Patrul Rinpoche was a prominent teacher and author of the Nyingma school of Tibetan Buddhism. Patrul Rinpoche was born in Dzachukha, a nomadic area of Golok Dzachukha, Eastern Tibet in 1808, was recognized as the reincarnation of Palgé Samten Phuntsok and was given the name Orgyen Jikmé Chökyi Wangpo. With Dola Jikmé Kalzang, Jikmé Ngotsar, Gyalsé Shenpen Thayé and other teachers, he studied Longchen Rabjam's Trilogy of Finding Comfort and Ease, The Way of the Bodhisattva, Secret Essence Tantra and many other works related to sutra and tantra, as well as the ordinary sciences. From Shechen Öntrul Thutob Namgyal, he received the reading transmission for the Translated Word of the Buddha and teachings on Sanskrit grammar, he received the transmissions for the Kangyur and Tengyur in their entirety, together with the writings of many masters of the old and new translation schools. He received instruction on the Longchen Nyingtik Ngondro some twenty-five times from Jikmé Gyalwé Nyugu, Patrul Rinpoche completed the required practices the same number of times.
In addition, he received instruction on tsa-lung practice and Dzogchen, studied many of the cycles of practice found in the canonical scriptures of the Nyingma Vajrayana. Do Khyentse Yeshe Dorje introduced him to the pure awareness of rigpa while exhibiting wild and eccentric behaviour, he trained for a long time in the Longchen Nyingtik tsa-lung practices, he received many teachings from Dzogchen Rinpoche Mingyur Namkhé Dorje and other masters. While remaining for long periods near Dzogchen Monastery in the isolated hermitages of Rudam, such as the Yamantaka Cave and the Long Life cave, he put his energy into the practice of meditation and, it is said, attained a realization, as vast as spaceFrom the age of thirty, he travelled to Serthar, Yarlung Pemako and other places, teaching extensively on the Secret Essence Tantra. To assemblies in Serthar and in the upper and lower regions of the Do valley he taught on The Way of the Bodhisattva, Mani Kabum, Aspiration Prayer of Sukhavati and so on.
He made efforts to put an end to robbery and banditry and abolished the custom of serving meat at special gatherings. He went to Dzamthang and studied the Six Yogas with Tsangpa Ngawang Chöjor, he went to Minyak, where he had extensive discussions with Dra Geshe Tsultrim Namgyal on the prajnaparamita and other topics. In Shri Singha college at Dzogchen Monastery and at Pemé Thang and other places, he turned the wheel of Dharma uninterruptedly, teaching on the treatises of Maitreya, the Middle way, Secret Essence Tantra, Treasury of Precious Qualities, Ascertainment of the Three Vows and other topics. In particular, when he taught on The Way of the Bodhisattva in the vicinity of Dzogchen Shri Singha for several years in succession, large numbers of flowers called Serchen, with between thirty and fifty petals, blossomed all of a sudden, they became known as ‘bodhicharyavatara flowers.’He went to Kathok Dorje Den, where he offered prostrations and'circumambulated' the reliquaries of the three great masters Dampa Deshek, Tsangtön Dorje and Jampa Bum.
At the request of Situ Choktrul Chökyi Lodrö and others, he gave extensive explanations on The Way of the Bodhisattva to the whole assembly of monks. He went to major monasteries of the Riwo Gendenpa tradition such as Sershul, Labtridu and others and taught elaborately on The Way of the Bodhisattva and other topics. Patrul Rinpoche established a teaching centre in the vicinity of Dzagyal Monastery and he repaired the large complex of walls of ‘mani stones' built by his previous incarnation Palge Samten Phuntsok, which thereafter became known as the Patrul Dobum, his disciples included masters of the Nyingma school such as Kathok Situ Choktrul Chökyi Lodrö, the Fifth Dzogchen Rinpoche Thubten Chökyi Dorje, Gyarong Namtrul Kunzang Thekchok Dorje, the second and third Dodrupchens, Jikme Phuntsok Jungne and Jikmé Tenpe Nyima, Dechen Rigpé Raldri, the son of Do Khyentse Yeshe Dorje, Khenpo Shenga, Adzom Druktrul Droddul Dorje, Tertön Sogyal Lerab Lingpa, Jamgon Ju Mipham Gyatso, Khenpo Pema Vajra, Nyoshul Lungtok, Alak Dongak Gyatso and others.
In addition, his disciples included many masters of the Sakya and Kagyü schools, such as Sershul Lharampa Thubten, Palpung Lama Tashi Özer and Ju Lama Drakpa Gyaltsen. Patrul Rinpoche died on the eighteenth day of the fourth lunar month in the Fire Pig year of the fifteenth calendrical cycle. Patrul Rinpoche's writings were not collected by the master himself or by his attendants, thus many of them were never carved into printing blocks; those which were printed and which are now to be found comprise six volumes. These include works of various styles and genres, including commentaries on and structural outlines for the treatises of Maitreya, The Way of the Bodhisattva, Treasury of Precious Qualities and other texts, such as The Words of My Perfect Teacher, miscellaneous writings including The Drama in the Lotus Garden, written to console a young nobleman from Derge called Trashi Deleg whose young bride had been killed in an epidemic. Use the time of your life. Develop your inner happiness. Recognize the impermanence of all outer pleasure.
Live as a Yogi Do your spiritual practices. Work as a Bodhisattva for a happy world. Become an Amitabha a Buddha of love and light. Turn your world into the paradise Sukhavati, by unfolding the enlightenment energy within you. Search for a spiritual master, who knows the goal of enlightenment. Change your world into a place of grace, by understanding all the phenomena as spiritual exercises. Dedicate your actions to the benefit of all beings. Send all beings light. Live for the happiness of all beings. So y
Jamyang Khyentse Wangpo
Jamyang Khyentse Wangpo known by his tertön title, Pema Ösel Dongak Lingpa, was a renowned teacher and tertön of 19th-century Tibet. He was a leading figure in the Rimé movement. Having seen how the Gelug institutions pushed the other traditions into the corners of Tibet's cultural life, Jamyang Khyentse Wangpo and Jamgön Kongtrül Lodrö Thayé compiled together the teachings of the Sakya and Nyingma, including many near-extinct teachings, thus creating the Rimé movement. Without their collection and printing of rare works, the suppression of Buddhism by the Communists would have been much more final. Jamyang Khyentse Wangpo was born in 1820 on the 5th day of the 6th month of the Iron Dragon year of the 14th Rabjung, in the region of Yaru Khyungchen Drak in the village of Taerlung in Derge, Kham, his father was Rinchen Namgyal, the secretary of the king of Derge belonging to the Nyö clan, a descendant of Drikung Changchub Lingpa. His mother Sönam Tso was a daughter of Gerab Nyerchen Göntse of the Sogmotsang family, from a Mongol background.
At twelve, he was recognized by Thartse Khenchen Jampa Kunga Tendzin as the incarnation of Jampa Namkha Chimé, was given the name Jamyang Khyentse Wangpo Kunga Tenpé Gyaltsen Palzangpo. At twenty-one, he received full ordination from Minling Khenchen Rigdzin Zangpo at Mindrolling Monastery. In all, he had more than one hundred and fifty teachers, who were masters from all four major Tibetan Buddhist schools from the regions of Ü and Tsang as well as Kham, including Minling Trichen Gyurme Sangye Kunga, Shechen Gyurme Thutob Namgyal, Sakyapa Dorje Rinchen and the khenpo brothers of Thartse, Ngorpa Thartsé Khenpo Jampa Kunga Tendzin and Thartsé Pönlop Naljor Jampal Zangpo. In time, his fame spread throughout Tibet and he became known by the name of Pema Ösel Dongak Lingpa, renowned as a holder of the seven special transmissions, his many disciples included Jamgön Kongtrul, Jamgon Ju Mipham Gyatso, Dodrupchen Jikmé Tenpé Nyima, Orgyen Chokgyur Lingpa, Tertön Sogyal, Ayu Khandro and many other masters of the Nyingma school.
Several tulkus of Jamyang Khyentse Wangpo, including those of body, mind and activity, were recognized in Tibet. Of these, the body incarnation was Dzongsar Khyentse Jamyang Chökyi Wangpo, enthroned at Jamyang Khyentse Wangpo's main seat at Dzongsar Monastery but died in an accident c. 1909. The activity incarnation Dzongsar Khyentse Chökyi Lodrö, enthroned at Katok Monastery succeeded him; the speech incarnation was the mind incarnation Dilgo Khyentse. Since the early 1960s, Dilgo Khyentse, single-handedly upholding the unique tradition of Khyentse incarnations, propagated Buddhism tirelessly in India, Nepal and the WestList of the immediate emanations of Jamyang Khyentse Wangpo: Sku Dzongsar Khyentse Jamyang Chökyi Wangpo Gsung Karma Khyentse'i Ozer Second Beru Khyentse Thugs Sakya Punpo Khyentse Dilgo Khyentse Rabsal Dawa Se Phagchog Dorje, a son of Togden Shakya Sri Yon tan Dzogchen Khyentse Guru Tsewang Nangchen Khyentse Kunzang Drodul Phrin las Katok Khyentse Jamyang Chökyi Lodro known as Dzongsar Khyentse Chökyi Lodrö Alternate names by which Jamyang Khyentse Wangpo was known include: "Dorje Zijitsal.
Düjom Jikdrel Yéshé Dorjé. Inc, ISBN 99953-1-140-2CS1 maint: Extra text: authors list Smith, E. Gene, Among Tibetan Texts: History and Literature of the Himalayan Plateau, Studies in Indian and Tibetan Buddhism, Sommerville MA: Wisdom Publications, ISBN 0-86171-179-3 Orgyen Tobgyal Rinpoche, The Life of Jamyang Khyentse Wangpo, retrieved 2012-10-15 Tulku Thondup, Masters of Meditation and Miracles, Shambhala, ISBN 1-57062-113-6 Cousens, Diana; the Visionary Lineages of Jamyang Khyente Wangpo TBRC P258 mkhyen brtse'i dbang po Khyentse Foundation Lotsawa House - biographies and selected writings Rangjung Yeshe - brief biography Lineage History Life Story
Standard Chinese known as Modern Standard Mandarin, Standard Mandarin, Modern Standard Mandarin Chinese, or Mandarin, is a standard variety of Chinese, the sole official language of China, the de facto official language of Taiwan and one of the four official languages of Singapore. Its pronunciation is based on the Beijing dialect, its vocabulary on the Mandarin dialects, its grammar is based on written vernacular Chinese. Like other varieties of Chinese, Standard Chinese is a tonal language with topic-prominent organization and subject–verb–object word order, it has more initial consonants but final consonants and tones than southern varieties. Standard Chinese is an analytic language, though with many compound words. There are two standardised forms of the language, namely Putonghua in Mainland China and Guoyu in Taiwan. Aside from a number of differences in pronunciation and vocabulary, Putonghua is written using simplified Chinese characters, Guoyu is written using traditional Chinese characters.
Many characters are identical between the two systems. In Chinese, the standard variety is known as: 普通话 in the People's Republic of China, as well as Hong Kong and Macau. Standard Chinese is commonly referred to by generic names for "Chinese", notably 中文. In total, there have been known over 20 various names for the language; the term Guoyu had been used by non-Han rulers of China to refer to their languages, but in 1909 the Qing education ministry applied it to Mandarin, a lingua franca based on northern Chinese varieties, proclaiming it as the new "national language". The name Putonghua has a long, albeit unofficial, history, it was used as early as 1906 in writings by Zhu Wenxiong to differentiate a modern, standard Chinese from classical Chinese and other varieties of Chinese. For some linguists of the early 20th century, the Putonghua, or "common tongue/speech", was conceptually different from the Guoyu, or "national language"; the former was a national prestige variety. Based on common understandings of the time, the two were, in fact, different.
Guoyu was understood as formal vernacular Chinese, close to classical Chinese. By contrast, Putonghua was called "the common speech of the modern man", the spoken language adopted as a national lingua franca by conventional usage; the use of the term Putonghua by left-leaning intellectuals such as Qu Qiubai and Lu Xun influenced the People's Republic of China government to adopt that term to describe Mandarin in 1956. Prior to this, the government used both terms interchangeably. In Taiwan, Guoyu continues to be the official term for Standard Chinese; the term Guoyu however, is less used in the PRC, because declaring a Beijing dialect-based standard to be the national language would be deemed unfair to speakers of other varieties and to the ethnic minorities. The term Putonghua, on the contrary, implies nothing more than the notion of a lingua franca. During the government of a pro-Taiwan independence coalition, Taiwan officials promoted a different reading of Guoyu as all of the "national languages", meaning Hokkien and Formosan as well as Standard Chinese.
Huayu, or "language of the Chinese nation" simply meant "Chinese language", was used in overseas communities to contrast Chinese with foreign languages. Over time, the desire to standardise the variety of Chinese spoken in these communities led to the adoption of the name "Huayu" to refer to Mandarin; this name avoids choosing a side between the alternative names of Putonghua and Guoyu, which came to have political significance after their usages diverged along political lines between the PRC and the ROC. It incorporates the notion that Mandarin is not the national or common language of the areas in which overseas Chinese live. Hanyu, or "language of the Han people", is another umbrella term used for Chinese. However, it has confusingly two different meanings: Standard Chinese; this term, as well as Hànzú, is a modern concept. A related concept is Hànzì; the term "Mandarin" is a translation of Guānhuà, which referred to the lingua franca of the late Chinese empire. The Chinese term is obsolete as a name for the standard language, but is used by linguists to refer to the major group of Mandarin dialects spoken natively across most of northern and southwestern China.
In English, "Mandarin" may refer to the standard language, the dialect group as a whole, or to historic forms such as the late Imperial lingua franca. The name "Modern Standard Mandarin" is sometimes used by linguists who wish to distinguish the current state of the shared language from other northern and historic dialects; the Chinese have different languages in different provinces, to such an extent
The Anglo-Nepalese War known as the Gurkha War, was fought between the Kingdom of Gorkha and the East India Company as a result of border disputes and ambitious expansionism of both the belligerent parties. The war ended with the signing of the Treaty of Sugauli in 1816, which ceded some Nepalese controlled territory to the British; the Shah era of Nepal began with the Gorkha king Prithvi Narayan Shah invading Kathmandu valley, which consisted of the capital of the Malla confederacy. Until that time only the Kathmandu valley was referred to as Nepal; the confederacy requested help from the East India Company and an ill-equipped and ill-prepared expedition numbering 2,500 was led by Captain Kinlock in 1767. The expedition was a disaster; this ineffectual British force provided the Gorkhali with few firearms to arms themselves and make effective use of it. Victory and occupation of the Kathmandu Valley by Prithvi Narayan Shah, starting with the Battle of Kirtipur, resulted in the shift of the capital of his kingdom from Gorkha to Kathmandu, subsequently the empire that he and his descendants built came to be known as Nepal.
The invasion of the wealthy Kathmandu Valley provided the Gorkha army with economic support for furthering their martial ambitions throughout the region. To the north however, aggressive raids into Tibet triggered Chinese intervention. In 1792 the Qianlong Emperor sent an army, expelling the Nepalese from Tibet to within 5 kilometres of their capital at Kathmandu. Acting regent Bahadur Shah appealed to the British Governor-General of India for help. Anxious to avoid confrontation with the Chinese, the Governor-General did not send troops but sent Captain Kirkpatrick as mediator. However, before he arrived the war with China had finished. In 1789, Tibetan government stopped the usage of Nepalese coins for trade in Tibet, citing purity concerns over the copper and the silver coins minted by the Nepalese government, which led to the first Nepal-Tibet war. A resounding victory of Gorkha forces over Tibetans in the first Nepal-Tibet war left the Lhasa Durbar with no choice but to ask for assistance from the Qing Emperor in Peking.
In the immediate aftermath of the Sino-Nepalese War, Nepal was forced to sign the'Treaty of Betrawati' which stipulated that the Government of Nepal was required to make payment of tribute to Qing court in Peking once every five years, after the defeat of Gurkha forces by the Qing army in Tibet. The Tibet affair had postponed a planned attack on the Garhwal Kingdom, but by 1803 the Raja of Garhwal, Pradyuman Shah, had been defeated, he was killed in the struggle in January 1804 and all his land annexed. Further west, general Amar Singh Thapa overran lands as far as Kangra – the strongest fort in the hill region – and laid siege to it. However, Maharaja Ranjit Singh, the ruler of the Sikh state in Punjab and drove the Nepalese army east of the Sutlej river by 1809; the British were expanding their sphere of influence at an alarming rate. While the Nepalese had been expanding their empire – into Sikkim in the east and Garhwal in the west and into the British sphere of influence in Awadh, or Oudh as the British called it, in the south – the British East India Company had consolidated its position in India from its main bases of Calcutta and Bombay.
This British expansion had been resisted in India, culminating in three Anglo-Maratha wars as well as in the Punjab where Ranjit Singh and the Sikh Empire had their own aspirations. The economic cause constituted the major cause of conflict with Nepal; the British had made constant efforts to persuade the Nepalese government to allow them their trade to the fabled Tibet through Nepal. Despite a series of delegations headed by William Kirkpatrick, Maulvi Abdul Qader, William O. Knox, the Nepalese Durbar refused to budge an inch; the resistance to open up the country to the Europeans could be summed up in a Nepali precept, "With the merchants come the musket and with the Bible comes the bayonet." Lord Hasting was not averse to exploiting any commercial opportunities that access to the Himalayan region might offer. He knew that these would gratify his employers and silence his critics, because the East India Company was at this time in the throes of a cash-flow crisis, it needed substantial funds in Britain, in order to pay overheads and dividends.
Traditionally the Company had sold it in London. The staple Indian export was cotton goods, demand for these was declining as home-produced textiles captured the British market. So the Company was having to transfer its assets in more complicated and expensive way, it was having to ship its Indian textiles to Canton. So when Hastings told the directors of the Company about an alternative means of remittance, a rare and precious raw material that could and profitably be shipped from India directly to London, they were at once interested; the raw material in question was a superior-quality wool: the exquisitely soft and durable animal down, used since time immemorial to make the famous wraps, or shawls, of Kashmir. This down was found only on the shawl-wool goat, the shawl-wool goat was found only in certain areas of
Madhyamaka known as Śūnyavāda and Niḥsvabhāvavāda refers to a tradition of Buddhist philosophy and practice founded by the Indian philosopher Nāgārjuna. The foundational text of the Mādhyamaka tradition is Nāgārjuna's Mūlamadhyamakakārikā. More broadly, Madhyamaka refers to the ultimate nature of phenomena and the realization of this in meditative equipoise. Madhyamaka thought had a major influence on the subsequent development of the Mahayana Buddhist tradition, it is the dominant interpretation of Buddhist philosophy in Tibetan Buddhism and has been influential in East Asian Buddhist thought. According to the classical Madhyamaka thinkers, all phenomena are empty of "nature," a "substance" or "essence" which gives them "solid and independent existence," because they are dependently co-arisen, but this "emptiness" itself is "empty": it does not have an existence on its own, nor does it refer to a transcendental reality beyond or above phenomenal reality. Madhya is a Sanskrit word meaning "middle".
It is cognate with English mid. The -ma suffix is a superlative, giving madhyama the meaning of "mid-most" or "medium"; the -ka suffix is used to form adjectives, thus madhyamaka means "middleling". The -ika suffix is used to form possessives, with a collective sense, thus mādhyamika mean "belonging to the mid-most". In a Buddhist context these terms refer to the "middle path" between the extremes of annihilationism and eternalism, for example: ity etāv ubhāv antāv anupagamya madhyamayā pratipadā tathāgato dharmaṃ deśayati | - Kātyāyana Sūtra. Thus, the Tathāgata teaches the Dharma by a middle path avoiding both these extremes. Madhyamaka refers to the school of thought associated with his commentators. Mādhyamika refers to adherents of the Madhyamaka school. Note that in both words the stress is on the first syllable. Central to Madhyamaka philosophy is śūnyatā, "emptiness", this refers to the central idea that dharmas are empty of svabhāva; this term has been translated variously as essence, intrinsic nature, inherent existence, own being and substance.
Furthermore, according to Richard P. Hayes, svabhava can be interpreted as either "identity" or as "causal independence". Westerhoff notes that svabhāva is a complex concept that has ontological and cognitive aspects; the ontological aspects include svabhāva as essence, as a property which makes an object what it is, as well as svabhāva as substance, meaning, as the Madhyamaka thinker Candrakirti defines it, something that does "not depend on anything else". It is substance-svabhāva, the objective and independent existence of any object or concept, which Madhyamaka arguments focus on refuting. A common structure which Madhyamaka uses to negate svabhāva is the catuṣkoṭi, which consists of four alternatives: some proposition is true, it is false, it is both, or it is neither true or false; some of the major topics discussed by classical Madhyamaka include causality and personal identity. Madhyamaka's denial of svabhāva does not mean a nihilistic denial of all things, for in a conventional everyday sense, Madhyamaka does accept that one can speak of "things", yet these things are empty of inherent existence.
Furthermore, "emptiness" itself is "empty": it does not have an existence on its own, nor does it refer to a transcendental reality beyond or above phenomenal reality. Svabhāva's cognitive aspect is a superimposition that beings make when they perceive and conceive of things. In this sense emptiness does not exist as some kind of primordial reality, but it is a corrective to a mistaken conception of how things exist; this idea of svabhāva that Madhyamaka denies is not just a conceptual philosophical theory, but it is a cognitive distortion that beings automatically impose on the world, such as when we regard the five aggregates as constituting a single self. Candrakirti compares it to someone who suffers from vitreous floaters that cause the illusion of hairs appearing in their visual field; this cognitive dimension of svabhāva means that just understanding and assenting to Madhyamaka reasoning is not enough to end the suffering caused by our reification of the world, just like understanding how an optical illusion works does not make it stop functioning.
What is required is a kind of cognitive shift in the way the world appears and therefore some kind of practice to lead to this shift. As Candrakirti says:For one on the road of cyclic existence who pursues an inverted view due to ignorance, a mistaken object such as the superimposition on the aggregates appears as real, but it does not appear to one, close to the view of the real nature of things. Much of Madhyamaka philosophy centers on showing how various essentialist ideas have absurd conclusions through reductio ad absurdum arguments. Chapter 15 of Nāgārjuna's Mūlamadhyamakakārikā centers on the words svabhava parabhava bhava and abhava. According to Peter Harvey: Nagarjuna's critique of the notion of own-nature argues that anything which arises according to conditions, as all phenomena do, can have no inherent nature, for what is depends on what conditions it. Moreover, if there is nothing with own-nature, there can be nothing with'other-nature', i.e. something, dependent for its existence and nature on something else which has own
Tibetan Buddhism is the form of Buddhist doctrine and institutions named after the lands of Tibet, but found in the regions surrounding the Himalayas and much of Central Asia. It derives from the latest stages of Indian Buddhism and preserves "the Tantric status quo of eighth-century India." It has been spread outside of Tibet due to the Mongol power of the Yuan dynasty, founded by Kublai Khan, that ruled China. Tibetan Buddhism applies Tantric practices deity yoga, aspires to Buddhahood or the rainbow body. Tibetan Buddhism in Tibet has four major schools, namely Nyingma, Kagyu and Gelug; the Jonang is a smaller school, the Rimé movement is an eclectic movement involving the Sakya and Nyingma schools. Among the prominent proponents of Tibetan Buddhism are the Dalai Lama and Panchen Lama, the leaders of Gelug school in Tibet. Westerners unfamiliar with Tibetan Buddhism turned to China for an understanding. There the term used; the term was taken up by western scholars including Hegel, as early as 1822.
Insofar as it implies a discontinuity between Indian and Tibetan Buddhism, the term has been discredited. Another term, "Vajrayāna" is used mistakenly for Tibetan Buddhism. More it signifies a certain subset of practices included in, not only Tibetan Buddhism, but other forms of Buddhism as well; the native Tibetan term for all Buddhism is "doctrine of the internalists". In the west, the term "Indo-Tibetan Buddhism" has become current, in acknowledgement of its derivation from the latest stages of Buddhist development in northern India. Buddhism was formally introduced into Tibet during the Tibetan Empire. Sanskrit Buddhist scriptures from India were first translated into Tibetan under the reign of the Tibetan king Songtsän Gampo, In the 8th century King Trisong Detsen established it as the official religion of the state. Trisong Detsen invited Indian Buddhist scholars to his court, including Padmasambhāva and Śāntarakṣita ), who founded the Nyingma, The Ancient Ones, the oldest school of Tibetan Buddhism.
There was influence from the Sarvāstivādins from Kashmir to the southwest and Khotan to the northwest. Trisong Detsen invited the Chan master Moheyan to transmit the Dharma at Samye Monastery. According to Tibetan sources, Moheyan lost the socalled council of Lhasa, a debate sponsored by Trisong Detsen on the nature of emptiness with the Indian master Kamalaśīla, the king declared Kamalaśīlas philosophy should form the basis for Tibetan Buddhism. A reversal in Buddhist influence began under King Langdarma, his death was followed by the socalled Era of Fragmentation, a period of Tibetan history in the 9th and 10th centuries. During this era, the political centralization of the earlier Tibetan Empire collapsed; the late 10th and 11th century saw a revival of Buddhism in Tibet. Coinciding with the early discoveries of "hidden treasures", the 11th century saw a revival of Buddhist influence originating in the far east and far west of Tibet. In the west, Rinchen Zangpo founded temples and monasteries.
Prominent scholars and teachers were again invited from India. In 1042 Atiśa arrived in Tibet at the invitation of a west Tibetan king; this renowned exponent of the Pāla form of Buddhism from the Indian university of Vikramashila moved to central Tibet. There his chief disciple, Dromtonpa founded the Kadampa school of Tibetan Buddhism, under whose influence the New Translation schools of today evolved; the Sakya, the Grey Earth school, was founded by Khön Könchok Gyelpo, a disciple of the great Lotsawa, Drogmi Shākya. It is headed by the Sakya Trizin, traces its lineage to the mahasiddha Virūpa, represents the scholarly tradition. A renowned exponent, Sakya Pandita, was the great-grandson of Khön Könchok Gyelpo. Other seminal Indian teachers were his student Naropa; the Kagyu, the Lineage of the Word, is an oral tradition, much concerned with the experiential dimension of meditation. Its most famous exponent was an 11th-century mystic, it contains one major and one minor subsect. The first, the Dagpo Kagyu, encompasses those Kagyu schools that trace back to the Indian master Naropa via Marpa Lotsawa and Gampopa Tibetan Buddhism exerted a strong influence from the 11th century CE among the peoples of Inner Asia the Mongols.
The Mongols invaded Tibet in 1240 and 1244. The Mongols had annexed Kham to the east. Sakya Paṇḍita was appointed Viceroy of Central Tibet by the Mongol court in 1249. Tibet was incorporated into the Mongol Empire, retaining nominal power over religious and regional political affairs, while the Mongols managed a structural and administrative rule over the region, reinforced by the rare military intervention. Tibetan Buddhism was adopted as the de facto state religion by the Mongol Yuan dynasty, founded by Kublai Khan, whose capital is Xanadu. With the decline of the Yuan dynansty and the loose administration of the following Ming dynasty, Central Tibet was ruled by successive local families from the 14th to the 17th century, Tibet would gain de facto a high autonomy after the 14th century. Jangchub Gyaltsän became the strongest political family in the mid 14th century. During this period the reformist scholar Je Tso
In linguistics, grammar is the set of structural rules governing the composition of clauses and words in any given natural language. The term refers to the study of such rules, this field includes phonology and syntax complemented by phonetics and pragmatics. Speakers of a language have a set of internalized rules for using that language, these rules constitute that language's grammar; the vast majority of the information in the grammar is – at least in the case of one's native language – acquired not by conscious study or instruction, but by observing other speakers. Much of this work is done during early childhood. Thus, grammar is the cognitive information underlying language use; the term "grammar" can be used to describe the rules that govern the linguistic behavior of a group of speakers. The term "English grammar", may have several meanings, it may refer to the whole of English grammar, that is, to the grammars of all the speakers of the language, in which case, the term encompasses a great deal of variation.
Alternatively, it may refer only to what is common to the grammars of all, or of the vast majority of English speakers. Or it may refer to the rules of a particular well-defined variety of English. A specific description, study or analysis of such rules may be referred to as a grammar. A reference book describing the grammar of a language is called a "reference grammar" or "a grammar". A explicit grammar that exhaustively describes the grammatical constructions of a particular lect is called a descriptive grammar; this kind of linguistic description contrasts with linguistic prescription, an attempt to discourage or suppress some grammatical constructions, while codifying and promoting others, either in an absolute sense, or in reference to a standard variety. For example, preposition stranding occurs in Germanic languages, has a long history in English, is considered standard usage. John Dryden, objected to it, leading other English speakers to avoid the construction and discourage its use. Outside linguistics, the term grammar is used in a rather different sense.
In some respects, it may be used more broadly, including rules of spelling and punctuation, which linguists would not consider to form part of grammar, but rather as a part of orthography, the set of conventions used for writing a language. In other respects, it may be used more narrowly, to refer to a set of prescriptive norms only and excluding those aspects of a language's grammar that are not subject to variation or debate on their normative acceptability. Jeremy Butterfield claimed that, for non-linguists, "Grammar is a generic way of referring to any aspect of English that people object to." The word grammar is derived from Greek γραμματικὴ τέχνη, which means "art of letters", from γράμμα, "letter", itself from γράφειν, "to draw, to write". The same Greek root appears in graphics and photograph. Vedic Sanskrit is the earliest language known to the world; the grammatical rules were formulated by Indra, etc. but the modern systematic grammar, of Sanskrit, originated in Iron Age India, with Yaska, Pāṇini and his commentators Pingala and Patanjali.
Tolkāppiyam, the earliest Tamil grammar, is dated to before the 5th century AD. The Babylonians made some early attempts at language description,In the West, grammar emerged as a discipline in Hellenism from the 3rd century BC forward with authors like Rhyanus and Aristarchus of Samothrace; the oldest known grammar handbook is the Art of Grammar, a succinct guide to speaking and writing and written by the ancient Greek scholar Dionysius Thrax, a student of Aristarchus of Samothrace who established a school on the Greek island of Rhodes. Dionysius Thrax's grammar book remained the primary grammar textbook for Greek schoolboys until as late as the twelfth century AD; the Romans based their grammatical writings on it and its basic format remains the basis for grammar guides in many languages today. Latin grammar developed by following Greek models from the 1st century BC, due to the work of authors such as Orbilius Pupillus, Remmius Palaemon, Marcus Valerius Probus, Verrius Flaccus, Aemilius Asper.
A grammar of Irish originated in the 7th century with the Auraicept na n-Éces. Arabic grammar emerged with Abu al-Aswad al-Du'ali in the 7th century; the first treatises on Hebrew grammar appeared in the context of Mishnah. The Karaite tradition originated in Abbasid Baghdad; the Diqduq is one of the earliest grammatical commentaries on the Hebrew Bible. Ibn Barun in the 12th century compares the Hebrew language with Arabic in the Islamic grammatical tradition. Belonging to the trivium of the seven liberal arts, grammar was taught as a core discipline throughout the Middle Ages, following the influence of authors from Late Antiquity, such as Priscian. Treatment of vernaculars began during the High Middle Ages, with isolated works such as the First Grammatical Treatise, but became influential only in the Renaissance and Baroque periods. In 1486, Antonio de Nebrija published Las introduciones Latinas contrapuesto el romance al Latin, the first Spanish grammar, Gramática de la lengua castellana, in 1492.
During the 16th-century Italian Ren