Cernica is a commune in the southeast part of Ilfov County, with a population of 9,425 as of 2002. It is composed of five villages: Bălăceanca, Căldăraru, Cernica, Poșta and Tânganu, several villages on the bank of lake Cernica; the commune lent its name to the Cernica Monastery, an early 17th-century Orthodox monastery in the nearby town of Pantelimon. The name is given to the Cernica Forest, the largest wooded area around Bucharest; the name of the commune is derived from the name of the vornic Cernica Ştirbei and is of Slavic origin, meaning "black"
Romania is a country located at the crossroads of Central and Southeastern Europe. It borders the Black Sea to the southeast, Bulgaria to the south, Ukraine to the north, Hungary to the west, Serbia to the southwest, Moldova to the east, it has a predominantly temperate-continental climate. With a total area of 238,397 square kilometres, Romania is the 12th largest country and the 7th most populous member state of the European Union, having 20 million inhabitants, its capital and largest city is Bucharest, other major urban areas include Cluj-Napoca, Timișoara, Iași, Constanța, Brașov. The River Danube, Europe's second-longest river, rises in Germany's Black Forest and flows in a general southeast direction for 2,857 km, coursing through ten countries before emptying into Romania's Danube Delta; the Carpathian Mountains, which cross Romania from the north to the southwest, include Moldoveanu Peak, at an altitude of 2,544 m. Modern Romania was formed in 1859 through a personal union of the Danubian Principalities of Moldavia and Wallachia.
The new state named Romania since 1866, gained independence from the Ottoman Empire in 1877. Following World War I, when Romania fought on the side of the Allied powers, Bessarabia, Transylvania as well as parts of Banat, Crișana, Maramureș became part of the sovereign Kingdom of Romania. In June–August 1940, as a consequence of the Molotov–Ribbentrop Pact and Second Vienna Award, Romania was compelled to cede Bessarabia and Northern Bukovina to the Soviet Union, Northern Transylvania to Hungary. In November 1940, Romania signed the Tripartite Pact and in June 1941 entered World War II on the Axis side, fighting against the Soviet Union until August 1944, when it joined the Allies and recovered Northern Transylvania. Following the war, under the occupation of the Red Army's forces, Romania became a socialist republic and member of the Warsaw Pact. After the 1989 Revolution, Romania began a transition back towards a market economy; the sovereign state of Romania is a developing country and ranks 52nd in the Human Development Index.
It has the world's 47th largest economy by nominal GDP and an annual economic growth rate of 7%, the highest in the EU at the time. Following rapid economic growth in the early 2000s, Romania has an economy predominantly based on services, is a producer and net exporter of machines and electric energy, featuring companies like Automobile Dacia and OMV Petrom, it has been a member of the United Nations since 1955, part of NATO since 2004, part of the European Union since 2007. An overwhelming majority of the population identifies themselves as Eastern Orthodox Christians and are native speakers of Romanian, a Romance language. Romania derives from the Latin romanus, meaning "citizen of Rome"; the first known use of the appellation was attested to in the 16th century by Italian humanists travelling in Transylvania and Wallachia. The oldest known surviving document written in Romanian, a 1521 letter known as the "Letter of Neacșu from Câmpulung", is notable for including the first documented occurrence of the country's name: Wallachia is mentioned as Țeara Rumânească.
Two spelling forms: român and rumân were used interchangeably until sociolinguistic developments in the late 17th century led to semantic differentiation of the two forms: rumân came to mean "bondsman", while român retained the original ethnolinguistic meaning. After the abolition of serfdom in 1746, the word rumân fell out of use and the spelling stabilised to the form român. Tudor Vladimirescu, a revolutionary leader of the early 19th century, used the term Rumânia to refer to the principality of Wallachia."The use of the name Romania to refer to the common homeland of all Romanians—its modern-day meaning—was first documented in the early 19th century. The name has been in use since 11 December 1861. In English, the name of the country was spelt Rumania or Roumania. Romania became the predominant spelling around 1975. Romania is the official English-language spelling used by the Romanian government. A handful of other languages have switched to "o" like English, but most languages continue to prefer forms with u, e.g. French Roumanie and Swedish Rumänien, Spanish Rumania, Polish Rumunia, Russian Румыния, Japanese ルーマニア.
1859–1862: United Principalities of Moldavia and Wallachia 1862–1866: Romanian United Principalities or Romania 1866–1881: Romania or Principality of Romania 1881–1947: Kingdom of Romania or Romania 1947–1965: Romanian People's Republic or Romania 1965–December, 1989: Socialist Republic of Romania or Romania December, 1989–present: Romania Human remains found in Peștera cu Oase, radiocarbon dated as being from circa 40,000 years ago, represent the oldest known Homo sapiens in Europe. Neolithic techniques and agriculture spread after the arrival of a mixed group of people from Thessaly in the 6th millenium BC. Excavations near a salt spring at Lunca yielded the earliest evidence for salt exploitation in Europe; the first permanent settlements appeared in the Neolithic. Some of them developed into "proto-cities"; the Cucuteni–Trypillia culture—the best known archaeological culture of Old Europe—flourished in Muntenia, southeastern Transylvania and northeastern Moldavia in the 3rd m
Counties of Romania
A total of 41 counties, along with the municipality of Bucharest, constitute the official administrative divisions of Romania. They represent the country's NUTS-3 statistical subdivisions within the European Union and each of them serves as the local level of government within its borders. Most counties are named after a major river, while some are named after notable cities within them, such as the county seat; the earliest organization into județe of the Principalities of Wallachia and Moldavia dates back to at least the late 14th century. For most of the time since modern Romania was formed in 1859, the administrative division system has been similar to the French departments one; the system has been changed several times since and the number of counties has varied over time, from the 71 județe that existed before World War II to only 39 after 1968. The current format has been in place since 1968 as only small changes have been made since the last of, in 1997. According to a 2011 census data from the National Institute of Statistics, the average population of Romania's 41 counties is about 445,000, with Iași County as the most populous and Covasna County the least.
The average county's land area is 5,809 square kilometres, with Timiș County the largest and Ilfov County the smallest. The municipality of Bucharest, which has the same administrative level as that of a county, is both more populous and much smaller than any county, with 1,883,425 people and 228 square kilometres; the earliest organization into județe, ținuturi, dates back at least to the late 14th century. Inspired from the organization of the late Byzantine Empire, each județ was ruled by a jude, a person appointed with administrative and judicial functions. Transylvania was divided into royal counties headed by comes with administrative and judicial functions. After modern Romania was formed in 1859 through the union of Wallachia and the rump of Moldavia, the administrative division was modernized using the French administrative system as a model, with județ as the basic administrative unit. Aside from the 1950–1968 period, this system has remained in place until today. Since 1864, for each județ there exists a prefect, a subordinate of the Ministry of Internal Affairs and representative of the government inside the county.
Until 1948, each județ was further divided into several plăși, each administered by a pretor. After the adoption of a new Constitution in 1923, the traditional local administrative systems of the newly acquired regions of Transylvania and Bessarabia were made uniform in 1925 with that of the Romanian Old Kingdom. County borders were kept intact, with few adjustments, the total number of counties was raised to 71. In 1938, King Carol II modified the law on the administration of the Romanian territory according to the fascist model. Ten ținuturi were ruled by Rezidenți Regali, appointed directly by the Monarch; the ținuturi represented another layer of administration between counties and the country, as the county borders were not erased. Due to the territorial changes during World War II, this style of administration did not last, the administration at the județ level was reintroduced after the war. Between 1941–1944, Romania administered the territory between the Dniester and Southern Bug rivers known as Transnistria, which consisted of 13 separate counties.
After taking over the administration of the country in 1945, the Communist Party changed the administrative model to that of the Soviet Union in 1950, but changed it back in 1968. The county borders set were quite different from those present during the interbellum, as only 39 counties were formed from the 56 remaining after the war. In 1981, Giurgiu and Călărași were split from Ialomița and the former county of Ilfov, while in 1997, Ilfov County, a dependency of the municipality of Bucharest for nearly two decades, was reinstated; the county borders set in 1968 are still in place today, but the functions of different authorities have changed due to administrative reforms in the 1990s. At present, Romania is divided into one municipality; each of the counties is further divided into communes. The prefect and his administration have executive prerogatives within the county limits, while limited legislative powers are assigned to a County Council elected every four years during local elections.
The territorial districts of the Romanian judicial system overlap with county borders, thus avoiding further complication in the separation of powers on the government. Communes of Romania Development regions of Romania List of Romania county name etymologies Former administrative divisions of Romania List of Romanian counties by population List of cities and towns in Romania List of Romanian counties by foreign trade Municipiu Blog of the Romanian Royalty House showing various maps with the previous administrative divisions of Romania. Current and historical divisions of Romania at Statoids.com "Geopolitical Entities and Their Codes". National Institute of Standards and Technology. Archived from the original on 2010-08-22. Retrieved 2010-
Communes of Romania
A commune is the lowest level of administrative subdivision in Romania. There are 2,686 communes in Romania; the commune is the rural subdivision of a county. Urban areas, such as towns and cities within a county, are given the status of municipality. In principle, a commune can contain any size population, but in practice, when a commune becomes urbanised and exceeds 10,000 residents, it is granted city status. Although cities are on the same administrative level as communes, their local governments are structured in a way that gives them more power; some urban or semi-urban areas of fewer than 10,000 inhabitants have been given city status. Each commune is administered by a mayor. A commune is made up of one or more villages which do not themselves have an administrative function. Communes, like cities, correspond to the European Union's level 2 local administrative unit. Florești, in Cluj County, is the largest commune in Romania, with over 22,000 inhabitants. Cities of Romania Municipalities of Romania Counties of Romania
Voluntari is a town in Ilfov county, Romania. It is located at a distance of 1 km from the northern border of Bucharest and is thus viewed as a suburb of Bucharest; the population is 42,944 inhabitants according to the 2011 census, with an ethnic composition, among those for whom data are available, of 94.8% Romanians, 1.3% Romani, 0.9% Chinese, 0.5% Turks and 2.5% of other ethnic groups. The low price of land, the proximity to the city of Bucharest and the easy and reliable access to both the railway network and the road network have allowed a steady development of industrial and commercial facilities in the light industry and import/export commerce; the town's output estimate increased by over 25% between 2001 and 2005. With such high development rates, many residents remain unemployed or commute to Bucharest. Voluntari contains a shopping centre known as Jolie Ville Galleria, a Metro Cash and Carry hypermarket as well as the headquarters of Vodafone Romania. Voluntari means "Volunteers", in Romanian, being founded by the volunteer soldiers who fought for Romania in World War I and were given plots to build their home there after the war.
The settlement received its city status in 2004. The Voluntari Local Council has 19 councillors, it has the following party composition: Voluntari has its own bus network, operated by the local council, consisting of five bus routes: 1, 2, 153, 155 and 167. Additionally, the city is connected to Bucharest by bus routes run by RATB, Bucharest's public transport operator. FC Voluntari - football club Voluntari is the site of the American International School of Bucharest, British School of Bucharest, Mark Twain International School, the Japanese School in Bucharest
National Legionary State
The National Legionary State was a totalitarian fascist regime which governed the Eastern European country of Romania for five months, from 14 September 1940 until its official dissolution on 14 February 1941. The regime was led by the Iron Guard in partnership with General Ion Antonescu. While the Guard had been present in the Romanian Government since 28 June 1940, it was only on 14 September when it achieved dominance, leading to the proclamation of the National Legionary State; the first time when the Iron Guard formed an alliance with the Romanian Government was in early 1938. The then-Prime Minister of Romania, Octavian Goga, concluded an agreement for limited cooperation with the leader of the Guard, Corneliu Zelea Codreanu, on 8 February; this political move, displeased the King of Romania, Carol the Second, causing him to dismiss Goga on 11 February and replace him with Patriarch Miron Cristea. The Iron Guard was properly brought to power with the advent of Ion Gigurtu's cabinet, which took power on 4 July 1940, after the Soviet occupation of Bessarabia and Northern Bukovina.
Three Guardists were present in the new government: Vasile Noveanu as Minister of Public Wealth, Horia Sima as Minister of Cults and Arts, Augustin Bideanu as Undersecretary of State at the Minister of Finance. Although Sima resigned within days due to being denied a purely Guardist cabinet, his two colleagues retained their posts, it is noteworthy that, between 28 June and 4 July, Sima had served as Undersecretary of State at the Ministry of Education. An Iron Guard supporter and ideologue, Nichifor Crainic, became Minister of Propaganda. Following Horia Sima's resignation on 7 July, he was replaced by Radu Budișteanu; the territory of the National Legionary State amounted to 195,000 square km. It had the same territory as modern day Romania, with the exception of Northern Transylvania, ceded to Hungary in the aftermath of the Second Vienna Award, it possessed several islands in the Danube Delta, as well as Snake Island in the Black Sea. These have been part of Ukraine since 1948. A Romanian census was conducted on 6 April 1941.
Though this was done two months after the dissolution of the National Legionary State, Romania's borders were the same. The census recorded a population of 13,535,757. On 6 September, King Carol II was replaced by his son, Michael; the first act of the new King was to grant General Ion Antonescu unlimited power as Conducător of Romania, thus relegating himself to a ceremonial role. An 8 September decree further defined Antonescu's powers. To maintain his grip at the helm of the country, while at the same time conceding the leading role to the Iron Guard, Antonescu had King Michael proclaim Romania a National Legionary State on 14 September; the Legionary Movement/Iron Guard became the "only movement recognized in the new state", thus making Romania a totalitarian country. Antonescu became the Legion's honorary leader, with Sima as Deputy Prime Minister. Five other Guardists became ministers, among them Prince Mihai Sturza and General Constantin Petrovicescu. Legionary Prefects were appointed in all of the fifty Romanian counties.
The Guard was awarded four portfolios: Interior, Foreign Affairs, Cults. In addition, most of the permanent secretaries and directors in the ministries were Guardists; as the dominant political force, the Guard controlled the press and propaganda services. On 6 October, Antonescu attended an Iron Guard rally while dressed in Legionary uniform. On 1 December, another Iron Guard rally took place at Alba Iulia to celebrate 22 years since the Union of Transylvania with Romania. Antonescu was once again attending, he gave a speech. After the National Legionary State was proclaimed in 14 September, the Legion became the ruling party but had to share executive power with the Army; the new Legionary regime had a ritual basis based on the cult of the Guard's dead leader and other Legionary martyrs. Exhumation, public burial and rehabilitation of Legionary "martyrs" was retrospectively regarded by Sima as the most important task justifying the Legion's accession to power; the exhumation of Codreanu's remains and subsequent reburial reaffirmed Condreanu's charisma as the foundation of Legionary ideology.
On the day of Codreanu's reburial, the main Legionary newspaper, Cuvântul, wrote: "It is the day of the Captain's resurrection. He is resurrected, according to the Gospel, he is resurrected, rising from the grave to present to us Romania itself, buried by this sinful age.". A young Emil Cioran in his twenties endorsed Codreanu's cult: "With the exception of Jesus, no other dead being has been so present among the living. Has anybody thought about forgetting him? This dead man spread a perfume of eternity over our human dung and brought back the sky over Romania." Soon after Codreanu's reburial, the Legion committed the Jilava Massacre, killing over 60 former dignitaries. The Legion thus achieved its goals: the old order collapsed under its blows and all of the Legion's enemies were punished; the reburial of Codreanu's body took place on 30 November, in the attendance of Antonescu, von Schirach, Bohle and 100,000 Iron Guardists. The decree which established the National Legionary regime on 14 September placed Antonescu and Sima on an equal footing.
On 28 October, Sima accused Antonescu of violating the decree by allowing democratic parties to function. He asserted. Sima wanted to apply Nazi principles to Romania's economy in order to bring all of it under centralized control. H
The Iron Guard is the name most given to a far-right movement and political party in Romania in the period from 1927 into the early part of World War II. Founded by Corneliu Codreanu, it is known as the Legion of the Archangel Michael or the Legionnaire movement; the Iron Guard was ultra-nationalist, antiziganist, anti-communist, anti-capitalist and promoted Eastern Orthodox Christianity. Its members were called "Greenshirts" because of the predominantly green uniforms; when Marshal Ion Antonescu came to power in September 1940, he brought the Iron Guard into the government, creating the National Legionary State. In January 1941, Antonescu used the army to suppress a revolt of the Iron Guard, he destroyed the organization but its commander, Horia Sima, some other leaders escaped to Germany. Founded by Corneliu Zelea Codreanu on June 24, 1927, as the "Legion of the Archangel Michael", led by him until his assassination in 1938, adherents to the movement continued to be referred to as "legionnaires" and led to the organization of the "Legion" or the "Legionary Movement", despite various changes of the organization's name.
In March 1930 Codreanu formed the "Iron Guard" as a paramilitary political branch of the Legion. In June 1935, the Legion changed its official name to the "Totul pentru Ţară" party "Everything For the Country" Party, but translated as "Everything for the Fatherland" or "Everything for the Motherland". Historian Stanley G. Payne writes in his study of Fascism, "The Legion was arguably the most unusual mass movement of interwar Europe." The Legion contrasted with most other European fascist movements of the period when talking about its understanding of nationalism, which it believed should never be separated from the faith that people were born into. According to Ioanid, the Legion "willingly inserted strong elements of Orthodox Christianity into its political ideology to the point of becoming one of the rare modern European political movements with a religious ideological structure." The movement's leader, Corneliu Zelea Codreanu, was a religious patriot who aimed at a spiritual resurrection for the nation, writing the movement was a "spiritual school... strikes to transform and revolutionise the Romanian soul" According to Codreanu's philosophy, human life was a sinful, violent political war, which would be transcended by the spiritual nation.
In this schema, the Legionnaire might have to perform actions beyond the simple will to fight, suppressing the preserving instinct for the sake of the country. Like many other fascist movements, the Legion called for a revolutionary "new man". However, this new man was different in conception; the Legion didn't want a physical superhuman. Instead, they wanted to recreate and purify the way of thinking in order to bring the whole nation closer to God. One of the qualities of this new man was to be selflessness, Codreanu wrote "When a politician enters a party the first question that he puts is'what can I gain from this?...when a legionary enters the Legion he says'For myself I want nothing'"As for economics, there was no straightforward program, but the Legion promoted the idea of a communal or national economy, rejecting capitalism as overly materialistic. The movement considered its main enemies to be the present political leadership and the Jews." Its members wore dark green uniforms, greeted each other using the Roman salute.
The main symbol used by the Iron Guard was a triple cross, standing for prison bars, sometimes referred to as the "Archangel Michael Cross". The mysticism of the Legion led to a cult of self-sacrifice, they had an action squad, called Echipa morții, or "Death Squad". Iron Guard leader Zelea Codreanu claimed the name was chosen because members were ready to accept death while campaigning for the organization; the members of the first "Death Squad" were: Ion Dumitrescu-Borșa, Sterie Ciumetti, Petre Țocu, Tache Savin, Traian Clime, Iosif Bozântan, Nicolae Constantinescu. A chapter of the Legion was called a cuib, or "nest," and was arranged around the virtues of discipline, silence, mutual aid, honor. According to a 1933 police report, 8% of the Iron Guard's members were women while a police report from 1938 stated that 11% of the Guards were women. Part of the reason for the overwhelming male membership of the Iron Guard was that a disproportionate number of the Iron Guards were university students and few women went to university in Romania during the inter-war period.
In the Romanian language there are plurals attached to most nouns that have either a masculine or feminine form. Thus words in English like Romanian, youth or member that are gender-neutral are used in Romanian to refer either to Romanian men or Romanian women, young men or young women, male members or female members; the Iron Guards always used the masculine plurals in their writings and speeches, which may suggest that they had a male audience in mind, although in most languages the masculine plural is used for mixed-gender groups (with the expectation of male/masculine dominance within any mixed-gender group, a mark of gen