasure of the sovereign. Heirs were set by descent or a times adoption by religious laws. Under the British Empire, the zamindars were to be subordinate to the crown and not act as hereditary lords, but at times family politics was at the heart of naming an heir. At times, a cousin could be named an heir with closer family relatives present; the zamindari system was abolished in independent India soon after its creation with the first amendment to the constitution of India which amended the right to property as shown in Articles 19 and 31.
This allowed the states to make their own "Zamindari Abolition Acts". In Bangladesh, the East Bengal State Acquisition and Tenancy Act of 1950 had a similar effect of ending the system. Indian feudalism Indian honorifics Maratha titles Jagirdar Mankari List of amendments of the Constitution of India Zamindars of Bengal Zamindars of Bihar
India known as the Republic of India, is a country in South Asia. It is the seventh largest country by area and with more than 1.3 billion people, it is the second most populous country as well as the most populous democracy in the world. Bounded by the Indian Ocean on the south, the Arabian Sea on the southwest, the Bay of Bengal on the southeast, it shares land borders with Pakistan to the west. In the Indian Ocean, India is in the vicinity of Sri Lanka and the Maldives, while its Andaman and Nicobar Islands share a maritime border with Thailand and Indonesia; the Indian subcontinent was home to the urban Indus Valley Civilisation of the 3rd millennium BCE. In the following millennium, the oldest scriptures associated with Hinduism began to be composed. Social stratification, based on caste, emerged in the first millennium BCE, Buddhism and Jainism arose. Early political consolidations took place under the Gupta empires. In the medieval era, Zoroastrianism and Islam arrived, Sikhism emerged, all adding to the region's diverse culture.
Much of the north fell to the Delhi Sultanate. The economy expanded in the 17th century in the Mughal Empire. In the mid-18th century, the subcontinent came under British East India Company rule, in the mid-19th under British Crown rule. A nationalist movement emerged in the late 19th century, which under Mahatma Gandhi, was noted for nonviolent resistance and led to India's independence in 1947. In 2017, the Indian economy was the world's sixth largest by nominal GDP and third largest by purchasing power parity. Following market-based economic reforms in 1991, India became one of the fastest-growing major economies and is considered a newly industrialised country. However, it continues to face the challenges of poverty, corruption and inadequate public healthcare. A nuclear weapons state and regional power, it has the second largest standing army in the world and ranks fifth in military expenditure among nations. India is a federal republic governed under a parliamentary system and consists of 29 states and 7 union territories.
A pluralistic and multi-ethnic society, it is home to a diversity of wildlife in a variety of protected habitats. The name India is derived from Indus, which originates from the Old Persian word Hindush, equivalent to the Sanskrit word Sindhu, the historical local appellation for the Indus River; the ancient Greeks referred to the Indians as Indoi, which translates as "The people of the Indus". The geographical term Bharat, recognised by the Constitution of India as an official name for the country, is used by many Indian languages in its variations, it is a modernisation of the historical name Bharatavarsha, which traditionally referred to the Indian subcontinent and gained increasing currency from the mid-19th century as a native name for India. Hindustan is a Middle Persian name for India, it was introduced into India by the Mughals and used since then. Its meaning varied, referring to a region that encompassed northern India and Pakistan or India in its entirety; the name may refer to either the northern part of India or the entire country.
The earliest known human remains in South Asia date to about 30,000 years ago. Nearly contemporaneous human rock art sites have been found in many parts of the Indian subcontinent, including at the Bhimbetka rock shelters in Madhya Pradesh. After 6500 BCE, evidence for domestication of food crops and animals, construction of permanent structures, storage of agricultural surplus, appeared in Mehrgarh and other sites in what is now Balochistan; these developed into the Indus Valley Civilisation, the first urban culture in South Asia, which flourished during 2500–1900 BCE in what is now Pakistan and western India. Centred around cities such as Mohenjo-daro, Harappa and Kalibangan, relying on varied forms of subsistence, the civilization engaged robustly in crafts production and wide-ranging trade. During the period 2000–500 BCE, many regions of the subcontinent transitioned from the Chalcolithic cultures to the Iron Age ones; the Vedas, the oldest scriptures associated with Hinduism, were composed during this period, historians have analysed these to posit a Vedic culture in the Punjab region and the upper Gangetic Plain.
Most historians consider this period to have encompassed several waves of Indo-Aryan migration into the subcontinent from the north-west. The caste system, which created a hierarchy of priests and free peasants, but which excluded indigenous peoples by labeling their occupations impure, arose during this period. On the Deccan Plateau, archaeological evidence from this period suggests the existence of a chiefdom stage of political organisation. In South India, a progression to sedentary life is indicated by the large number of megalithic monuments dating from this period, as well as by nearby traces of agriculture, irrigation tanks, craft traditions. In the late Vedic period, around the 6th century BCE, the small states and chiefdoms of the Ganges Plain and the north-western regions had consolidated into 16 major oligarchies and monarchies that were known as the mahajanapadas; the emerging urbanisation gave rise to non-Vedic religious movements, two of which became independent religions. Jainism came into prominence during the life of Mahavira.
Buddhism, based on the teachings of Gautama Buddha, attracted followers from all social classes excepting the middle
Municipal corporations in India
A municipal corporation, city corporation, Mahanagar Palika, Mahanagar Nigam or Nagar Nigam or Nagara Sabha is a local government in India that administers urban areas with a population of more than one million. The growing population and urbanization in various cities of India were in need of a local governing body that can work for providing necessary community services like health care, educational institution, transport etc. by collecting property tax and fixed grant from the State Government. The 74th Amendment made the provisions relating to urban local governments. Municipal corporations are referred to by different names in different states, all of which are translated to "municipal corporation" in English; these names include nagar nigam, mahanagar palika, pouro nigom, pur porishod, nagar palika nigam, Nagara Palaka Samstha, Maanagaraatchi. The Vadodara Municipal Corporation is called by the name "Vadodara Mahanagar Seva Sadan"; the detailed structure of these urban bodies varies from state to state, as per the laws passed by the state legislatures, but the basic structure and function is the same.
The area administered by a municipal corporation is known as a municipal area. Each municipal area is divided into territorial constituencies known as wards. A municipal corporation is made up of a wards committee; each ward has one seat in the wards committee. Members are elected to the wards committee on the basis of adult franchise for a term of five years; these members are known as corporators. The number of wards in a municipal area is determined by the population of the city; some seats are reserved for scheduled tribes, backward classes and women. A state can choose to constitute additional committees to carry functions of urban local governance, in addition to the wards committees. In addition to the councillors elected from the wards, the legislature of a state may choose to make provisions for the representation of persons having special knowledge or experience in municipal administration, the MPs or MLAs representing the constituencies which comprise wholly or the municipal area, and/or the commissioners of additional committees that the state may have constituted.
If a state legislature appoints a person from the first category to a wards committee, that individual will not have the right to vote in the meetings of the municipal corporation, while MPs, MLAs and commissioners do have the right to vote in meetings. The largest corporations are in the seven metropolitan cities of India, viz. Delhi, Kolkata, Bengaluru and Pune; the Brihanmumbai Municipal Corporation of The City of Mumbai is the richest municipal corporation in India. The Mayor is the head of the municipal corporation, but in most states and territories of India the role is ceremonial as executive powers are vested in the Municipal Commissioner; the office of the Mayor combines a functional role of chairing the Corporation meeting as well as ceremonial role associated with being the First Citizen of the city. As per the amended Municipal Corporation Act of 1888, a Deputy Mayor is appointed by the Mayor; the tenure of the Mayor and Deputy Mayor is five years. However, in seven states. Executive officers monitor the implementation of all the programs related to planning and development of the corporation with the coordination of mayor and councilors.
The Twelfth Schedule to the Constitution lists the subjects that municipal corporations are responsible for. Corporations may be entrusted to perform functions and implement schemes including those in relation to the matters listed in the Twelfth Schedule. Urban planning including town planning. Regulation of land-use and construction of buildings. Planning for economic and social development Water supply for domestic and commercial purposes. Public health, sanitation conservancy and solid waste management. Fire services. Urban forestry, protection of the environment and promotion of ecological aspects. Safeguarding the interests of weaker sections of society, including the handicapped and mentally retarded. Slum improvement and upgradation. Urban poverty alleviation. Provision of urban amenities and facilities such as parks, playgrounds. Promotion of cultural and aesthetic aspects. Burials and burial grounds. Cattle pounds. Vital statistics including registration of births and deaths. Public amenities including street lighting, parking lots, bus stops and public conveniences.
Regulation of slaughter houses and tanneries Its sources of income are taxes on water, houses and vehicles paid by residents of the town and grants from the state government. List of municipal corporations of India Municipal governance in India
Major-General Robert Clive, 1st Baron Clive known as Clive of India, Commander-in-Chief of British India, was a British officer and privateer who established the military and political supremacy of the East India Company in Bengal. He is credited with securing a large swath of South Asia and the wealth that followed, for the British East India Company. In the process, he turned himself into a multi-millionaire. Together with Warren Hastings he was one of the key early figures setting in motion what would become British India. Blocking impending French mastery of India, eventual British expulsion from the continent, Clive improvised a military expedition that enabled the East India Company to adopt the French strategy of indirect rule via puppet government. Hired by the company to return a second time to India, Clive conspired to secure the Company's trade interests by overthrowing the locally unpopular heir to the throne of Bengal, the richest state in India, richer than Britain, at the time.
Back in England, he used his success to secure an Irish barony, from the Whig PM, Thomas Pelham-Holles, 1st Duke of Newcastle, again a seat for himself in Parliament, via Henry Herbert, 1st Earl of Powis, representing the Whigs in Shrewsbury, Shropshire, as he had in Mitchell, Cornwall. Clive was one of the most controversial figures in all British military history, his achievements included establishing control over much of India, laying the foundation of the entire British Raj. For his methods and his self-aggrandisement he was vilified by his contemporaries in Britain, put on trial before Parliament. Of special concern was that he amassed a personal fortune in India. Modern historians have criticised him for atrocities, for high taxes, for the forced cultivation of crops which exacerbated famines. Robert Clive was born at Styche, the Clive family estate, near Market Drayton in Shropshire, on 29 September 1725 to Richard Clive and Rebecca Clive; the family had held the small estate since the time of Henry VII.
The family had a lengthy history of public service: members of the family included an Irish chancellor of the exchequer under Henry VIII, a member of the Long Parliament. Robert's father, who supplemented the estate's modest income as a lawyer served in Parliament for many years, representing Montgomeryshire. Robert was their eldest son of thirteen children. Clive's father was known to have a temper, which the boy inherited. For reasons that are unknown, Clive was sent to live with his mother's sister in Manchester while still a toddler. Biographer Robert Harvey suggests that this move was made because Clive's father was busy in London trying to provide for the family. Daniel Bayley, the sister's husband, reported that the boy was "out of measure addicted to fighting", he was a regular troublemaker in the schools. When he was older he and a gang of teenagers established a protection racket that vandalised the shops of uncooperative merchants in Market Drayton. Clive exhibited fearlessness at an early age.
He is reputed to have climbed the tower of St Mary's Parish Church in Market Drayton and perched on a gargoyle, frightening those down below. When Clive was nine his aunt died, after a brief stint in his father's cramped London quarters, he returned to Shropshire. There he attended the Market Drayton Grammar School, where his unruly behaviour prompted his father to send him to Merchant Taylors' School in London, his bad behaviour continued, he was sent to a trade school in Hertfordshire to complete a basic education. Despite his early lack of scholarship, in his years he devoted himself to improving his education, he developed a distinctive writing style, a speech in the House of Commons was described by William Pitt as the most eloquent he had heard. In 1744 Clive's father acquired for him a position as a "factor" or company agent in the service of the East India Company, Clive set sail for Bombay. After running aground on the coast of Brazil, his ship was detained for nine months while repairs were completed.
This enabled him to learn some Portuguese, one of the several languages in use in south India because of the Portuguese center at Goa. At this time the East India Company had a small settlement at Fort St. George near the village of Madraspatnam Madras, now the Indian metropolis of Chennai, in addition to others at Calcutta and Cuddalore. Clive arrived at Fort St. George in June 1744, spent the next two years working as little more than a glorified assistant shopkeeper, tallying books and arguing with suppliers of the East India Company over the quality and quantity of their wares, he was given access to the governor's library. The land Clive arrived in was divided into a number of successor states to the Mughal Empire. Over the forty years, since the death of the Emperor Aurangzeb in 1707, the power of the emperor had fallen into the hands of his provincial viceroys or Subahdars; the dominant rulers on the Coromandel Coast were the Nizam of Hyderabad, Asaf Jah I, the Nawab of the Carnatic, Anwaruddin Muhammed Khan.
The nawab nominally owed fealty to the nizam, but in many respects acted independently. Fort St. George and the French trading post at Pondicherry were both located in the nawab's territory; the relationship between the Europeans in the region was influenced by a series of wars and treaties in Europe, by commerc
Fatehpur Sikri is a town in the Agra District of Uttar Pradesh, India. The city itself was founded as the capital of Mughal Empire in 1571 by Emperor Akbar, serving this role from 1571 to 1585, when Akbar abandoned it due to a campaign in Punjab and was completely abandoned in 1610; the name of the city is derived from the village called Sikri. An Archaeological Survey of India excavation from 1999-2000 indicated that there was a habitation and commercial centres here before Akbar built his capital; the khanqah of Sheikh Salim existed earlier at this place. Akbar's son Jahangir was born at the village of Sikri in 1569 and that year Akbar began construction of a religious compound to commemorate the Sheikh who had predicted the birth. After Jahangir's second birthday, he began the construction of a walled city and imperial palace here; the city came to be known as Fatehpur Sikri, the "City of Victory", after Akbar's victorious Gujarat campaign in 1573. After occupying Agra in 1803, the English established an administrative center here and it remained so until 1850.
In 1815, the Marquess of Hastings ordered repairment of monuments at Sikri. Basing his arguments on the excavations by the Archaeological Survey of India in 1999-2000 at the Chabeli Tila, senior Agra journalist Bhanu Pratap Singh said the antique pieces and structures all point to a lost "culture and religious site," more than 1,000 years ago. "The excavations yielded a rich crop of Jain statues, hundreds of them, including the foundation stone of a temple with the date. The statues were a thousand years old of Bhagwan Adi Nath, Bhagwan Rishabh Nath, Bhagwan Mahavir and Jain Yakshinis," said Swarup Chandra Jain, senior leader of the Jain community. Historian Sugam Anand states that there is proof of habitation and commercial centres before Akbar established it as his capital, he states. But preceding Akbar's appropriation of the site for his capital city, his predecessors Babur and Humayun did much to redesign Fatehpur Sikri's urban layout. Attilio Petruccioli, a scholar of Islamic architecture and Professor of Landscape Architecture at the Polytechnic University of Bari, notes that "Babur and his successors" wanted "to get away from the noise and confusion of Agra build an uninterrupted sequence of gardens on the free left bank of the Yamuna, linked both by boat and by land."
Petruccioli adds that when such escapist landscapes are envisioned, the monument becomes the organizing element of the city at large due to its orientation at a significant location and due to its sheer size. Humayun's Tomb was one such organizing element, which at a height of 150 feet towered over the city and is now one of the most recognizable Mughal monuments in the country; the place was much loved by Babur, who called it Shukri, after its large lake, used by Mughal armies. Annette Beveridge in her translation of Baburnama noted that Babur points "Sikri" to read "Shukri". Per his memoirs, Babur constructed a garden here called the "Garden of Victory" after defeating Rana Sangha at its outskirts. Gulbadan Begum's Humayun-Nama describes that in the garden he built an octagonal pavilion which he used for relaxation and writing. In the center of the nearby lake, he built a large platform. A baoli exists at the base of a rock scarp about a kilometer from the Hiran Minar; this was the original site of a well-known epigraph commemorating his victory.
Abul Fazl records Akbar's reasons for the foundation of the city in Akbarnama: "Inasmuch as his exalted sons had been born at Sikri, the God-knowing spirit of Shaikh Salim had taken possession thereof, his holy heart desired to give outward splendour to this spot which possessed spiritual grandeur. Now that his standards had arrived at this place, his former design was pressed forward, an order was issued that the superintendents of affairs should erect lofty buildings for the special use of the Shahinshah."Akbar remained heirless until 1569 when his son, who became known as Jahangir, was born in the village of Sikri in 1569. Akbar began the construction of a religious compound in honor of the Chisti saint Sheikh Salim, who had predicted the birth of Jahangir. After Jahangir's second birthday, he began the construction of a walled city and imperial palace to test his son's stamina. By constructing his capital at the khanqah of Sheikh Salim, Akbar associated himself with this popular Sufi order and brought legitimacy to his reign through this affiliation.
The city was founded in 1571 and was named after the village of Sikri which occupied the spot before. The Buland Darwaza was built in honor of his successful campaign in Gujarat, when the city came to be known as Fatehpur Sikri - "The City of Victory", it was named after the Sikri village. It was abandoned by Akbar in 1585, it was completely abandoned by 1610. The reason for its abandonment is given as the failure of the water supply, though Akbar's loss of interest may have been the reason since it was built on his whim. Ralph Fitch described it as such, "Agra and Fatehpore Sikri are two great cities, either of them much greater than London, populous. Between Agra and Fatehpore are 12 miles and all the way is a market of victuals and other things, as full as though a man were still in a town, so many people as if a man were in a market."Akbar visited the city only once in 1601 after abandoning it. William Finch, visiting it 4–5 years after his death, stated, "It is all ruinate," writing, "lying like a waste desert."
During the epidemic of bubonic plague from 1616-1624, Jahangir stayed for three months h