Silver Spring, Maryland
Silver Spring is an unincorporated community, large village, suburb of Washington, D. C. and census-designated place located inside the Capital Beltway in Montgomery County, United States. It had a population of 79,483, according to the 2017 official estimate by the United States Census Bureau, making it the fourth most populous place in Maryland, after Baltimore and Germantown, the second largest in Montgomery County after Germantown. Inner Silver Spring consists of the following neighborhoods: Downtown Silver Spring, East Silver Spring, North Woodside, Woodside Park, North Hills Sligo Park, Long Branch, Montgomery Knolls, Franklin Knolls, Indian Spring Terrace, Indian Spring Village, Clifton Park Village, New Hampshire Estates and Woodmoor. Outer Silver Spring consist of the following neighborhoods: Four Corners, Glenmont, Forest Glen, Aspen Hill, White Oak, Colesville Park, Calverton, Briggs Chaney, Northwood Park, Sunset Terrace, Fairland and Kemp Mill; the urbanized and southernmost part of Silver Spring is a major business hub that lies at the north apex of Washington, D.
C. As of 2004, the Central Business District held 7,254,729 square feet of office space, 5216 dwelling units and 17.6 acres of parkland. The population density of this CBD area of Silver Spring was 15,600 per square mile all within 360 acres and 2.5 square miles in the CBD/downtown area. The community has undergone a significant renaissance, with the addition of major retail and office developments. Silver Spring takes its name from a mica-flecked spring discovered there in 1840, by Francis Preston Blair, who subsequently bought much of the surrounding land. Acorn Park, tucked away in an area of south Silver Spring away from the main downtown area, is believed to be the site of the original spring; as an unincorporated area, Silver Spring's boundaries are not defined. As of the 2010 Census the United States Census Bureau defines Silver Spring as a census-designated place with a total area of 7.92 square miles, all land. This definition is a 15% reduction from the 9.4 square miles used in previous years.
The United States Geological Survey locates the center of Silver Spring at 38°59′26″N 77°1′35″W, notably some distance from the Census Bureau's datum. By another definition, Silver Spring is located at 39°0′15″N 77°1′8″W; the definitions used by the Silver Spring Urban Planning District, the United States Postal Service, the Greater Silver Spring Chamber of Commerce, etc. are all different, each defining it for its own purposes. Residents of a large swath of southeastern Montgomery County have Silver Spring mailing addresses, including Four Corners, Glenmont, Forest Glen, Aspen Hill, White Oak, Colesville Park, Calverton, Briggs Chaney, Northwood Park, Sandy Spring, Sunset Terrace, Lyttonsville, Kemp Mill, a portion of Langley Park, a portion of Adelphi; the area that has a Silver Spring mailing address is larger in area than any city in Maryland except Baltimore. Silver Spring's notable landmarks include the world headquarters of Discovery Communications, the AFI Silver Theatre, the world headquarters of the Seventh-day Adventist Church, the headquarters of the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, the headquarters of the Food and Drug Administration, the national headquarters of the Ahmadiyya Muslim Community.
Rock Creek Park passes along the west side of Silver Spring, offers hiking trails, picnic grounds, bicycling on weekends, when its main road, Beach Drive, is closed to motor vehicles. Sligo Creek Park follows Sligo Creek through Silver Spring; the latter is facilitated on weekends. The bike trails are slower than most in the region. Rocks have been spread along either side of the road, providing a hazardous bike ride, or skating leisure. Acorn Park in the downtown area of Silver Spring, is believed to be the site of the eponymous "silver spring."The 14.5-acre Jessup-Blair Park was renovated and features a soccer field, tennis courts, basketball courts, picnic area. Brookside Gardens is a 50-acre park within Wheaton Regional Park, in "greater" Silver Spring, it is located on the original site of Stadler Nursery. Northwest Branch Park is a 700-acre park surrounding the Northwest Branch of the Anacostia River; the park includes hiking and cycling trails on the Northwest Branch and Rachel Carson Greenway Trails.
This park extends farther within Montgomery County. Note that the Rachel Carson Greenway Trail is named after Rachel Carson, author of Silent Spring and former resident of Silver Spring. Note: For the 2010 Census the boundaries of the Silver Spring CDP were changed reducing the land area by approx. 15%. As a result, the population count for 2010 shows a 6.6% decrease, while the population density increases 11%. As enumerated in the 2010 census, there were 71,452 residents, 28,603 total households, 15,684 families residing in the Silver Spring CDP; the population density was 9,021.7 people per square mile. There were 30,522 housing units at an average density of 3,853.8 per square mile. The racial makeup of the community, as defined by the U. S. Census Bureau, for residents who self-identified as being members of "one race," was 45.7% "White," 27.8% "Black or African American," 0.6% "American I
1964 Summer Olympics
The 1964 Summer Olympics known as the Games of the XVIII Olympiad, was an international multi-sport event held in Tokyo, from 10 to 24 October 1964. Tokyo had been awarded the organization of the 1940 Summer Olympics, but this honour was subsequently passed to Helsinki because of Japan's invasion of China, before being cancelled because of World War II; the 1964 Summer Games were the first Olympics held in Asia, the first time South Africa was barred from taking part due to its apartheid system in sports. Tokyo was chosen as the host city during the 55th IOC Session in West Germany, on 26 May 1959; these games were the first to be telecast internationally without the need for tapes to be flown overseas, as they had been for the 1960 Olympics four years earlier. The games were telecast to the United States using Syncom 3, the first geostationary communication satellite, from there to Europe using Relay 1; these were the first Olympic Games to have color telecasts, albeit partially. Certain events like the sumo wrestling and judo matches, sports huge in Japan, were tried out using Toshiba's new colour transmission system, but only for the domestic market.
History surrounding the 1964 Olympics was chronicled in the 1965 documentary film Tokyo Olympiad, directed by Kon Ichikawa. The games were scheduled for mid-October to avoid the city's midsummer heat and humidity and the September typhoon season; the previous Olympics in Rome in 1960 experienced hot weather. The following games in 1968 in Mexico City began in October; the 1960's Olympics were the last to use a traditional cinder track for the track events. A smooth, all-weather track was used for the first time at the 1968 Olympics and at every Olympiad thereafter. Tokyo won the rights to the Games on 26 May 1959, at the 55th IOC Session in Munich, West Germany, over bids from Detroit and Vienna. Toronto was an early bidder again in 1964 after the failed attempt for 1960 and failed to make the final round. Yūji Koseki composed the theme song of the opening ceremony. Yoshinori Sakai, who lit the Olympic flame, was born in Hiroshima on 6 August 1945, the day an atomic bomb was dropped on that city.
Kumi-daiko was first exhibited to a worldwide audience at the Festival of Arts presentation. Judo and volleyball, both popular sports in Japan, were introduced to the Olympics. Japan won gold medals in three judo events; the Japanese women's volleyball team won the gold medal, with the final being broadcast live. The women's pentathlon was introduced to the athletics events. Reigning world champion Osamu Watanabe capped off his career with a gold medal for Japan in freestyle wrestling, surrendering no points and retiring from competition as the only undefeated Olympic champion to date at 189–0. Soviet gymnast Larisa Latynina won a silver medal and two bronze medals, she had held the record for most Olympic medals at 18 which stood until broken by American swimmer Michael Phelps in 2012. Czechoslovakian gymnast Věra Čáslavská wins three gold medals, including the individual all-around competition, crowning her the new queen over the reigning champion Larisa Latynina. Australian swimmer Dawn Fraser won the 100 m freestyle event for the third time in a row, a feat matched by Vyacheslav Ivanov in rowing's single scull event.
Don Schollander won four gold medals in swimming. Abebe Bikila became the first person to win the Olympic marathon twice. New Zealand's Peter Snell won a gold medal in both 1500 metre. American Billy Mills, an unfancied runner, won the gold in the men's 10,000 m. No American had won it before and or since. British runner Ann Packer set a world record in becoming the surprise winner of the 800 metre, having never run the distance at international level before the Games. Bob Hayes won the 100 metre title in a time of 10.0 seconds. He had run a wind-assisted 9.9 seconds in the semifinal, but this was not recognized as a world record. He won a Super Bowl ring as a wide receiver for the Dallas Cowboys and was the second gold medalist elected to the Pro Football Hall of Fame. Joe Frazier, future heavyweight champion of the world, won a gold medal in heavyweight boxing; this was the last Summer Olympics to use a cinder running track for athletic events, the first to use fiberglass poles for pole vaulting.
The nation of Malaysia, which had formed the previous year by a union of Malaya, British North Borneo and Singapore, competed for the first time in the Games. Zambia declared its independence on the day of the closing ceremony of the 1964 Summer Olympics, thereby becoming the first country to have entered an Olympic games as one country, left it as another; the start of operations for the first Japanese "bullet train" between Tokyo Station and Shin-Ōsaka Station was scheduled to coincide with the Olympic games. The first scheduled train ran on 1 October 1964, just nine days before the opening of the games, transporting passengers 515 kilometres or 320 miles in about four hours, connecting the three major metropolitan areas of Tokyo and Osaka; the 1964 Summer Olympics featured 19 different sports encompassing 25 disciplines, medals were awarded in 163 events. In the list below, the number of events in each discipline is noted in parentheses. Note: In the Japan Olympic Committee report, sailing is listed as "yacht
Kansas State University
Kansas State University shortened to Kansas State or K-State, is a public research university with its main campus in Manhattan, United States. Kansas State was opened as the state's land-grant college in 1863 and was the first public institution of higher learning in the state of Kansas, it had a record high enrollment of 24,766 students for the Fall 2014 semester. The university is classified as one of 115 research universities with highest research activity by the Carnegie Classification of Institutions of Higher Education. Kansas State's academic offerings are administered through nine colleges, including the College of Veterinary Medicine and the College of Technology and Aviation in Salina. Graduate degrees offered include 45 doctoral degrees. Branch campuses are in Olathe; the Kansas State University Polytechnic Campus in Salina is home to the College of Technology and Aviation. The Olathe Innovation Campus has a focus on graduate work in research bioenergy, animal health, plant science and food safety and security.
Kansas State University named Kansas State Agricultural College, was founded in Manhattan on February 16, 1863, during the American Civil War, as a land-grant institution under the Morrill Act. The school was the first land-grant college created under the Morrill Act. K-State is the third-oldest school in the Big 12 Conference and the oldest public institution of higher learning in the state of Kansas; the effort to establish the school began in 1861, the year that Kansas was admitted to the United States. One of the new state legislature's top priorities involved establishing a state university; that year, the delegation from Manhattan introduced a bill to convert the private Blue Mont Central College in Manhattan, incorporated in 1858, into the state university. But the bill establishing the university in Manhattan was controversially vetoed by Governor Charles L. Robinson of Lawrence, an attempt to override the veto in the Legislature failed by two votes. In 1862, another bill to make Manhattan the site of the state university failed by one vote.
Upon the third attempt on February 16, 1863, the state accepted Manhattan's offer to donate the Blue Mont College building and grounds and established the state's land-grant college at the site – the institution that would become Kansas State University. When the college opened for its first session on September 2, 1863, it became only the second public institution of higher learning to admit women and men in the United States. Enrollment for the first session totaled 52 students: 26 women. Twelve years after opening, the university moved its main campus from the location of Blue Mont Central College to its present site in 1875; the original site is now occupied by Central National Bank of Manhattan and Founders Hill Apartments. The early years of the institution witnessed debate over whether the college should provide a focused agricultural education or a full liberal arts education. During this era, the tenor of the school shifted with the tenure of college presidents. For example, President John A. Anderson favored a limited education and President George T.
Fairchild favored a classic liberal education. Fairchild was credited with saying, "Our college exists not so much to make men farmers as to make farmers men."During this era, in 1873, Kansas State helped pioneer the academic teaching of home economics for women, becoming one of the first two colleges to offer the program of study. In November 1928, the school was accredited by the Association of American Universities as a school whose graduates were deemed capable of advanced graduate work; the name of the school was changed in 1931 to Kansas State College of Agriculture and Applied Science. In 1959, the Kansas legislature changed the name again to Kansas State University of Agriculture and Applied Science to reflect a growing number of graduate programs. However, since the "Agriculture and Applied Science" portion has been omitted from official documents such as diplomas and state statutes, as a practical and legal matter it is called Kansas State University. Milton S. Eisenhower served as president of the university from 1943 to 1950, Dr. James McCain succeeded him, serving from 1950 to 1975.
Several buildings, including residence halls and a student union, were added to the campus in the 1950s. The 1960s witnessed demonstrations against the Vietnam War, though fewer than at other college campuses. Enrollment was high through most of the 1970s, but the university endured a downward spiral from 1976 to 1986, when enrollment decreased to 17,570 and a number of faculty resigned. In 1986, Jon Wefald assumed the presidency of Kansas State University. During his tenure and donations increased. On June 15, 2009, Kirk Schulz became the 13th president of Kansas State University. In March 2010 he announced his K-State 2025 plan; the initiative is designed to elevate K-State to a top 50 nationally recognized research university by 2025. His last day was April 2016, as he was selected as Washington State University's next president. In late April 2016, Ret. General Richard Myers began serving as the interim president of Kansas State University and was announced as the permanent president on November 15, 2016.
The state legislature established the state's land-grant college in Manhattan on January 13, 1863. A commission to establish a state university in Lawrence was called for in the same legislative session, provided that town could meet certain requirements, finalized that year. Kansas State was the first public institution of higher learning founded in the state and began teaching college-level classes in 1863. By comparison, the Un
The center known as the five, or the big man, is one of the five positions in a regular basketball game. The center is the tallest player on the team, has a great deal of strength and body mass as well. In the NBA, the center is 6 feet 10 inches or taller and weighs 240 pounds or more, they traditionally have played close to the basket in the low post. A center with the ability to shoot outside from three-point range is known as stretch five; the center is considered a necessary component for a successful team in professional leagues such as the NBA. Great centers have been the foundation for most of the dynasties in both the NBA and NCAA; the 6'10" George Mikan pioneered the Center position, shattering the held perception that tall players could not develop the agility and coordination to play basketball well, ushering in the role of the dominant big man. He led DePaul University to the NIT title after turning professional, won seven National Basketball League, Basketball Association of America and NBA Championships in his ten-year career, nine of them with the Minneapolis Lakers.
Using his height to dominate opposing players, Mikan invented the shot block. In the 1960s, Bill Russell and Wilt Chamberlain further transformed basketball by combining height with a greater level of athleticism than previous centers. Following the retirement of George Mikan, the rivalry of the two big men came to dominate the NBA. Between the two of them and Russell won nine of the eleven MVP awards in the eleven-year period between 1958 and 1969. Many of the records set by these two players have endured today. Most notably and Russell hold the top eighteen season averages for rebounds. Bill Russell led the University of San Francisco to two consecutive NCAA Championships, he joined the Boston Celtics and helped make them one of the greatest dynasties in NBA history, winning eleven championships over his thirteen-year career as well as five MVP awards. Russell revolutionized defensive strategy with his shot-blocking and physical man-to-man defense. While he was never the focal point of the Celtics offense, much of the team's scoring came when Russell grabbed defensive rebounds and initiated fast breaks with precision outlet passes to point guard Bob Cousy.
As the NBA's first African-American superstar, Russell struggled throughout his career with the racism he encountered from fans in Boston after the 1966–67 season, when he became the first African-American in any major sport to be named player-coach. His principal rival, Wilt Chamberlain, listed at 7'1", 275 pounds, lacked Russell's supporting cast. Chamberlain played college ball for the Kansas Jayhawks, leading them to the 1957 title game against the North Carolina Tar Heels. Although the Jayhawks lost by one point in triple overtime, Chamberlain was named the tournament's Most Outstanding Player. A member of the Harlem Globetrotters before joining the Philadelphia Warriors of the NBA in 1959, Chamberlain won two Championships, in 1967 with the Philadelphia 76ers and 1972 with the Los Angeles Lakers, although his teams were defeated by the Celtics in the Eastern Conference and NBA Finals, he won seven scoring titles, eleven rebounding titles, four regular season Most Valuable Player awards, including the distinction, in 1960, of being the first rookie to receive the award.
Stronger than any player of his era, he was capable of scoring and rebounding at will. Although he was the target of constant double- and triple-teaming, as well as fouling tactics designed to take advantage of his poor free-throw shooting, he set a number of records that have never been broken. Most notably, Chamberlain is the only player in NBA history to average more than 50 points in a season and score 100 points in a single game, he holds the NBA's all-time records for rebounding average, rebounds in a single game, career rebounds. A lesser-known center of the era was Nate Thurmond, who played the forward position opposite Wilt Chamberlain for the San Francisco Warriors but moved to center after Chamberlain was traded to the new Philadelphia franchise. Although he never won a Championship, Thurmond was known as the best screen setter in the league, his averages of 21.3 and 22.0 rebounds per game in 1966–67 and 1967–68, are exceeded only by Chamberlain and Russell. In contrast to the Celtics dynasty of the 1960s, the 1970s were a decade of parity in the NBA, with eight different champions and no back-to-back winners.
At the college level, the UCLA Bruins, under Coach John Wooden, built the greatest dynasty in NCAA basketball history, winning seven consecutive titles between 1967 and 1973. UCLA had won two consecutive titles in 1964 and 1965 with teams that pressed and emphasized guard play. After not winning in 1966, Wooden's teams changed their style, he led UCLA to three championships-in 1967, 68' and 69'-while winning the first Naismith College Player of the Year Award. During his college career, the NCAA enacted a ban on dunking because of Alcindor's dominant use of the shot, his entrance into the NBA with the Milwaukee Bucks in 1969 was timely, as Bill Russell had just retired and Wilt Chamberlain was 33 years old and plagued by injuries. After leading the Bucks to the 1971 NBA championship, te
Basketball at the 1964 Summer Olympics
Basketball contests at the 1964 Summer Olympics took place at the Yoyogi National Gymnasium in Tokyo, Japan from October 11 to October 23. The United States defeated the Soviet Union to win their sixth straight gold medal at this event, while Brazil earned the bronze against Puerto Rico. Automatic qualifications were granted to the host country and the first eight places at the previous tournament. Additional spots were decided by various continental tournaments held by FIBA plus two additional intercontinental tournaments that granted six extra berths total, after the withdrawal of United Arab Republic and Czechoslovakia. A Withdrew from the tournament. B Replacement teams. Two groups of eight teams are formed, where the top two from each group compete for the medals in a knockout round; the remaining places are defined as follows: Fifth through eighth places are decided in a separate bracket between the third and fourth places from each group in a separate bracket. Ninth through sixteenth places are decided between the fifth through eighth places from each group in separate brackets.
The top two teams from each group advance to the semifinals, while the remaining teams compete for 5th through 16th places in separate brackets. Both group leaders, the United States and the Soviet Union advanced undefeated to the knockout stage. October 11 October 12 October 13 October 14 October 16 October 17 October 18 October 11 October 12 October 13 October 14 October 16 October 17 October 18 5th–8th Place 9th–12th Place 13th–16th Place
Henry Payne Iba was an American basketball coach and college athletics administrator. He served as the head basketball coach at Northwest Missouri State Teacher's College, now known as Northwest Missouri State University, from 1929 to 1933, he led Oklahoma A&M to consecutive NCAA Basketball Tournament titles, in 1945 and 1946. Iba was the athletic director at Oklahoma A&M / Oklahoma State from 1935 to 1970 and the school's head baseball coach from 1934 to 1941, tallying a mark of 90–41; as head coach of the United States men's national basketball team, he led the U. S. to the gold medals at the 1964 and 1968 Summer Olympics. Iba was inducted into the Naismith Memorial Basketball Hall of Fame in 1969. Iba was raised in Easton, Missouri, he played college basketball at Westminster College, where he became a member of Lambda Chi Alpha fraternity. The basketball court at Westminster is now named in his honor. After coaching stints at Maryville Teachers' College and the University of Colorado, Iba came to Oklahoma A&M College in 1934.
He stayed at Oklahoma A&M, renamed Oklahoma State University in 1957, for 36 years until his retirement after the 1969–70 season. For most of his tenure at A&M/OSU, he doubled as athletic director. Additionally, Iba coached OSU's baseball team from 1934 to 1941. Iba's teams were methodical, ball-controlling units that featured weaving patterns and low scoring games. Iba's "swinging gate" defense was applauded by many, is still effective in today's game, he was known as "the Iron Duke of Defense." Iba is thought to be one of the toughest coaches in NCAA history. He was a methodical coach, he always wanted things done perfectly. Iba's Aggies became the first to win consecutive NCAA titles, his 1945–46 NCAA champions were led by Bob Kurland, the game's first seven-foot player. They beat NYU in North Carolina in the 1946 finals, he was voted coach of the year in both seasons. His 1945 champions defeated National Invitation Tournament champion, DePaul, 6'10" center George Mikan in a classic Red Cross Benefit game.
A&M/State teams won 14 Missouri Valley titles and one Big Eight title, won 655 games in 36 seasons. All told, in 40 years of coaching, he won 767 games—the second-most in college basketball history at the time of his retirement; as OSU's athletic director, he built a program that won 19 national championships in 5 sports over the years. After his retirement, "Mr. Iba" showed up at practices giving advice to young players. In 1987, OSU's home arena, Gallagher Hall, was renamed Gallagher-Iba Arena in Iba's honor. A seat in the southeast concourse level of the arena is known as "Mr. Iba's Seat," and it is maintained without a fan having sat in it. Iba died on January 1993, in Stillwater, Oklahoma. Iba coached the USA Olympic basketball team in 1964, 1968 and 1972, he is the first coach in USA Olympic basketball history to coach two gold medal winning teams. Coach Mike Krzyzewski was the second; the 1972 final resulted in a controversial loss to the Soviet Union breaking Team USA's 63-game winning streak since basketball was introduced to the Olympics in 1936.
He was elected to the Oklahoma Sports Hall of Fame, the Oklahoma Hall of Fame, the Missouri Hall of Fame, the Helms Foundation All-Time Hall of Fame for basketball, National Collegiate Basketball Hall of Fame, FIBA Hall of Fame and Naismith Memorial Basketball Hall of Fame at Springfield, Massachusetts. Iba was indirectly responsible for a $165 million donation to the Oklahoma State University Athletic Program. In 1951, T. Boone Pickens, a graduate of OSU with a degree in petroleum geology, was looking for a job and asked Iba for help. Iba set the young graduate up with two interviews for high-school basketball coaching jobs and although Pickens didn't end up becoming a coach, the favor Iba did for him was the impetus behind his decision 50 years to make a $165 million donation to Oklahoma State University's athletic program. Iba was inducted into the Oklahoma Hall of Fame in 1965. Iba is known for his coaching tree, the group of prominent coaches who either coached or played for Iba himself, or are linked to Iba by playing for one of his pupils.
Coaches in this tree use a physical man-to-man defense and an offense predicated on ball movement and passing. The Henry Iba Award was established in 1959 to recognize the best college basketball coach of the year by the United States Basketball Writers Association. Five nominees are presented and the individual with the most votes receives the award, presented in conjunction with the Final Four; the award is presented at the Oscar Robertson Trophy breakfast the Friday before the Final Four. In 1994, the Rotary Club of Tulsa established the Henry P. Iba Citizen Athlete of the Year Award to honor two athletes, one male and one female, which have exhibited or demonstrated excellence in their sport and in life. In 1997, the Rotary Club of Tulsa established the Henry P. Iba Citizen Athlete of the Year Award with additional acknowledgement by recognized by the Chairman's Award. In 2017, John Savage portrayed Iba in Russian sport drama Going Vertical, about the 1972 Olympic final. List of college men's basketball coaches with 600 wins List of NCAA Division I Men's Final Four appearances by coach List of Oklahoma State University Olympians Henry Iba at the Naismith Memorial
Los Angeles Lakers
The Los Angeles Lakers are an American professional basketball team based in Los Angeles. The Lakers compete in the National Basketball Association, as a member of the league's Western Conference in the Pacific Division; the Lakers play their home games at Staples Center, an arena shared with the NBA's Los Angeles Clippers, the Los Angeles Sparks of the Women's National Basketball Association, the Los Angeles Kings of the National Hockey League. The Lakers are one of the most successful teams in the history of the NBA, have won 16 NBA championships, the second-most behind the Boston Celtics; the franchise began with the 1947 purchase of a disbanded team, the Detroit Gems of the National Basketball League. The new team began calling themselves the Minneapolis Lakers. A member of the NBL, the Lakers won the 1948 NBL championship before joining the rival Basketball Association of America, where they would win five of the next six championships, led by star George Mikan. After struggling financially in the late 1950s following Mikan's retirement, they relocated to Los Angeles before the 1960–61 season.
Led by Hall of Famers Elgin Baylor and Jerry West, Los Angeles made the NBA Finals six times in the 1960s, but lost each series to the Celtics, beginning their long and storied rivalry. In 1968, the Lakers acquired four-time NBA Most Valuable Player Wilt Chamberlain, won their sixth NBA title—and first in Los Angeles—in 1972, led by new head coach Bill Sharman. After the retirement of West and Chamberlain, the team acquired Kareem Abdul-Jabbar, who won multiple MVP awards, but was unable to make the Finals in the late 1970s; the 1980s Lakers were nicknamed "Showtime" due to their fast break-offense led by Magic Johnson. The team won five championships in a nine-year span, contained Hall of Famers Johnson, Abdul-Jabbar, James Worthy, was led by Hall of Fame coach Pat Riley. After Abdul-Jabbar and Johnson retired, the team struggled in the early 1990s, before acquiring Shaquille O'Neal and Kobe Bryant in 1996. With the duo, who were led by another Hall of Fame coach Phil Jackson, the team won three consecutive titles between 2000 to 2002, securing the franchise its second "three-peat".
The Lakers won two more championships in 2009 and 2010, but failed to regain their former glory in the following decade. The Lakers hold the record for NBA's longest winning streak, 33 straight games, set during the 1971–72 season. 21 Hall of Famers have played for Los Angeles. Four Lakers—Abdul-Jabbar, Johnson, O'Neal, Bryant—have won the NBA MVP Award for a total of eight awards; the Lakers' franchise began in 1947 when Ben Berger and Morris Chalfen of Minnesota purchased the disbanded Detroit Gems of the National Basketball League for $15,000 from Gems owner Maury Winston. Minneapolis sportswriter Sid Hartman played a key behind the scenes role in helping put together the deal and the team. Inspired by Minnesota's nickname, "Land of 10,000 Lakes", the team christened themselves the Lakers. Hartman helped them hire John Kundla from College of St. Thomas, to be their first head coach, by meeting with him and selling him on the team; the Lakers had a solid roster, which featured forward Jim Pollard, playmaker Herm Schaefer, center George Mikan, who became the most dominant player in the NBL.
In their first season, they led the league with a 43–17 record winning the NBL Championship that season. In 1948, the Lakers moved from the NBL to the Basketball Association of America, Mikan's 28.3 point per game scoring average set a BAA record. In the 1949 BAA Finals they won the championship; the following season, the team improved to 51–17, repeating as champions. In the 1950–51 season, Mikan won his third straight scoring title at 28.4 ppg and the Lakers went 44–24 to win their second straight division title. One of those games, a 19–18 loss against the Fort Wayne Pistons, became infamous as the lowest scoring game in NBA history. In the playoffs, they defeated the Indianapolis Olympians in three games but lost to the Rochester Royals in the next round. During the 1951 -- 52 season, the Lakers won 40 games, they faced the New York Knicks in the NBA Finals. In the 1952–53 season, Mikan led the NBA in rebounding, averaging 14.4 rebounds per game, was named MVP of the 1953 NBA All-Star Game.
After a 48–22 regular season, the Lakers defeated the Fort Wayne Pistons in the Western playoffs to advance to the NBA Finals. They defeated the New York Knicks to win their second straight championship. Though Lakers star George Mikan suffered from knee problems throughout the 1953–54 season, he was still able to average 18 ppg. Clyde Lovellette, drafted in 1952, helped the team win the Western Division; the team won its third straight championship in the 1950s and fifth in six seasons when it defeated the Syracuse Nationals in seven games. Following Mikan's retirement in the 1954 off-season, the Lakers struggled but still managed to win 40 games. Although they defeated the Rochester Royals in the first round of the playoffs, they were defeated by the Fort Wayne Pistons in the semifinals. Although they had losing records the next two seasons, they made the playoffs each year. Mikan came back for the last half of the 1955–56 season, but struggled and retired for good after the season. Led by Lovellette's 20.6 points and 13.5 rebounds, they advanced to the Conference Finals in 1956–57.
The Lakers had one of the worst seasons in team history in 1957–58 when they won a league-low 19 games. They had hired Mikan, the team's general manager for the previous two seasons, as head coach to replace Kundla. Mikan was fired in January when