Conservatism in the United States
American conservatism is a broad system of political beliefs in the United States, characterized by respect for American traditions, support for Judeo-Christian values, moral universalism, anti-communism, advocacy of American exceptionalism, a defense of Western culture from the perceived threats posed by socialism and moral relativism. Liberty is a core value. American conservatives consider individual liberty—within the bounds of American values—as the fundamental trait of democracy. American conservatives believe in limiting government in size and scope, in a balance between national government and states' rights. Apart from some libertarians, they tend to favor strong action in areas they believe to be within government's legitimate jurisdiction national defense and law enforcement. Social conservatives oppose abortion and favor restricting LGBT rights, while privileging traditional marriage and allowing voluntary school prayer. American conservatism, like most American political ideologies, originates from republicanism, which rejected aristocratic and monarchical government and upheld the principles of the United States Declaration of Independence and the United States Constitution.
Conservative philosophy is derived in part from the classical liberal tradition of the 18th and 19th centuries, which advocated for laissez-faire economics. Historians such as Patrick Allitt and political theorists such as Russell Kirk argue that the conservative tradition has played a major role in American politics and culture since 1776. However, they stress that an organized conservative movement with beliefs that differ from those of other American political parties has played a key role in politics only since the 1950s; the recent movement is based in the Republican Party, however some Southern Democrats were important figures early in the movement's history regarding crime control and labor unions, though most Southern Democrats were liberal. The history of American conservatism has been marked by competing ideologies. Fiscal conservatives and libertarians favor small government, laissez-faire economy, low income and corporate taxes, limited regulation, free enterprise. Social conservatives see traditional social values.
Neoconservatives want to expand. Paleoconservatives advocate restrictions on immigration, non-interventionist foreign policy, opposition to multiculturalism. Most conservative factions nationwide, except some libertarians, support a unilateral foreign policy, a strong military. Most libertarians, support gun ownership rights, citing the Second Amendment to the United States Constitution; the conservative movement of the 1950s attempted to bring together these divergent strands, stressing the need for unity to prevent the spread of "godless communism."William F. Buckley Jr. in the first issue of his magazine National Review in 1955, explained the standards of his magazine and helped make explicit the beliefs of American conservatives: Among our convictions: It is the job of centralized government to protect its citizens' lives and property. All other activities of government tend to hamper progress; the growth of government must be fought relentlessly. In this great social conflict of the era, we are, on the libertarian side.
The profound crisis of our era is, in essence, the conflict between the Social Engineers, who seek to adjust mankind to scientific utopias, the disciples of Truth, who defend the organic moral order. We believe that truth is neither arrived at nor illuminated by monitoring election results, binding though these are for other purposes, but by other means, including a study of human experience. On this point we are, on the conservative side. According to Peter Viereck, American conservatism is distinctive because it was not tied to a monarchy, landed aristocracy, established church, or military elite. Instead American conservatives were rooted in American republicanism, which European conservatives opposed, they are committed, says Seymour Martin Lipset, to the belief in America's "superiority against the cold reactionary monarchical and more rigidly status-bound system of European society." Traditional conservatives tend to be anti-ideological, some would say anti-philosophical, promoting, as Russell Kirk explained, a steady flow of "prescription and prejudice".
Kirk's use of the word "prejudice" here is not intended to carry its contemporary pejorative connotation: a conservative himself, he believed that the inherited wisdom of the ages may be a better guide than rational individual judgment. There are two overlapping subgroups of social conservatives -- the religious. Traditional conservatives support traditional codes of conduct those they feel are threatened by social change and modernization. For example, traditional conservatives may oppose the use of female soldiers in combat. Religious conservatives focus on conducting society as pr
Paul Thomas Anderson
Paul Thomas Anderson referred to as P. T. Anderson or PTA, is an American filmmaker, his films have been nominated for 25 Academy Awards, winning three for cast and crew. An alumnus of the Sundance Institute, Anderson directed his first feature film, Hard Eight, in 1996, he achieved critical and commercial success with Boogie Nights, set during the Golden Age of Porn. His 2007 film There Will Be Blood, about an oil prospector during the Southern California oil boom, is cited as one of the best films of the 2000s. Anderson's other notable films include Magnolia, Punch-Drunk Love, The Master, Inherent Vice, Phantom Thread. Anderson was born on June 26, 1970, in Studio City, Los Angeles, to Edwina and Ernie Anderson. Ernie was an actor, the voice of ABC and a Cleveland television late-night horror movie host known as "Ghoulardi". Anderson grew up in the San Fernando Valley, he is third youngest of nine children, had a troubled relationship with his mother but was close with his father, who encouraged him to become a writer or director.
Anderson attended a number of schools, including Buckley in Sherman Oaks, John Thomas Dye School, Campbell Hall School, Cushing Academy, Montclair Prep. Anderson was involved in filmmaking from a young age and never had an alternative plan to directing films, he made his first film when he was eight years old and started making movies on a Betamax video camera that his dad bought in 1982 when he was 12 years old. He started using 8 mm film but realized that video was easier, he began writing in adolescence, at 17 years old he began experimenting with a Bolex sixteen millimeter camera. After years of experimenting with "standard fare", he wrote and filmed his first real production as a senior in high school at Montclair Prep using money he earned cleaning cages at a pet store; the film was a 30-minute mockumentary shot on video called The Dirk Diggler Story, about a pornography star. Anderson attended Santa Monica College before enrolling and spending two semesters as an English major at Emerson College where he was taught by David Foster Wallace, only two days at New York University before he began his career as a production assistant on television films, music videos and game shows in Los Angeles and New York City.
Feeling that the material shown to him at film school turned the experience into "homework or a chore", Anderson decided to make a 20-minute film that would be his "college". For $20,000, made up of gambling winnings, his girlfriend's credit card, money his father set aside for him for college, Anderson made Cigarettes & Coffee, a short film connecting multiple story lines with a twenty-dollar bill; the film was screened at the 1993 Sundance Festival Shorts Program. He decided to expand the film into a feature-length film and was subsequently invited to the 1994 Sundance Feature Film Program. At the Sundance Feature Film Program, Michael Caton-Jones served as Anderson's mentor. While at the Sundance Feature Film Program, Anderson had a deal with Rysher Entertainment to direct his first full-length feature, retitled Hard Eight. Upon completion of the film, Rysher re-edited it. Anderson, who still had the workprint of his original cut, submitted the film to the 1996 Cannes Film Festival, where it was accepted and screened in the Un Certain Regard section.
Anderson managed to get his version released but only after he retitled the film, raised the $200,000 necessary to finish it. Reilly contributed the funding; the version, released was Anderson's and the acclaim from the film launched his career. The story concerns Sydney Brown, an experienced gambler who takes John Finnegan under his wing, while John becomes romantically involved with a troubled waitress; the film featured Philip Seymour Hoffman as an arrogant gambler, beginning a five-film collaboration between the pair. In his review of the film, Chicago Sun-Times critic Roger Ebert wrote, "Movies like Hard Eight remind me of what original, compelling characters the movies can sometimes give us."Anderson began working on the script for his next feature film during his troubles with Hard Eight, completing the script in 1995. The result was Anderson's breakout for the drama film Boogie Nights, based on his short film The Dirk Diggler Story and is set in the Golden Age of Porn; the film follows a nightclub dishwasher who becomes a popular pornographic actor under his stage name Dirk Diggler.
The script was noticed by New Line Cinema's president, Michael De Luca, who felt "totally gaga" reading it. It was released on October 10, 1997 and was a critical and commercial success; the film revived the career of Burt Reynolds, provided breakout roles for Wahlberg and Julianne Moore. After the film's production, Reynolds refused to star in Anderson's third film Magnolia. At the 70th Academy Awards, the film was nominated for three Academy Awards, including for Best Supporting Actor, Best Supporting Actress and Best Original Screenplay. After the success of Boogie Nights, New Line told Anderson that he could do whatever he wanted for his next film and granted him creative control. Though Anderson wanted to make a film, "intimate and small-scale", the script "kept blossoming"; the resulting film was the ensemble piece Magnolia, which tells the sto
2008 Democratic Party presidential debates and forums
The 2008 Democratic presidential debates were debates prior to and during the 2008 Democratic primaries. The debates began on April 2007, in Orangeburg, South Carolina; the 2008 United States Presidential Election was November 4, 2008. The debates, campaigns and conventions occurred several months before Election Day; the new President and Vice-President were sworn in January 20, 2009. It was the first Presidential election lacking incumbents since 1952, was projected to be the largest and most expensive election in U. S. history. Eight Democrats had formally filed papers with the Federal Election Commission, making them formal candidates for the Democratic Nomination and the Presidency; the candidates who attracted the most media attention included Hillary Clinton, Barack Obama, John Edwards. Other candidates included Dennis Kucinich, who withdrew, Mike Gravel, before he defected to the Libertarian Party. Tom Vilsack, one of the earliest candidates to announce a campaign for President, withdrew before participating in any debates.
Christopher Dodd and Joe Biden dropped out of the race following the Iowa caucuses, Bill Richardson dropped out after the New Hampshire primary. Senator Barack Obama - Illinois. Senator Chris Dodd - Connecticut Senator Joe Biden - Delaware Governor Bill Richardson - New Mexico Congressman Dennis Kucinich - Ohio Senator John Edwards - North Carolina Senator Mike Gravel - Alaska Senator Hillary Clinton - New York Key: P denotes candidate participated in debate. Key: P denotes candidate participated in debate; the first Democratic debate was in the evening of April 26, 2007, in Orangeburg, South Carolina, at South Carolina State University. State party chairman Joe Erwin said that he chose South Carolina State because it is a black college, noting that African-Americans have been the "most loyal" Democrats in the state; the debate was 90 minutes, with a 60-second time limit for answers, no opening or closing statements. It was broadcast via cable television and online video streaming by MSNBC; the debate was moderated by Brian Williams of NBC Nightly News.
The Iraq War was the major topic of the discussion, all of the candidates criticized President George W. Bush. Although, some public fanfare occurred pundits considered the debate unspectacular, no single "breakout" candidate was identified. A poll of 403 South Carolinians who watched the debate indicated a belief that Obama won the debate, with support of 31% compared to Clinton's 24%. However, journalists Tom Baldwin, of The Times, Ewen MacAskill, of The Guardian, both reported that Clinton appeared to retain her frontrunner status. Political pundits such as Chris Matthews, Howard Fineman, Keith Olbermann and Joe Scarborough declared Clinton the most "presidential", stating that her appearance and answers were: succinct, within the time limit and thorough; the opinions of pundits varied in regard to the third-polled candidate, Former Senator John Edwards, with some asserting that his performance was weak and not akin to the energetic performance that he portrayed during his first election campaign in 2003.
MSNBC Transcript WMUR-TV, CNN and the New Hampshire Union Leader hosted both Democratic and Republican debates in the Manchester, New Hampshire area, at Saint Anselm College in Goffstown. The Democratic debate was Sunday, June 3, started at 7 p.m. EDT, was commercial free and lasted two hours; the moderator was host of Late Edition with Wolf Blitzer and The Situation Room. Blitzer was joined by Tom Fahey of the New Hampshire Union Leader and Scott Spradling from the local television station WMUR; the first half of the debate was a directed question-and-answer session, with candidates questioned while standing at the podiums, as in the first debate, responding to questions from Fahey and Spradling. Participating candidates were Obama, Clinton, Gravel, Richardson and R. Biden, Jr. For the second half of the debate, the candidates sat in chairs while New Hampshire live audience members—mostly undecided Democratic and independent voters—asked questions that were deflected by Blitzer to specific candidates.
PBS held and televised a debate at Howard University, a black college. The moderator was Tavis Smiley and all eight candidates discussed a range of topics, including education, unemployment, racial discrimination, health in the black community. Attended by all eight candidates, this debate was held during the NAACP convention. An on-stage conversation between Edwards and Clinton was overheard—due to activated microphones—in which they talked about ceasing the participation of non-frontrunner candidates in future debates. CNN and YouTube held this debate on the campus of The Citadel. All questions were selected from, posed as videos submitted via, YouTube by members of the public. YouTube and Google streamed, it was simulcast on CNN en Español. CFR Transcript CNN Transcript CNN Video Video with Closed Caption from Taudiobook.com The Yearly Kos Presidential Leadership Forum was an informal discussion attended by seven of the eight presidential candidates, with Biden not attending due to votes in Congress.
New York Times Magazine writer Matt Bai, DailyKos Contributing Editor /Fel
Democratic Party (United States)
The Democratic Party is one of the two major contemporary political parties in the United States, along with the Republican Party. Tracing its heritage back to Thomas Jefferson and James Madison's Democratic-Republican Party, the modern-day Democratic Party was founded around 1828 by supporters of Andrew Jackson, making it the world's oldest active political party; the Democrats' dominant worldview was once social conservatism and economic liberalism, while populism was its leading characteristic in the rural South. In 1912, Theodore Roosevelt ran as a third-party candidate in the Progressive Party, beginning a switch of political platforms between the Democratic and Republican Party over the coming decades, leading to Woodrow Wilson being elected as the first fiscally progressive Democrat. Since Franklin D. Roosevelt and his New Deal coalition in the 1930s, the Democratic Party has promoted a social liberal platform, supporting social justice. Well into the 20th century, the party had conservative pro-business and Southern conservative-populist anti-business wings.
The New Deal Coalition of 1932–1964 attracted strong support from voters of recent European extraction—many of whom were Catholics based in the cities. After Franklin D. Roosevelt's New Deal of the 1930s, the pro-business wing withered outside the South. After the racial turmoil of the 1960s, most Southern whites and many Northern Catholics moved into the Republican Party at the presidential level; the once-powerful labor union element became less supportive after the 1970s. White Evangelicals and Southerners became Republican at the state and local level since the 1990s. People living in metropolitan areas, women and gender minorities, college graduates, racial and ethnic minorities in the United States, such as Jewish Americans, Hispanic Americans, Asian Americans, Arab Americans and African Americans, tend to support the Democratic Party much more than they support the rival Republican Party; the Democratic Party's philosophy of modern liberalism advocates social and economic equality, along with the welfare state.
It seeks to provide government regulation in the economy. These interventions, such as the introduction of social programs, support for labor unions, affordable college tuitions, moves toward universal health care and equal opportunity, consumer protection and environmental protection form the core of the party's economic policy. Fifteen Democrats have served as President of the United States; the first was President Andrew Jackson, the seventh president and served from 1829 to 1837. The most recent was President Barack Obama, the 44th president and held office from 2009 to 2017. Following the 2018 midterm elections, the Democrats held a majority in the House of Representatives, "trifectas" in 14 states, the mayoralty of numerous major American cities, such as Boston, Los Angeles, New York City, San Francisco, Portland and Washington, D. C. Twenty-three state governors were Democrats, the Party was the minority party in the Senate and in most state legislatures; as of March 2019, four of the nine Justices of the Supreme Court had been appointed by Democratic presidents.
Democratic Party officials trace its origins to the inspiration of the Democratic-Republican Party, founded by Thomas Jefferson, James Madison and other influential opponents of the Federalists in 1792. That party inspired the Whigs and modern Republicans. Organizationally, the modern Democratic Party arose in the 1830s with the election of Andrew Jackson. Since the nomination of William Jennings Bryan in 1896, the party has positioned itself to the left of the Republican Party on economic issues, they have been more liberal on civil rights issues since 1948. On foreign policy, both parties have changed position several times; the Democratic Party evolved from the Jeffersonian Republican or Democratic-Republican Party organized by Jefferson and Madison in opposition to the Federalist Party of Alexander Hamilton and John Adams. The party favored republicanism; the Democratic-Republican Party came to power in the election of 1800. After the War of 1812, the Federalists disappeared and the only national political party left was the Democratic-Republicans.
The era of one-party rule in the United States, known as the Era of Good Feelings, lasted from 1816 until the early 1830s, when the Whig Party became a national political group to rival the Democratic-Republicans. However, the Democratic-Republican Party still had its own internal factions, they split over the choice of a successor to President James Monroe and the party faction that supported many of the old Jeffersonian principles, led by Andrew Jackson and Martin Van Buren, became the modern Democratic Party. As Norton explains the transformation in 1828: Jacksonians believed the people's will had prevailed. Through a lavishly financed coalition of state parties, political leaders, newspaper editors, a popular movement had elected the president; the Democrats became the nation's first well-organized national party and tight party organization became the hallmark of nineteenth-century American politics. Opposing factions led by Henry Clay helped form the Whig Party; the Democratic Party had a small yet decisive advantage over the Whigs until the 1850s, when the Whigs fell apart over the issue of slavery.
In 1854, angry with the Kansas–Nebraska Act, anti-slavery Dem
In political and social sciences, communism is the philosophical, social and economic ideology and movement whose ultimate goal is the establishment of the communist society, a socioeconomic order structured upon the common ownership of the means of production and the absence of social classes and the state. Communism includes a variety of schools of thought, which broadly include Marxism and anarchism, as well as the political ideologies grouped around both. All of these share the analysis that the current order of society stems from its economic system, capitalism; the two classes are the working class—who must work to survive and who make up the majority within society—and the capitalist class—a minority who derives profit from employing the working class through private ownership of the means of production. The revolution will put the working class in power and in turn establish social ownership of the means of production, which according to this analysis is the primary element in the transformation of society towards communism.
Critics of communism can be divided into those concerning themselves with the practical aspects of 20th century communist states and those concerning themselves with communist principles and theory. Marxism-Leninism and democratic socialism were the two dominant forms of socialism in the 20th century; the term "communism" was first coined and defined in its modern definition by the French philosopher and writer Victor d'Hupay. In his 1777 book Projet de communauté philosophe, d'Hupay pushes the philosophy of the Enlightenment to principles which he lived up to during most of his life in his bastide of Fuveau; this book can be seen as the cornerstone of communist philosophy as d'Hupay defines this lifestyle as a "commune" and advises to "share all economic and material products between inhabitants of the commune, so that all may benefit from everybody's work". According to Richard Pipes, the idea of a classless, egalitarian society first emerged in Ancient Greece; the 5th-century Mazdak movement in Persia has been described as "communistic" for challenging the enormous privileges of the noble classes and the clergy, for criticizing the institution of private property and for striving to create an egalitarian society.
At one time or another, various small communist communities existed under the inspiration of Scripture. For example, in the medieval Christian Church some monastic communities and religious orders shared their land and their other property. Communist thought has been traced back to the works of the 16th-century English writer Thomas More. In his treatise Utopia, More portrayed a society based on common ownership of property, whose rulers administered it through the application of reason. In the 17th century, communist thought surfaced again in England, where a Puritan religious group known as the "Diggers" advocated the abolition of private ownership of land. In his 1895 Cromwell and Communism, Eduard Bernstein argued that several groups during the English Civil War espoused clear communistic, agrarian ideals and that Oliver Cromwell's attitude towards these groups was at best ambivalent and hostile. Criticism of the idea of private property continued into the Age of Enlightenment of the 18th century through such thinkers as Jean Jacques Rousseau in France.
Following the upheaval of the French Revolution communism emerged as a political doctrine. In the early 19th century, various social reformers founded communities based on common ownership. However, unlike many previous communist communities they replaced the religious emphasis with a rational and philanthropic basis. Notable among them were Robert Owen, who founded New Harmony in Indiana, as well as Charles Fourier, whose followers organized other settlements in the United States such as Brook Farm. In its modern form, communism grew out of the socialist movement in 19th-century Europe; as the Industrial Revolution advanced, socialist critics blamed capitalism for the misery of the proletariat—a new class of urban factory workers who labored under often-hazardous conditions. Foremost among these critics were his associate Friedrich Engels. In 1848, Marx and Engels offered a new definition of communism and popularized the term in their famous pamphlet The Communist Manifesto; the 1917 October Revolution in Russia set the conditions for the rise to state power of Vladimir Lenin's Bolsheviks, the first time any avowedly communist party reached that position.
The revolution transferred power to the All-Russian Congress of Soviets, in which the Bolsheviks had a majority. The event generated a great deal of theoretical debate within the Marxist movement. Marx predicted that socialism and communism would be built upon foundations laid by the most advanced capitalist development. However, Russia was one of the poorest countries in Europe with an enormous illiterate peasantry and a minority of industrial workers. Marx had explicitly stated; the moderate Mensheviks opposed Lenin's Bolshevik plan for socialist revolution before capitalism was more developed. The Bolsheviks' successful rise to power was based upon the slogans such as "Peace and land" which tapp
Andy Samberg is an American actor, writer and musician. He is a member of the comedy music group The Lonely Island and was a cast member on Saturday Night Live, where he and his fellow group members have been credited with popularizing the SNL Digital Shorts. Samberg has starred in several films, including Hot Rod, I Love You, That's My Boy and Jesse Forever, Hotel Transylvania, Hotel Transylvania 2, Hotel Transylvania 3: Summer Vacation, Popstar: Never Stop Never Stopping, Storks. Since 2013, he has starred as Jake Peralta in the Fox police sitcom Brooklyn Nine-Nine, for which he was awarded a Golden Globe Award for Best Actor – Television Series Musical or Comedy in 2014 and the series was picked up by NBC in 2018 for its sixth season and beyond after Fox decided to cancel the show. Samberg was born in Berkeley, California on August 18, 1978, his mother, Marjorie Isabel "Margi", is an elementary school teacher, his father, Joe, is a photographer. He has two sisters and Darrow. Samberg was raised in a Jewish family, describes himself as "not religious."
In a 2019 episode of Finding Your Roots, hosted by Henry Louis Gates Jr. Samberg discovered that his mother Marjorie, adopted, is the biological daughter of a Sicilian father who immigrated in 1925, a German-Jewish refugee mother, who had come to the U. S. in 1938. Samberg's adoptive grandfather was industrial psychologist and philanthropist Alfred J. Marrow, through whom he is a third cousin to U. S. Senator Tammy Baldwin. Samberg attended elementary school with his future Brooklyn Nine Nine co-star Chelsea Peretti, he discovered Saturday Night Live as a child while sneaking past his parents to watch professional wrestling on television. He was obsessed with the show and his devotion to comedy was frustrating to teachers who felt he was distracted from his schoolwork. Samberg graduated from Berkeley High School in 1996, where he became interested in creative writing and has stated that writing classes "were the ones that put all effort into... that's what cared about and that's what ended up doing".
He attended college at University of California, Santa Cruz for two years before transferring to New York University's Tisch School of the Arts, where he graduated in 2000. Writer Murray Miller was his roommate. Samberg majored in experimental film, he became an online star and made his own comedy videos with his two friends Akiva Schaffer and Jorma Taccone. When YouTube was created in 2005, the streaming of their videos became much more widespread. Samberg became a featured player on Saturday Night Live in part because of the work he had done on his sketch comedy website TheLonelyIsland.com, which helped them land an agent and get hired at Saturday Night Live. Prior to joining its cast, Samberg was a member of the comedy troupe The Lonely Island, along with Taccone and Schaffer; the trio began writing for Saturday Night Live in 2005 and released their debut album, Incredibad, in 2009. Samberg appeared in numerous theatrical films, music videos and hosted special events, including the 2009 MTV Movie Awards.
In 2012, Samberg delivered the Class Day speech at Harvard University, starred with Adam Sandler in That's My Boy and Hotel Transylvania as the main character, Jonathan, a role he reprised for its sequels Hotel Transylvania 2 and Hotel Transylvania 3: Summer Vacation. In September 2012, Samberg played Cuckoo in the BAFTA nominated BBC Three series Cuckoo, in 2013 landed the role of Detective Jake Peralta in NBC's police sitcom Brooklyn Nine-Nine which first aired on September 17 of the same year and led to Samberg winning the Golden Globe Award for Best Actor – Television Series Musical or Comedy in 2014 for his role as Peralta. Samberg hosted the 67th Primetime Emmy Awards on September 20, 2015, he co-hosted the 76th Golden Globe Awards with Sandra Oh on January 6, 2019. Samberg starred in Sleater-Kinney's "No Cities to Love" video along with other celebrities such as Fred Armisen, Ellen Page, Norman Reedus. On May 16, 2016, Samberg and the Lonely Island performed their 2009 hit "I'm on a Boat" with classroom instruments on The Tonight Show Starring Jimmy Fallon.
In September 2005, Samberg joined Saturday Night Live as a featured player along with Schaffer and Taccone as the show's writing staff. Though his live sketch roles were limited in his first year, he appeared in many prerecorded sketches including commercial parodies and various other filmed segments. On December 17, 2005, he and Chris Parnell starred in the Digital Short show "Lazy Sunday", a hip hop song performed by two Manhattanites on a quest to see the film The Chronicles of Narnia: The Lion, the Witch and the Wardrobe; the short became an Internet phenomenon and garnered Samberg significant media and public attention, as did "Dick in a Box", a duet with Justin Timberlake that won a Creative Arts Emmy for Outstanding Original Music and Lyrics. The video for his comedy troupe's collaboration with T-Pain, "I'm on a Boat", had over 56 million views on YouTube, after debuting on February 7, 2009; the song was nominated for a Grammy Award. Another digital short, "Motherlover" featuring Timberlake, was released on May 10, 2009, to commemorate Mother's Day, is a sequel of "Dick in a Box".
Outside of his prerecorded segments, he participated in recurring live segments, such as his Blizzard Man sketch. On June 1, 2012, Samberg's spokesperson announced, he returned to the show as the host on the Season 39 finale in 2014 and in the 40th anniversary special's Digital Short. Samberg once described himself as a "superfa
Republican Party (United States)
The Republican Party referred to as the GOP, is one of the two major political parties in the United States. The GOP was founded in 1854 by opponents of the Kansas-Nebraska Act, which had expanded slavery into U. S. territories. The party subscribed to classical liberalism and took ideological stands that were anti-slavery and pro-economic reform. Abraham Lincoln was the first Republican president in the history of the United States; the Party was dominant over the Democrats during the Third Party System and Fourth Party System. In 1912, Theodore Roosevelt formed the Progressive Party after being rejected by the GOP and ran unsuccessfully as a third-party presidential candidate calling for social reforms. After the 1912 election, many Roosevelt supporters left the Party, the Party underwent an ideological shift to the right; the liberal Republican element in the GOP was overwhelmed by a conservative surge begun by Barry Goldwater in 1964 that continued during the Reagan Era in the 1980s. After the Civil Rights Act of 1964 and the Voting Rights Act of 1965, the party's core base shifted, with the Southern states becoming more reliably Republican in presidential politics and the Northeastern states becoming more reliably Democratic.
White voters identified with the Republican Party after the 1960s. Following the Supreme Court's 1973 decision in Roe v. Wade, the Republican Party made opposition to abortion a key plank of its national party platform and grew its support among evangelicals. By 2000, the Republican Party was aligned with Christian conservatism; the Party's core support since the 1990s comes chiefly from the South, the Great Plains, the Mountain States and rural areas in the North. The 21st century Republican Party ideology is American conservatism, which contrasts with the Democrats' liberal platform and progressive wing; the GOP supports lower taxes, free market capitalism, a strong national defense, gun rights and restrictions on labor unions. The GOP was committed to protectionism and tariffs from its founding until the 1930s when it was based in the industrial Northeast and Midwest, but has grown more supportive of free trade since 1952. In addition to advocating for conservative economic policies, the Republican Party is conservative.
Founded in the Northern states in 1854 by abolitionists, modernizers, ex-Whigs and ex-Free Soilers, the Republican Party became the principal opposition to the dominant Democratic Party and the popular Know Nothing Party. The party grew out of opposition to the Kansas–Nebraska Act, which repealed the Missouri Compromise and opened Kansas Territory and Nebraska Territory to slavery and future admission as slave states; the Northern Republicans saw the expansion of slavery as a great evil. The first public meeting of the general anti-Nebraska movement, at which the name Republican was suggested for a new anti-slavery party, was held on March 20, 1854 in a schoolhouse in Ripon, Wisconsin; the name was chosen to pay homage to Thomas Jefferson's Republican Party. The first official party convention was held on July 1854 in Jackson, Michigan. At the 1856 Republican National Convention, the party adopted a national platform emphasizing opposition to the expansion of slavery into U. S. territories. While Republican candidate John C.
Frémont lost the 1856 United States presidential election to James Buchanan, he did win 11 of the 16 northern states. The Republican Party first came to power in the elections of 1860 when it won control of both houses of Congress and its candidate, former congressman Abraham Lincoln, was elected President. In the election of 1864, it united with War Democrats to nominate Lincoln on the National Union Party ticket. Under Republican congressional leadership, the Thirteenth Amendment to the United States Constitution—which banned slavery in the United States—passed the Senate in 1864 and the House in 1865; the party's success created factionalism within the party in the 1870s. Those who felt that Reconstruction had been accomplished, was continued to promote the large-scale corruption tolerated by President Ulysses S. Grant, ran Horace Greeley for the presidency; the Stalwart faction defended Grant and the spoils system, whereas the Half-Breeds pushed for reform of the civil service. The Pendleton Civil Service Reform Act was passed in 1883.
The Republican Party supported hard money, high tariffs to promote economic growth, high wages and high profits, generous pensions for Union veterans, the annexation of Hawaii. The Republicans had strong support from pietistic Protestants, but they resisted demands for Prohibition; as the Northern postwar economy boomed with heavy and light industry, mines, fast-growing cities, prosperous agriculture, the Republicans took credit and promoted policies to sustain the fast growth. The GOP was dominant over the Democrats during the Third Party System. However, by 1890 the Republicans had agreed to the Sherman Antitrust Act and the Interstate Commerce Commission in response to complaints from owners of small businesses and farmers; the high McKinley Tariff of 1890 hurt the party and the Democrats swept to a landslide in the off-year elections defeating McKinley himself. The Democrats elected Grover Cleveland in 1884 and 1892; the election of William McKinley in 1896 was marked by a resurgence of Republican dominance that lasted until 1932.
McKinley promised that high tariffs would end the severe hardship caused by the Pa