Drama Desk Award
Broadway productions were excluded until the 1968–69 award season. The awards are considered a significant American theatre distinction and they debuted the presentations of the Vernon Rice Awards. The name honors the New York Post critic Vernon Rice, who had pioneered Off-Broadway coverage in the New York press, the name was changed for the 1963–1964 awards season to the Drama Desk Awards. In 1974, the Drama Desk became incorporated as a not-for-profit organization, in 1975, the Drama announcement of winners included the nominees as well. The Drama Desk has more than 100 members, including critics and editors who cover New York theater. Membership consists of two categories, Active membership and Participating Membership, all of the Drama Desk officers and Nominating Committee members perform their various services for the organization on a voluntary basis. The Nominating Committee generally meets twice a month to discuss the many eligible shows members are responsible for seeing and they nominate the productions on which the entire membership will vote.
What sets the organization apart is that the awards are voted on by people only without any vested interests in the results. Previous winners include Bernadette Peters, Dustin Hoffman, Al Pacino, over the last 36 years, the Drama Desk Awards have contributed to the ongoing success of major stars and designers, while identifying newcomers. The Drama Desk was the first New York theater organization to give awards to talents such as Edward Albee, Wendy Wasserstein, plays like Driving Miss Daisy, Other Peoples Money, Steel Magnolias, and The Boys in the Band built momentum with the help of Drama Desk wins. In 2010 William Wolf was announced as the President of Drama Desk, the current managing executive producer of the Drama Desk Awards is Gretchen Shugart, and the president of the Drama Desk is Charles Wright. David Barbour is chairperson of the nominating committee, in keeping with its original mission, the organization sponsors guest panel luncheons with theater professionals. Panels address topics of current interest, covering the season on Broadway, Off-Broadway, and Off-Off-Broadway, with the aim of prompting informative and stimulating discussion
Sardis is a Continental restaurant located at 234 West 44th Street in the Theater District in Manhattan, in New York City. Known for the hundreds of caricatures of celebrities that adorn its walls. Melchiorre Pio Vincenzo Vincent Sardi, Sr. and his wife Eugenia Pallera opened their first eatery, The Little Restaurant, in the basement of 246 West 44th Street in 1921. When that building was slated for demolition in 1926, they accepted an offer from the theater magnates, the new restaurant, opened March 5,1927. When business slowed after the move, Vincent Sardi sought a gimmick to attract customers, recalling the movie star caricatures that decorated the walls of Joe Zelli’s, a Parisian restaurant and jazz club, Sardi decided to recreate that effect in his establishment. He hired a Russian refugee named Alex Gard to draw Broadway celebrities and Gard drew up a contract that stated Gard would make the caricatures in exchange for one meal per day at the restaurant. The first official caricature by Gard was of Ted Healy, the vaudevillian of Three Stooges fame, when Sardi’s son, Vincent Sardi, Jr.
took over restaurant operations in 1947, he offered to change the terms of Gards agreement. Gard refused and continued to draw the caricatures in exchange for meals until his death, frequent mentions of the restaurant in newspaper columns by Walter Winchell and Ward Morehouse added to Sardi’s growing popularity. Winchell and Morehouse belonged to a group of newspapermen, press agents, heywood Broun, Mark Hellinger, press agent Irving Hoffman, actor George Jessel, and Ring Lardner were Cheese Club members. In fact, it was Hoffman who first brought Alex Gard to Sardis for lunch at the Cheese Club table, Gard drew caricatures of the Cheese Club members, and Vincent Sardi hung them above their table. It was that Sardi recalled the drawings at Zellis and made his deal with Gard, the restaurant became known as a pre- and post-theater hangout, as well as a location for opening night parties. Vincent Sardi, a lover, kept the restaurant open much than others in the area to accommodate Broadway performers schedules.
Alex Gard, who created more than 700 caricatures for the restaurant, after Gard, John Mackey took over drawing for the restaurant but was soon replaced by Don Bevan. Bevan did the drawings until 1974 when he retired, and was replaced by Brooklyn-born Richard Baratz, who lives in Pennsylvania, continues to the present day as the Sardis caricaturist. As of 2005, there are more than 1,300 celebrity caricatures on display, according to actor Robert Cucciolis spokesperson Judy Katz, in an interview with Playbill, On the day Jimmy Cagney died, his caricature was stolen from the Sardis wall. Since then, when drawings are done, the originals go into a vault, one goes to the lucky subject of the caricature, the other up on the Sardis wall. This way, potential thieves wont have their moment, in 1979, Vincent Sardi, Jr. donated a collection of 227 caricatures from the restaurant to the Billy Rose Theatre Collection of The New York Public Library for the Performing Arts. While the Sardi family was Italian, their restaurants cuisine is not, rather it tends toward English food, in 1957, Vincent Sardi, Jr.
collaborated with Helen Bryson to compile a cookbook of Sardis recipes
Robert De Niro
Robert Anthony De Niro is an American actor and director who has both Italian and American citizenship. He was cast as the young Vito Corleone in the 1974 film The Godfather Part II and his longtime collaboration with director Martin Scorsese earned him the Academy Award for Best Actor for his portrayal of Jake La Motta in the 1980 film Raging Bull. He received the AFI Life Achievement Award in 2003, the Golden Globe Cecil B, deMille Award in 2010, and the Presidential Medal of Freedom from President Barack Obama in 2016. De Niros first major roles were in the sports drama, Bang the Drum Slowly. He earned Academy Award nominations for the psychological thrillers Taxi Driver and Cape Fear, De Niro received additional nominations for Michael Ciminos Vietnam war drama, The Deer Hunter, Penny Marshalls drama Awakenings, and David O. Russells romantic comedy-drama, Silver Linings Playbook. His portrayal of gangster Jimmy Conway in Scorseses crime film, other notable performances include roles in Once Upon a Time in America, The Untouchables and Casino.
He has directed and starred in such as the crime drama A Bronx Tale. Robert Anthony De Niro was born in the Greenwich Village area of Manhattan, New York, the son of Virginia Admiral and Robert De Niro Sr. Both of his parents were painters, his father was of half Italian and half Irish descent, while his mother was of half German ancestry, with her other roots being French and Dutch. De Niros parents, who had met at the classes of Hans Hofmann in Provincetown, Massachusetts. De Niro was raised by his mother in the Greenwich Village and his father lived within walking distance and De Niro spent much time with him as he grew up. His mother was raised Presbyterian but became an atheist as an adult, against his parents wishes, his grandparents had him secretly baptized into the Catholic Church while he was staying with them during his parents divorce. De Niro attended PS41, an elementary school in Manhattan. He went to Elisabeth Irwin High School, the upper school of the Little Red School House. He was accepted into the High School of Music and Art for the ninth grade, De Niro began high school at the private McBurney School and attended the private Rhodes Preparatory School, although he never graduated from either.
Nicknamed Bobby Milk for his pallor, De Niro hung out with a group of kids as a youth in Little Italy. The direction of his future had already been foreshadowed by his debut at age 10. Along with finding relief from shyness through performing, he was fixated by cinema and he studied acting at the Stella Adler Conservatory, as well as Lee Strasbergs Actors Studio
St. Francis College
St. Francis College, often referred to as St. Francis of Brooklyn or SFC, is a private, coeducational college located in Brooklyn Heights, New York. It was founded in 1859 by friars of the Order of Servant Franciscans, St. Francis College began as a parochial all-boys academy in the City of Brooklyn and has become a small liberal arts college that has 19 academic departments which offer 72 majors and minors. St. Francis College is an undergraduate institution, yet does have graduate programs in accounting, project management. St. Francis has been ranked nationally and regionally by Forbes magazine, Washington Monthly, Money magazine, St. Francis is set in an urban environment and is considered a commuter college. As of 2015, there were 2,671 undergraduates and 78 graduates, the student to faculty ratio is 17,1 and 55. 9% of classes have 20 or fewer students. The 2,749 students that attend St. Francis College hail from over 80 countries, St. Francis College has been ranked by the New York Times and Forbes as one of the more diverse colleges in the United States.
SFC has 19 athletic teams compete in Division I of the NCAA and are known as the Terriers. SFCs teams participate in the Northeast Conference, with the exception of the mens and womens water polo teams compete in the CWPA. This was done at the request of the Bishop of Brooklyn, in 1859 St. Francis College was founded as the St. Francis Academy, the first Catholic school in Brooklyn. St. Francis Academy started in a building on 300 Baltic Street in Cobble Hill, the first President was founder Brother John McMahon. The Academy expanded and grew to encompass six row houses, with 150 feet of frontage and a former Methodist Church on Baltic Street. Francis College, with the powers to confer diplomas and literary honors possessed by the universities and colleges of New York State. ”St. Francis Academy became St. Francis College. By 1884, St. Francis College encompassed interconnected buildings that were on Baltic and Butler Streets, the entrance to the College was on Baltic Street and the entrance to the monastery was on Butler Street.
In June 1892, the college conferred it first Bachelor of Science degree, in 1896, St. Francis fielded the first collegiate men’s basketball team in the New York City. Then in 1902 St. Francis receives its charter from the State of New York in May, from this time on, the College’s curriculum offered only a post-secondary course of study. By 1917, the Colleges enrollment dropped to half due to students enlisting in the military as the United States entered World War I, in 1926, the Franciscan Brothers opened a new facility on Butler Street after raising USD$250,000 through a fundraising campaign dubbed the Great Drive. Less than ten years later, its preparatory school moved out and eventually became a separate institution, St. Francis Preparatory School. As the U. S. moved closer to its entrance into World War II,240 students were enrolled at St. Francis, while the student body remained mostly Irish, the changing demographics of working class Brooklyn were reflected by the growing number of Italian-American students
Michael Constantine is an American actor of Greek descent. He is most widely recognized for his portrayal of Kostas Gus Portokalos, after the conclusion of Room 222, Constantine portrayed night court magistrate Matthew J. Sirota on the 1976 sitcom Sirotas Court, receiving his second Golden Globe nomination. Constantine reprised his role as Gus Portokalos in My Big Fat Greek Wedding 2, Constantine was born Gus Efstratiou in Reading, the son of Andromache Efstratiou and Theoharis Ioannides, both immigrants from Greece. He began his career on the New York stage and in the mid-1950s as understudy to Paul Muni in Inherit the Wind, while in the cast, he met and married actress Julianna McCarthy on October 5,1953, they had two children, Thea Eileen and Brendan Neil. The marriage ended in divorce in 1969, the year that Constantine began his role on Room 222. He studied acting with such prominent mentors as Howard Da Silva and he was playing character roles on and off Broadway in his mid-twenties, supplementing his income as a night watchman and shooting-gallery barker.
In 1959 he appeared in his first film, The Last Mile and he had a small but memorable supporting role in The Hustler. In 1964 and 1965 Constantine appeared on Perry Mason, both times as the murderer and he played the role of wannabe private eye Dillard in The Case of the Blonde Bomber, he played Pappy Ryan in The Case of the Runaway Racer. In 1967 he appeared in the first part of The Judgment, Constantine played a long-suffering anti-organized-crime agent in Walt Disneys caper film The North Avenue Irregulars, where he appeared alongside Edward Herrmann and Cloris Leachman. He played an organized crime mobster who worked for Frank Nitti in the version of The Untouchables. He played Santa Claus in Prancer, in 1993, Constantine appeared in the independent drama Question of Faith, starring Anne Archer and Sam Neill. He played Tadzu Lempke in Stephen Kings Thinner in 1996
Robert Hammond Patrick, Jr. is an American actor, perhaps best known for his portrayals of villainous characters. He is a Saturn Award winner with four nominations, Patrick dropped out of college when drama class sparked his interest in acting, and entered film in 1986. He currently stars in the CBS drama series Scorpion as Agent Cabe Gallo and he was described by actor/director Jason Bateman as one of the great heavies. Patrick, the oldest of five siblings, was born in Marietta, Patrick is of English and Scots-Irish ancestry. His siblings are Richard Patrick, Cheri and Lewis and he spent his early life in Bay Village, a small suburb of Cleveland, while he moved around the country. Patrick did not start to pursue a career until his mid-twenties. During his childhood years, Patrick did not like to act, in third grade he refused to wear a pair of green tights required for Peter Pan. He graduated from Farmington High School in Farmington, Michigan, in 1977, Patrick was a track and field and football athlete at Bowling Green State University, although he dropped out before graduating when he found interest in Drama and acting.
After leaving college, Patrick secured a position as a house painter and he swam for three hours in order to save the others still stranded on the accident site, nearly drowning in the attempt. After the accident, he moved from Ohio to Los Angeles and his main income during the first years was as a bartender, and he often lived in his car. Patrick was picked up for small roles and cameos in low-budget films. Looking back, Patrick credited his early appearances in films to his tough-looking exterior, james Cameron, the films director, said he chose Patrick for the role because of his physical appearance, which he felt fit the role. During the filming of Terminator 2, Judgment Day, Patrick was broke, living in an apartment with his girlfriend, Barbara. He has credited the film with starting his career, after Terminator 2, Patrick landed roles in various feature films such as Last Action Hero, Fire in the Sky and Striptease. Because of his fondness for martial arts, Patrick starred in two martial arts films titled Double Dragon and Hong Kong 97, both released in 1994 and his performance in Fire in the Sky caught the attention of The X-Files creator, Chris Carter.
After David Duchovny distanced himself from the show during the seventh season, patricks brother, had previously worked for the series by adding music for the soundtrack album The X-Files, The Album. Patrick was cast as Doggett in 2000, the X-Files was canceled two seasons later, after Duchovny left the show following season 7, which resulted in low ratings for the show. Patrick made several appearances on many magazines, with TV Guide going so far as to label him one of the Ten Sexiest Men of Sci-Fi
Stephen Schwartz (composer)
Stephen Lawrence Schwartz is an American musical theatre lyricist and composer. In a career spanning four decades, Schwartz has written such hit musicals as Godspell, Pippin. He has contributed lyrics for a number of films, including Pocahontas, The Hunchback of Notre Dame, The Prince of Egypt. Schwartz has won the Drama Desk Award for Outstanding Lyrics, three Grammy Awards, three Academy Awards and has been nominated for six Tony Awards and he received the 2015 Isabelle Stevenson Award, a special Tony Award, for his commitment to serving artists and fostering new talent. Schwartz was born in New York City, the son of Sheila Lorna, a teacher, and Stanley Leonard Schwartz and he grew up in the Williston Park area of Nassau County, New York, where he graduated from Mineola High School in 1964. He studied piano and composition at the Juilliard School while attending high school, while attending Carnegie Mellon University, Schwartz composed and directed an early version of Pippin with the student-run theatre group, ScotchnSoda.
Schwartz graduated from Carnegie Mellon University in 1968 with a BFA in drama, upon returning to New York City, Schwartz went to work as a producer for RCA Records, but shortly thereafter began to work in the Broadway theatre. He was asked to be the director of the first American rock opera. He was credited as the producer of the album of the soundtrack with the progressive rock group Smoke Rise on Paramount Records. His first major credit was the song for the play Butterflies Are Free. In 1971, he music and lyrics for Godspell, for which he won several awards including two Grammys. For this musicals Toronto production in 1972, he asked Paul Shaffer to be the musical director, thus starting Shaffers career. Godspell was followed by the English-language texts, in collaboration with Leonard Bernstein, for Bernsteins Mass, in 1972, the long-running Pippin premiered on Broadway. Schwartz had begun writing songs for Pippin while in college, although none of the songs from the college version ended up in the Broadway production, both Pippin and Godspell continue to be frequently produced.
Two years after Pippin debuted, Schwartz wrote music and lyrics of The Magic Show, by mid-1974, at age 26, Schwartz had three smash hit musicals playing in New York simultaneously. Next were the music and lyrics of The Bakers Wife, which closed before reaching Broadway after an out-of-town tryout tour in 1976 and he co-directed the television production, which was presented as part of the PBS American Playhouse series. In 1977, Schwartz wrote a book called The Perfect Peach. In the 1980s, Schwartz wrote songs for a musical for children, The Trip
Cheers is an American sitcom that ran on NBC from September 30,1982 to May 20,1993, with a total of 270 half-hour episodes spanning over eleven seasons. The show was produced by Charles/Burrows/Charles Productions in association with Paramount Network Television, the show was created by the team of James Burrows, Glen Charles, and Les Charles. The show is set in a bar named Cheers in Boston, where a group of locals meet to drink, the shows main theme song and performed by Gary Portnoy lent its famous refrain Where Everybody Knows Your Name as the shows tagline. After premiering on September 30,1982, it was canceled during its first season when it ranked almost last in ratings for its premiere. Cheers, eventually became a highly rated show in the United States, earning a top-ten rating during eight of its eleven seasons. The show spent most of its run on NBCs Thursday night Must See TV lineup and its widely watched series finale was broadcast on May 20,1993, and the shows 270 episodes have been successfully syndicated worldwide.
Nominated for Outstanding Comedy Series for all eleven of its seasons on the air, the character Frasier Crane was featured in his eponymous spin-off show, which aired until 2004 and included guest appearances by virtually all of the major and minor Cheers characters. During its run, Cheers became one of the most popular series of all time and has received critical acclaim. In 1997, the episodes Thanksgiving Orphans and Home Is the Sailor, aired originally in 1987, were respectively ranked No.7, in 2002, Cheers was ranked No.18 on TV Guides 50 Greatest TV Shows of All Time. In 2013, the Writers Guild of America ranked it as the eighth best written TV series, before the Cheers pilot Give Me a Ring Sometime was completed and aired in 1982, the series originally consisted of four employees in the first script. Neither Norm Peterson nor Cliff Clavin, regular customers of Cheers, were featured, in years, Woody Boyd replaces Coach, who dies off-screen in season four to account for actor Nicholas Colasantos death.
Frasier Crane starts as a character and becomes a permanent character. In season six, they added a new character Rebecca Howe, Lilith Sternin starts as a one-time character in an episode of season four, Second Time Around. After she appears in two episodes in five, she becomes a recurring character, and featured as a permanent one for season ten. Ted Danson portrays Sam Malone, a bartender and an owner of Cheers, before the series began, he was a baseball relief pitcher for the Boston Red Sox nicknamed Mayday Malone until he became an alcoholic, harming his career. He has an on-again, off-again relationship with Diane Chambers, his class opposite, during their off-times, Sam has flings with many not-so-bright sexy women, yet fails to pursue a meaningful relationship and fails to seduce other women, such as intellectuals. After Diane is written out of the series, he tries to pursue Rebecca Howe, at the end of the series, he is still unmarried and recovering from sexual addiction with a help of Dr.
Robert Suttons group meetings, advised by Frasier. Shelley Long portrays Diane Chambers, an academic, sophisticated graduate student, in the pilot Diane is abandoned by her fiancé, leaving her without a job, a man, or money
Los Angeles Times
The Los Angeles Times, commonly referred to as the Times or LA Times, is a paid daily newspaper published in Los Angeles, since 1881. It was the largest metropolitan newspaper in circulation in the United States in 2008, the Times is owned by tronc. The Times was first published on December 4,1881, as the Los Angeles Daily Times under the direction of Nathan Cole Jr. and it was first printed at the Mirror printing plant, owned by Jesse Yarnell and T. J. Unable to pay the bill and Gardiner turned the paper over to the Mirror Company. Mathes had joined the firm, and it was at his insistence that the Times continued publication, in July 1882, Harrison Gray Otis moved from Santa Barbara to become the papers editor. Otis made the Times a financial success, in an era where newspapers were driven by party politics, the Times was directed at Republican readers. As was typical of newspapers of the time, the Times would sit on stories for several days, historian Kevin Starr wrote that Otis was a businessman capable of manipulating the entire apparatus of politics and public opinion for his own enrichment.
Otiss editorial policy was based on civic boosterism, extolling the virtues of Los Angeles, the efforts of the Times to fight local unions led to the October 1,1910 bombing of its headquarters, killing twenty-one people. Two union leaders and Joseph McNamara, were charged, the American Federation of Labor hired noted trial attorney Clarence Darrow to represent the brothers, who eventually pleaded guilty. Upon Otiss death in 1917, his son-in-law, Harry Chandler, Harry Chandler was succeeded in 1944 by his son, Norman Chandler, who ran the paper during the rapid growth of post-war Los Angeles. Family members are buried at the Hollywood Forever Cemetery near Paramount Studios, the site includes a memorial to the Times Building bombing victims. The fourth generation of family publishers, Otis Chandler, held that position from 1960 to 1980, Otis Chandler sought legitimacy and recognition for his familys paper, often forgotten in the power centers of the Northeastern United States due to its geographic and cultural distance.
He sought to remake the paper in the model of the nations most respected newspapers, notably The New York Times, believing that the newsroom was the heartbeat of the business, Otis Chandler increased the size and pay of the reporting staff and expanded its national and international reporting. In 1962, the paper joined with the Washington Post to form the Los Angeles Times-Washington Post News Service to syndicate articles from both papers for news organizations. During the 1960s, the paper won four Pulitzer Prizes, more than its previous nine decades combined, eventually the coupon-clipping branches realized that they could make more money investing in something other than newspapers. Under their pressure the companies went public, or split apart, thats the pattern followed over more than a century by the Los Angeles Times under the Chandler family. The papers early history and subsequent transformation was chronicled in an unauthorized history Thinking Big and it has been the whole or partial subject of nearly thirty dissertations in communications or social science in the past four decades.
In 2000, the Tribune Company acquired the Times, placing the paper in co-ownership with then-WB -affiliated KTLA, which Tribune acquired in 1985
The New York Times
The New York Times is an American daily newspaper and continuously published in New York City since September 18,1851, by The New York Times Company. The New York Times has won 119 Pulitzer Prizes, more than any other newspaper, the papers print version in 2013 had the second-largest circulation, behind The Wall Street Journal, and the largest circulation among the metropolitan newspapers in the US. The New York Times is ranked 18th in the world by circulation, following industry trends, its weekday circulation had fallen in 2009 to fewer than one million. Nicknamed The Gray Lady, The New York Times has long been regarded within the industry as a newspaper of record. The New York Times international version, formerly the International Herald Tribune, is now called the New York Times International Edition, the papers motto, All the News Thats Fit to Print, appears in the upper left-hand corner of the front page. On Sunday, The New York Times is supplemented by the Sunday Review, The New York Times Book Review, The New York Times Magazine and T, some other early investors of the company were Edwin B.
Morgan and Edward B. We do not believe that everything in Society is either right or exactly wrong, —what is good we desire to preserve and improve, —what is evil, to exterminate. In 1852, the started a western division, The Times of California that arrived whenever a mail boat got to California. However, when local California newspapers came into prominence, the effort failed, the newspaper shortened its name to The New-York Times in 1857. It dropped the hyphen in the city name in the 1890s, One of the earliest public controversies it was involved with was the Mortara Affair, the subject of twenty editorials it published alone. At Newspaper Row, across from City Hall, Henry Raymond and editor of The New York Times, averted the rioters with Gatling guns, in 1869, Raymond died, and George Jones took over as publisher. Tweed offered The New York Times five million dollars to not publish the story, in the 1880s, The New York Times transitioned gradually from editorially supporting Republican Party candidates to becoming more politically independent and analytical.
In 1884, the paper supported Democrat Grover Cleveland in his first presidential campaign, while this move cost The New York Times readership among its more progressive and Republican readers, the paper eventually regained most of its lost ground within a few years. However, the newspaper was financially crippled by the Panic of 1893, the paper slowly acquired a reputation for even-handedness and accurate modern reporting, especially by the 1890s under the guidance of Ochs. Under Ochs guidance and expanding upon the Henry Raymond tradition, The New York Times achieved international scope, circulation, in 1910, the first air delivery of The New York Times to Philadelphia began. The New York Times first trans-Atlantic delivery by air to London occurred in 1919 by dirigible, airplane Edition was sent by plane to Chicago so it could be in the hands of Republican convention delegates by evening. In the 1940s, the extended its breadth and reach. The crossword began appearing regularly in 1942, and the section in 1946
William Shakespeare was an English poet and actor, widely regarded as the greatest writer in the English language and the worlds pre-eminent dramatist. He is often called Englands national poet, and the Bard of Avon and his extant works, including collaborations, consist of approximately 38 plays,154 sonnets, two long narrative poems, and a few other verses, some of uncertain authorship. His plays have been translated into every major living language and are performed more often than those of any other playwright, Shakespeare was born and brought up in Stratford-upon-Avon, Warwickshire. At the age of 18, he married Anne Hathaway, with whom he had three children and twins Hamnet and Judith. Sometime between 1585 and 1592, he began a career in London as an actor, writer. He appears to have retired to Stratford around 1613, at age 49, Shakespeare produced most of his known work between 1589 and 1613. His early plays were primarily comedies and histories, which are regarded as some of the best work ever produced in these genres.
He wrote mainly tragedies until about 1608, including Hamlet, King Lear, in his last phase, he wrote tragicomedies, known as romances, and collaborated with other playwrights. Many of his plays were published in editions of varying quality and it was prefaced with a poem by Ben Jonson, in which Shakespeare is hailed, presciently, as not of an age, but for all time. In the 20th and 21st centuries, his works have been adapted and rediscovered by new movements in scholarship. His plays remain highly popular and are studied, performed. William Shakespeare was the son of John Shakespeare, an alderman and a successful glover originally from Snitterfield, and Mary Arden and he was born in Stratford-upon-Avon and baptised there on 26 April 1564. His actual date of birth unknown, but is traditionally observed on 23 April. This date, which can be traced back to an 18th-century scholars mistake, has proved appealing to biographers because Shakespeare died on 23 April 1616 and he was the third child of eight and the eldest surviving son.
At the age of 18, Shakespeare married 26-year-old Anne Hathaway, the consistory court of the Diocese of Worcester issued a marriage licence on 27 November 1582. The next day, two of Hathaways neighbours posted bonds guaranteeing that no lawful claims impeded the marriage, son Hamnet and daughter Judith, followed almost two years and were baptised 2 February 1585. Hamnet died of unknown causes at the age of 11 and was buried 11 August 1596, after the birth of the twins, Shakespeare left few historical traces until he is mentioned as part of the London theatre scene in 1592. The exception is the appearance of his name in the bill of a law case before the Queens Bench court at Westminster dated Michaelmas Term 1588 and 9 October 1589