Czechoslovak Socialist Republic
The Czechoslovak Socialist Republic ruled Czechoslovakia from 1948 until 23 April 1990, when the country was under communist rule. Formally known as the Fourth Czechoslovak Republic, it has been regarded as a satellite state of the Soviet Union. Following the coup d'état of February 1948, when the Communist Party of Czechoslovakia seized power with the support of the Soviet Union, the country was declared a people's republic after the Ninth-of-May Constitution became effective; the traditional name Československá republika was changed on 11 July 1960 following implementation of the 1960 Constitution of Czechoslovakia as a symbol of the "final victory of socialism" in the country, remained so until the Velvet Revolution in November 1989. Several other state symbols were changed in 1960. Shortly after the Velvet Revolution, the Czechoslovak Socialist Republic was renamed to the Czech and Slovak Federative Republic; the official name of the country was the Czechoslovak Socialist Republic. Conventional wisdom suggested that it would be known as the "Czechoslovak Republic"—its official name from 1920-1938 and from 1945-1960.
However, Slovak politicians felt this diminished Slovakia's equal stature, demanded that the country's name be spelled with a hyphen, as it was spelled from Czechoslovak independence in 1918 until 1920, again in 1938 and 1939. President Havel changed his proposal to "Republic of Czecho-Slovakia"—a proposal that did not sit well with Czech politicians who saw reminders of the 1938 Munich Agreement, in which Nazi Germany annexed a part of that territory; the name means "Land of the Czechs and Slovaks" while Latinised from the country's original name – "the Czechoslovak Nation" – upon independence in 1918, from the Czech endonym Češi – via its Polish orthographyThe name "Czech" derives from the Czech endonym Češi via Polish, from the archaic Czech Čechové the name of the West Slavic tribe whose Přemyslid dynasty subdued its neighbors in Bohemia around AD 900. Its further etymology is disputed; the traditional etymology derives it from an eponymous leader Čech. Modern theories consider it an obscure derivative, e.g. from a medieval military unit.
Meanwhile, the name "Slovak" was taken from the Slavic "Slavs" as the origin of the word Slav itself remains uncertain. During the state's existence, it was referred to "Czechoslovakia" or sometimes the "CSSR" and "CSR" in short. Before the Soviet liberation of Czechoslovakia in 1945, Edvard Beneš, the Czechoslovak leader, agreed to Soviet leader Joseph Stalin's demands for unconditional agreement with Soviet foreign policy and the Beneš decrees. While Beneš was not a Moscow cadre and several domestic reforms of other Eastern Bloc countries were not part of Beneš' plan, Stalin did not object because the plan included property expropriation and he was satisfied with the relative strength of communists in Czechoslovakia compared to other Eastern Bloc countries. In April 1945, the Third Republic was led by a National Front of six parties; because of the Communist Party's strength and Beneš's loyalty, unlike in other Central and Eastern European countries, the Kremlin did not require Eastern Bloc politics or "reliable" cadres in Czechoslovak power positions, the executive and legislative branches retained their traditional structures.
The Communists were the big winners in the 1946 elections, taking a total of 114 seats. Not only was this the only time a Communist Party won a free election anywhere in Europe during the Cold War era, but it was one of only two free elections held in the Soviet bloc. Klement Gottwald, leader of the KSČ, became Prime Minister of Czechoslovakia. However, the Soviet Union was disappointed that the government failed to eliminate "bourgeois" influence in the army, expropriate industrialists and large landowners and eliminate parties outside of the "National Front". Hope in Moscow was waning for a Communist victory in the 1948 elections following a May 1947 Kremlin report concluded that "reactionary elements" praising Western democracy had strengthened. Following Czechoslovakia's brief consideration of taking Marshall Plan funds, the subsequent scolding of Communist parties by the Cominform at Szklarska Poręba in September 1947, Rudolf Slánský returned to Prague with a plan for the final seizure of power, including the StB's elimination of party enemies and purging of dissidents.
Thereafter, Soviet Ambassador Valerian Zorin arranged a communist coup d'état, followed by the occupation of non-Communist ministers' ministries, while the army was confined to barracks. On 25 February 1948, Beneš, fearful of civil war and Soviet intervention and appointed a Communist-dominated government, sworn in two days later. Although members of the other National Front parties still nominally figured, this was, for all intents and purposes, the start of out-and-out Communist rule in the country. Foreign Minister Jan Masaryk, the only prominent Minister still left who wasn't either a Communist or fellow traveler, was found dead two weeks later. On 30 May, a single list of candidates from the National Front—now an organization dominated by the Communist Party—was elected to the National Assembly. After passage of the Ninth-of-May Constitution on 9 June 1948, the country became a People's Republic until 1960. Although it was not a Communist document, it was close enough to the Soviet model that Beneš refused to sign it.
He'd resigned a week before it was ratified, died in September. The Ninth-of-May Constitution confirmed that the KSČ possessed absolute power, as other Communist parties had in the Eastern Bloc. On 11
Kutná Hora is a town in the Central Bohemian Region of the Czech Republic. The town began in 1142 with the settlement of Sedlec Abbey, the first Cistercian monastery in Bohemia, Sedlec Monastery, brought from the Imperial immediate Cistercian Waldsassen Abbey. By 1260, German miners began to mine for silver in the mountain region, which they named Kuttenberg, and, part of the monastery property; the name of the mountain is said to have derived from the word mining. Under Abbot Heidenreich, the territory advanced due to the silver mines which gained importance during the economic boom of the 13th century; the earliest traces of silver have been found dating back to the 10th century, when Bohemia had been in the crossroads of long-distance trade for many centuries. Silver dinars have been discovered belonging to the period between 982–995 in the settlement of Malín, now a part of Kutná Hora. From the 13th to 16th centuries, the city competed with Prague economically and politically. Since 1995, the city center has been a UNESCO World Heritage Site.
In 1300, King Wenceslaus II of Bohemia issued. This was a legal document that specified all administrative as well as technical terms and conditions necessary for the operation of mines; the city developed with great rapidity, at the outbreak of the Hussite Wars in 1419 was the second most important city in Bohemia, after Prague, having become the favourite residence of several Bohemian kings. It was here that, on January 18, 1409, Wenceslaus IV signed the famous Decree of Kutná Hora, by which the Czech university nation was given three votes in the elections to the faculty of Prague University as against one for the three other nations. In 1420, Emperor Sigismund made the city the base for his unsuccessful attack on the Taborites during the Hussite Wars, leading to the Battle of Kutná Hora. Kuttenberg was taken by Jan Žižka, after a temporary reconciliation of the warring parties was burned by the imperial troops in 1422, to prevent its falling again into the hands of the Taborites. Žižka nonetheless took the place, under Bohemian auspices it awoke to a new period of prosperity.
Along with the rest of Bohemia, Kuttenberg passed to the Habsburg Monarchy of Austria in 1526. In 1546, the richest mine was flooded. In the insurrection of Bohemia against Ferdinand I the city lost all its privileges. Repeated visitations of the plague and the horrors of the Thirty Years' War completed its ruin. Half-hearted attempts after the peace to repair the ruined mines failed; the mines were abandoned at the end of the 18th century. In this town, Prague groschen were minted between 1300–1547/48. Bohemia was a crownland of the Austrian Empire in 1806, in the Austrian monarchy after the compromise of 1867); until 1918, Kuttenberg was the capital of the district of the same name, one of the 94 Bezirkshauptmannschaften in Bohemia. Together with the rest of Bohemia, the town became part of the newly founded Czechoslovakia after World War I and the collapse of Austria-Hungary. Kutná Hora was incorporated into the Protectorate of Bohemia and Moravia by Nazi Germany in the period 1939–1945, but was restored to Czechoslovakia after World War II.
The town became part of the Czech Republic after the dissolution of Czechoslovakia. Jakob Jakobeus, Slovak writer Jan Erazim Vocel, archaeologist and cultural revivalist František Zelenka, graphic, stage set and costume designer Terry Guo, founder of Taiwanese company Foxconn - in 2002 he bought a Roztěž castle near Kutná Hora The centre of Kutná Hora and Sedlec Abbey with its famous ossuary are a UNESCO World Heritage Site. Among the most important buildings in the town are the Gothic, five-naved St. Barbara's Church, begun in 1388, the Italian Court a royal residence and mint, built at the end of the 13th century; the Gothic Stone Haus, which since 1902 has served as a museum, contains one of the richest archives in the country. The Gothic St. James's Church, with its 86-metre tower, is another prominent building. Sedlec is the site of the Gothic Cathedral of the famous Ossuary. Church of St. Barbara Church of Our Lady Sedlec Ossuary Church of St. James Church of St. John Nepomuk Church of Ursuline Convent Jesuit College Italian Court Marian column Kutná Hora is twinned with: Bamenda, Cameroon Bingen am Rhein, Germany Eger, Hungary Fidenza, Italy Jinan, China Kamianets-Podilskyi, Ukraine Kremnica, Slovakia Reims, France Ringsted, Denmark Stamford, United Kingdom Tarnowskie Góry, Poland Deer Park Žehušice – natural reserve with white deer, located 15 km to the east Municipal website Kutná Hora travel guide from Wikivoyage Photo Gallery of Kutná Hora and Travel Information
The United Kingdom the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland, sometimes referred to as Britain, is a sovereign country located off the north-western coast of the European mainland. The United Kingdom includes the island of Great Britain, the north-eastern part of the island of Ireland, many smaller islands. Northern Ireland is the only part of the United Kingdom that shares a land border with another sovereign state, the Republic of Ireland. Apart from this land border, the United Kingdom is surrounded by the Atlantic Ocean, with the North Sea to the east, the English Channel to the south and the Celtic Sea to the south-west, giving it the 12th-longest coastline in the world; the Irish Sea lies between Great Ireland. With an area of 242,500 square kilometres, the United Kingdom is the 78th-largest sovereign state in the world, it is the 22nd-most populous country, with an estimated 66.0 million inhabitants in 2017. The UK is constitutional monarchy; the current monarch is Queen Elizabeth II, who has reigned since 1952, making her the longest-serving current head of state.
The United Kingdom's capital and largest city is London, a global city and financial centre with an urban area population of 10.3 million. Other major urban areas in the UK include Greater Manchester, the West Midlands and West Yorkshire conurbations, Greater Glasgow and the Liverpool Built-up Area; the United Kingdom consists of four constituent countries: England, Scotland and Northern Ireland. Their capitals are London, Edinburgh and Belfast, respectively. Apart from England, the countries have their own devolved governments, each with varying powers, but such power is delegated by the Parliament of the United Kingdom, which may enact laws unilaterally altering or abolishing devolution; the nearby Isle of Man, Bailiwick of Guernsey and Bailiwick of Jersey are not part of the UK, being Crown dependencies with the British Government responsible for defence and international representation. The medieval conquest and subsequent annexation of Wales by the Kingdom of England, followed by the union between England and Scotland in 1707 to form the Kingdom of Great Britain, the union in 1801 of Great Britain with the Kingdom of Ireland created the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland.
Five-sixths of Ireland seceded from the UK in 1922, leaving the present formulation of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland. There are fourteen British Overseas Territories, the remnants of the British Empire which, at its height in the 1920s, encompassed a quarter of the world's land mass and was the largest empire in history. British influence can be observed in the language and political systems of many of its former colonies; the United Kingdom is a developed country and has the world's fifth-largest economy by nominal GDP and ninth-largest economy by purchasing power parity. It has a high-income economy and has a high Human Development Index rating, ranking 14th in the world, it was the world's first industrialised country and the world's foremost power during the 19th and early 20th centuries. The UK remains a great power, with considerable economic, military and political influence internationally, it is sixth in military expenditure in the world. It has been a permanent member of the United Nations Security Council since its first session in 1946.
It has been a leading member state of the European Union and its predecessor, the European Economic Community, since 1973. The United Kingdom is a member of the Commonwealth of Nations, the Council of Europe, the G7, the G20, NATO, the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development and the World Trade Organization; the 1707 Acts of Union declared that the kingdoms of England and Scotland were "United into One Kingdom by the Name of Great Britain". The term "United Kingdom" has been used as a description for the former kingdom of Great Britain, although its official name from 1707 to 1800 was "Great Britain"; the Acts of Union 1800 united the kingdom of Great Britain and the kingdom of Ireland in 1801, forming the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland. Following the partition of Ireland and the independence of the Irish Free State in 1922, which left Northern Ireland as the only part of the island of Ireland within the United Kingdom, the name was changed to the "United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland".
Although the United Kingdom is a sovereign country, Scotland and Northern Ireland are widely referred to as countries. The UK Prime Minister's website has used the phrase "countries within a country" to describe the United Kingdom; some statistical summaries, such as those for the twelve NUTS 1 regions of the United Kingdom refer to Scotland and Northern Ireland as "regions". Northern Ireland is referred to as a "province". With regard to Northern Ireland, the descriptive name used "can be controversial, with the choice revealing one's political preferences"; the term "Great Britain" conventionally refers to the island of Great Britain, or politically to England and Wales in combination. However, it is sometimes used as a loose synonym for the United Kingdom as a whole; the term "Britain" is used both as a synonym for Great Britain, as a synonym for the United Kingdom. Usage is mixed, with the BBC preferring to use Britain as shorthand only for Great Britain and the UK Government, while accepting that both terms refer to the United K
National Library of the Czech Republic
The National Library of the Czech Republic is the central library of the Czech Republic. It is directed by the Ministry of Culture; the library's main building is located in the historical Clementinum building in Prague, where half of its books are kept. The other half of the collection is stored in the district of Hostivař; the National Library is the biggest library in the Czech Republic, in its funds there are around 6 million documents. The library has around 60,000 registered readers; as well as Czech texts, the library stores older material from Turkey and India. The library houses books for Charles University in Prague; the library won international recognition in 2005 as it received the inaugural Jikji Prize from UNESCO via the Memory of the World Programme for its efforts in digitising old texts. The project, which commenced in 1992, involved the digitisation of 1,700 documents in its first 13 years; the most precious medieval manuscripts preserved in the National Library are the Codex Vyssegradensis and the Passional of Abbes Kunigunde.
In 2006 the Czech parliament approved funding for the construction of a new library building on Letna plain, between Hradčanská metro station and Sparta Prague's football ground, Letná stadium. In March 2007, following a request for tender, Czech architect Jan Kaplický was selected by a jury to undertake the project, with a projected completion date of 2011. In 2007 the project was delayed following objections regarding its proposed location from government officials including Prague Mayor Pavel Bém and President Václav Klaus. Plans for the building had still not been decided in February 2008, with the matter being referred to the Office for the Protection of Competition in order to determine if the tender had been won fairly. In 2008, Minister of Culture Václav Jehlička announced the end of the project, following a ruling from the European Commission that the tender process had not been carried out legally; the library was affected by the 2002 European floods, with some documents moved to upper levels to avoid the excess water.
Over 4,000 books were removed from the library in July 2011 following flooding in parts of the main building. There was a fire at the library in December 2012. List of national and state libraries Official website
Radio Prague is the official international broadcasting station of the Czech Republic. Radio Prague broadcasts in six languages: English, French, Spanish and Russian, it broadcasts programmes on the Internet. Broadcasting first began on August 1936 near the spa town of Poděbrady; the station broadcasts a total of 24 hours' worth of programmes per day, 3 hours of which are new programmes. Rebroadcast programmes have fresh news bulletins. All programmes last for 30 minutes and have a standard layout: news, current affairs magazine and a feature; the theme of the feature changes each day and each section tailors programmes to suit its audience. The weekend broadcasts have a more relaxed structure, they contain less news and more features devoted to the arts, social affairs, music. Radio Prague produces a number of programmes in co-operation with other radio stations, for them. Radio Prague's Czech section produces programmes for Czech expatriates through SBS Radio in Australia, Radio Daruvar in Croatia, Radio Timisoara in Romania and several radio stations in the United States.
These programmes are sent via the Internet or down telephone lines. The Russian section uses the Internet to send its features to two radio stations in Russia. From 2001 to 2008, the English section worked with Radio Slovakia International, Radio Budapest and Radio Polonia to produce a programme called Insight Central Europe, which examined contemporary issues facing Central Europe; the programme was discontinued in August 2008. The English Section participates in a weekly programme called Network Europe co-produced by Deutsche Welle, Radio France International, Radio Netherlands, Radio Polonia, Radio Prague, Radio Romania International, Radio Slovakia International, Radio Sweden and Radio Ukraine International; the English Section contributes features to Radio Polonia's Europe East programme. Both the English and German sections co-operate with a number of European radio stations on the Radio E project; the German section works together with Radio Slovakia International to produce a Czech-Slovak magazine programme.
The French section contributes towards the Accents d´Europe programme produced by Radio France Internationale. The Spanish section sends programmes to several stations in Latin America. On December 8, 2010, Radio Prague announced via its Facebook page plans to end shortwave broadcasts on January 31, 2011. Part of the post read: " The station’s financing for next year has been drastically reduced by the Foreign Ministry in line with government austerity measures aimed at cutting the state deficit." As of May 2015 however, Radio Prague buys an hour of time a day on Radio Miami International to relay its programs via shortwave on 9955 kHz in both English and Spanish, targeting the Caribbean. The interval signal, itself the opening bars of the Communist anthem Kupředu levá, was used as the first track on the album Dazzle Ships by Orchestral Manoeuvres in the Dark. Samples from certain Radio Prague programmes were included on the tracks "ABC Auto-Industry", "This is Helena" and "International". A song named.
The final track of the CD and Download versions of the soundtrack for the Czech-designed video game Machinarium is named "The End". Battle for Czech Radio Český rozhlas, the Czech publicly funded radio broadcaster Česká televize, the Czech publicly funded television broadcaster Radio Prague Website Listen to Radio Prague on demand mp3 Audio Livestream 32kbit mp3 Audio Livestream 96kbit Network Europe Magazine
Système universitaire de documentation
The système universitaire de documentation or SUDOC is a system used by the libraries of French universities and higher education establishments to identify and manage the documents in their possession. The catalog, which contains more than 10 million references, allows students and researcher to search for bibliographical and location information in over 3,400 documentation centers, it is maintained by the Bibliographic Agency for Higher Education. Official website