College of Saint Benedict and Saint John's University
The College of Saint Benedict, a women's college, Saint John's University, a men's college, are private liberal arts colleges located in St. Joseph and Collegeville, United States, near St. Cloud. Under CSB's and SJU's coordinate relationship, students at the two colleges have a shared curriculum, access to the resources of both campuses. Saint John's University was founded in 1857 by the Benedictine monks of Saint John's Abbey, having emigrated from Bavaria, Germany under the patronage of King Ludwig II. In addition to its undergraduate offerings, SJU includes Saint John's School of Theology and Seminary, a graduate school that confers Master of Divinity and master of arts degrees and prepares seminarians for the priesthood. Minnesota Public Radio began on January 22, 1967, when KSJR signed on from the campus of Saint John's University; the station's director of broadcasting was SJU alumnus William H. Kling. SJU has produced its own coarse-grained bread, Johnnie Bread, since 1856, used the proceeds to fund projects such as the Abbey Church.
The College of St. Benedict is a four-year undergraduate institution; the college opened in 1913, with six students enrolled, grew out of St. Benedict's Academy, founded by Saint Benedict's Monastery in 1889; the Benedictine community incorporated CSB in 1961. Starting in 1955, CSB and SJU began offering joint evening classes; the relationship expanded soon after CSB incorporated in 1961, since the two institutions have shared a common academic program. Men and women attend classes together on both campuses. About 4,000 students are enrolled in CSB/SJU combined, they attend coed classes taught by a joint faculty of 350 professors full-time, permanent appointees. CSB and SJU have produced two Rhodes Scholars. In 2015, the College of Saint Benedict was designated one of the top bachelor's institutions for producing Fulbright Scholars. CSB/SJU has been recognized as a top producer of Peace Corps volunteers. 85% of CSB and SJU professors are full-time, the student-to-faculty ratio is 12:1, the average class size is 19.
Phi Beta Kappa is the nation's oldest academic honor society. CSB/SJU's Phi Beta Kappa chapter, Theta of Minnesota, was established in 2009. CSB/SJU has achieved national recognition for its strength in study abroad and international education opportunities; the Institute of International Education ranks CSB/SJU among the top baccalaureate institutions in the nation for the number of students who study abroad. According to Open Doors 2014, CSB/SJU ranked third among undergraduate institutions for participation in semester-long study abroad programs. There are 19 semester-long study abroad sites available on six different continents; these destinations include: Austria, China, Germany, Greece/Italy, London, Guatemala, South Africa, Northern Ireland and multiple cities in Republic of Ireland. CSB/SJU enroll 250 students from 50 countries and offer 200 undergraduate courses that have a global focus. In 2012, CSB/SJU received the Senator Paul Simon Award for Comprehensive Internationalization; the CSB/SJU music department is expansive considering the size of the school.
The department of music has many ensembles including four choirs, an orchestra, a wind ensemble, a jazz ensemble, several small chamber ensembles. Many of these ensembles tour extensively both domestically and abroad; the department presents an opera every year and performed a Stephen Paulus oratorio about the Holocaust entitled "To Be Certain of the Dawn", jointly with choirs and orchestra from Saint Cloud State University in Europe in May 2008. There are several student run groups, including the male a cappella group Johnnie Blend and the female a cappella group CSBeats. In 2017, an anonymous donor provided a $10 million gift to create the Center for Ethical Leadership in Action at the College of Saint Benedict; this gift will be used to fund student experiences, research as well as funding for student who have unpaid internships. The campuses are located on 3,500 acres of forests and lakes. Since CSB and SJU are located about three and a half miles apart, a regular inter-campus bus service known as "The Link" connects the campuses.
Marcel Breuer, renowned Brutalist architect, designed several buildings on the Saint John's campus in the 1960s, including the Saint John's Abbey Church and bell banner. The central cores of the College of Saint Benedict and Saint John's University are both listed as historic districts on the National Register of Historic Places; the Saint John's Outdoor University consists of four different branches which include the Peer Resource Program, Outdoor Leadership Center, Saint John's Abby Arboretum, Saint John's Maple Syrup. The PRP mission statement is to challenge students to learn new physical and mental skills that will push them out of their comfort zone and allow them to develop leadership skills and increased self-confidence through wilderness trips, challenge courses, on campus events; the PRP sponsors Collegebound, a pre-orientation wilderness trip for incoming freshman to northern Minnesota. The mission of the OLC is to promote experiential learning through outdoor programming, provide alternative outdoor leadership opportunities, introduce CSB/SJU community to new areas of the outdoors.
The OLC achieves this by sponsoring on campus programs and clinics and by providing students with access
Alexandria is a city in and the county seat of Douglas County, Minnesota. First settled in 1858, it was named after brothers William Kinkead from Maryland; the form of the name alludes to a center of learning and civilization. The village of Alexandria was incorporated February 20, 1877, its city charter was adopted in 1908, it was incorporated as a city in 1909. W. E. Hicks was pivotal to the town's early development, he purchased the townsite in 1868 and established a mill, hotel and store. He donated property for a courthouse and two churches: Methodist and Congregational; the population was 11,070 as of the 2010 census. Alexandria is near Interstate 94, along Minnesota State Highways 27 and 29, it is ten miles south of Lake Carlos State Park. In 2013, Alexandria was named a "Top 10 Best Small Town" by the Livability website; the city is abbreviated as "Alex". The city is known as a hot spot for tourism, due to its many resorts. Tourism events include a Grape Stomp hosted by the Carlos Creek Winery every September, an Apple Fest in October, the Douglas County Fair every August, Art in the Park every July.
The city has a museum housing the controversial Kensington Runestone, which some believe indicates that Vikings visited the area in the 14th century. Outside the museum stands Big Ole, a 25-foot-tall statue of a Viking built for the 1964 World's Fair in New York City. Extensive repairs to Big Ole were completed in 2016; the city hosts the annual Vikingland Band Festival parade marching championship. According to the Alexandria Area Economic Development Commission, the area's top employers are: Most children in Alexandria attend school at Alexandria Area Schools, which consists of six kindergarten–5th grade elementary schools, one 6th–8th grade junior high school, one new 9th–12th grade senior high school, which replaced Jefferson High School, built in the late 1950s. There are several independent K–8 Christian schools in the area. Alexandria Technical & Community College offers post-secondary education, including certificate programs, 2-year associate degrees and transferable credits towards 4-year degrees.
Minnesota State Highway 27 connects Alexandria to Nelson and western Minnesota. Minnesota State Highway 29 connects Alexandria to Parkers Prairie. Interstate 94 passes through the south end of Alexandria, which allows access to Minneapolis-St. Paul and Fargo-Moorhead. Public transportation in town is provided by Rainbow Rider; the Alexandria Municipal Airport known as Chandler Field, is a city-owned public-use airport two nautical miles southwest of Alexandria's central business district. According to the United States Census Bureau, the city has a total area of 16.70 square miles, of which 15.96 square miles is land and 0.74 square miles is water. A large portion of the people who live in Alexandria are not calculated into the population because they are spread out of the city and living on and around the many lakes. Climate is "four seasons" continental, with warm summers. Autumn and Spring are pleasant. Average annual precipitation is about 25 inches. Lake Carlos Lake Le Homme Dieu Lake Mary Lake Agnes Lake Andrew Lake Brophy Lake Cowdry Lake Darling Lake Geneva Lake Henry Lake Ida Lake Latoka Lake Louise Mill Lake Lake Mina Smith Lake Lobster Lake Lake Burgen Stony Lake Taylor Lake Lake Jessie North Union Lake Lake Charley Union Lake Lake Alvin Laura Lake Lake Winona Lake Victoria Lake Miltona Lake Irene Maple Lake Lake Reno Grant Lake Blackwell Lake Echo Lake Lake Oscar Rachel Lake Cork Lake Mud Lake Vermont Lake Pocket Lake As of the census of 2010, there were 11,070 people, 5,298 households, 2,552 families residing in the city.
The population density was 693.6 inhabitants per square mile. There were 5,821 housing units at an average density of 364.7 per square mile. The racial makeup of the city was 96.3% White, 0.8% African American, 0.4% Native American, 0.7% Asian, 0.3% from other races, 1.4% from two or more races. Hispanic or Latino of any race were 1.5% of the population. There were 5,298 households of which 21.8% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 35.2% were married couples living together, 9.5% had a female householder with no husband present, 3.4% had a male householder with no wife present, 51.8% were non-families. 41.8% of all households were made up of individuals and 18.5% had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.02 and the average family size was 2.74. The median age in the city was 38.8 years. 19.1% of residents were under the age of 18. The gender makeup of the city was 48.3% male and 51.7% female. As of the census of 2000, there were 8,820 people, however the most recent count suggests a population upwards of 13,001, displayed on Alexandria's city limits signs.
The census lists 4,047 households, 2,011 families residing in the city. The population density was 992.5 people per square mile. There were 4,311 housing units at an average density of 485.1 per square mile. The racial makeup of the city was 97.94% White, 0.42% African American, 0.34% Native American, 0.57% Asian, 0.06% Pacific Islander, 0.18% from other races, 0.50% from two or more races. Hispanic or Latino of any race were 0.80% of the population. There were 4,047 households out of which 23.7% had children under the a
St. Cloud, Minnesota
St. Cloud is a city in the U. S. state of Minnesota and the largest population center in the state's central region. Its population is 67,984 according to the 2017 US census estimates, making it Minnesota's tenth largest city. St. Cloud is the county seat of Stearns County and was named after the city of Saint-Cloud, named after the 6th-century French monk Clodoald. Though in Stearns County, St. Cloud extends into Benton and Sherburne counties, straddles the Mississippi River, it is the center of a small, contiguous urban area totaling over 120,000 residents, with Waite Park, Sauk Rapids, Sartell, St. Joseph, St. Augusta directly bordering the city, Foley, Kimball, Clear Lake, Cold Spring nearby. With 189,093 residents at the 2010 census, the St. Cloud metropolitan area is the fourth-largest in Minnesota, behind Minneapolis–St. Paul, Duluth–Superior, Rochester. St. Cloud is 65 miles northwest of the Twin Cities of Minneapolis–St. Paul along Interstate 94, U. S. Highway 10, Minnesota State Highway 23.
The St. Cloud Metropolitan Statistical Area is made up of Stearns and Benton Counties; the city was included in a newly defined Minneapolis–St. Paul–St. Cloud Combined Statistical Area in 2000. St. Cloud as a whole has never been part of the 13-county MSA comprising Minneapolis, St. Paul and parts of western Wisconsin, although its Sherburne County portion is considered part of the Twin Cities metropolitan area by Census Bureau definition. St. Cloud State University, Minnesota's third-largest public university, is located between the downtown area and the Beaver Islands, which form a maze for a two-mile stretch of the Mississippi; the 30 undeveloped islands are a popular destination for kayak and canoe enthusiasts and are part of a state-designated 12-mile stretch of wild and scenic river. St. Cloud owns and operates a hydroelectric dam on the Mississippi that can produce up to nine megawatts of electricity. What is now the St. Cloud area was occupied by various indigenous peoples for thousands of years.
Europeans encountered the Ottawa and Winnebago when they started to trade with Native American peoples. Minnesota was organized as a territory in 1849; the St. Cloud area was opened up to settlers in 1851 after treaty negotiations with the Winnebago tribe in 1851 and 1852. John Wilson, a Maine native with French Huguenot ancestry and an interest in Napoleon, named the settlement St. Cloud after Saint-Cloud, the Paris suburb where Napoleon had his favorite palace. St. Cloud was a waystation on the Middle and Woods branches of the Red River Trails used by Métis traders between the Canada–US border at Pembina, North Dakota and St. Paul; the cart trains consisted of hundreds of oxcarts. The Métis, bringing furs to trade for supplies to take back to their rural settlements, would camp west of the city and cross the Mississippi in St. Cloud or just to the north in Sauk Rapids The City of St. Cloud was incorporated in 1856, it developed from three distinct settlements, known as Upper Town, Middle Town, Lower Town, that were established by European-American settlers starting in 1853.
Remnants of the deep ravines that separated the three are still visible today. Middle Town was settled by Catholic German immigrants and migrants from eastern states, who were recruited to the region by Father Francis Xavier Pierz, a Catholic priest who ministered as a missionary to Native Americans. Lower Town was founded by settlers from the Northern Tier of New England and the mid-Atlantic states, including former residents of upstate New York. Upper Town, or Arcadia, was plotted by General Sylvanus Lowry, a slaveholder and trader from Kentucky who brought slaves with him, although Minnesota was organized as a free territory, he served on the territorial Council from 1852 to 1853 and was elected St. Cloud's first mayor in 1856, serving for one year. Jane Grey Swisshelm, an abolitionist newspaper editor who had migrated from Pittsburgh attacked Lowry in print. At one point Lowry organized a "Committee of Vigilance" that broke into Swisshelm's newspaper office and removed her press, throwing it into the Mississippi River.
Lowry started The Union. The US Supreme Court's 1857 decision in the Dred Scott case ruled that slaves could not file freedom suits, as well as declaring the Missouri Compromise unconstitutional, so the territory's prohibition against slavery became unenforceable. Nearly all Southerners left the St. Cloud area when the Civil War broke out, taking their slaves with them. Lowry died in the city in 1865. Beginning in 1864, Stephen Miller served a two-year term as Minnesota governor, the only citizen of St. Cloud to hold the office. Miller was a "Pennsylvania German businessman", writer, active abolitionist, personal friend of Alexander Ramsey, he was on the state's Republican electoral ticket with Abraham Lincoln in 1860. Steamboats docked at St. Cloud as part of the fur trade and other commerce, although river levels were not reliable; this ended with the construction of the Coon Rapids Dam in 1912–14. Granite quarries have operated in the area since the 1880s, giving St. Cloud its nickname, "The Granite City."
In 1917, Samuel Pandolfo started the Pan Motor Company in St. Cloud. Pandolfo claimed, he was convicted and imprisoned for attempting to defraud investors. According to the United States Census Bureau, the city has a total area of 41.08 square miles. The ci
Harvard University is a private Ivy League research university in Cambridge, with about 6,700 undergraduate students and about 15,250 postgraduate students. Established in 1636 and named for its first benefactor, clergyman John Harvard, Harvard is the United States' oldest institution of higher learning, its history and wealth have made it one of the world's most prestigious universities; the Harvard Corporation is its first chartered corporation. Although never formally affiliated with any denomination, the early College trained Congregational and Unitarian clergy, its curriculum and student body were secularized during the 18th century, by the 19th century, Harvard had emerged as the central cultural establishment among Boston elites. Following the American Civil War, President Charles W. Eliot's long tenure transformed the college and affiliated professional schools into a modern research university. A. Lawrence Lowell, who followed Eliot, further reformed the undergraduate curriculum and undertook aggressive expansion of Harvard's land holdings and physical plant.
James Bryant Conant led the university through the Great Depression and World War II and began to reform the curriculum and liberalize admissions after the war. The undergraduate college became coeducational after its 1977 merger with Radcliffe College; the university is organized into eleven separate academic units—ten faculties and the Radcliffe Institute for Advanced Study—with campuses throughout the Boston metropolitan area: its 209-acre main campus is centered on Harvard Yard in Cambridge 3 miles northwest of Boston. Harvard's endowment is worth $39.2 billion, making it the largest of any academic institution. Harvard is a large residential research university; the nominal cost of attendance is high, but the university's large endowment allows it to offer generous financial aid packages. The Harvard Library is the world's largest academic and private library system, comprising 79 individual libraries holding over 18 million items; the University is cited as one of the world's top tertiary institutions by various organizations.
Harvard's alumni include eight U. S. presidents, more than thirty foreign heads of state, 62 living billionaires, 359 Rhodes Scholars, 242 Marshall Scholars. As of October 2018, 158 Nobel laureates, 18 Fields Medalists, 14 Turing Award winners have been affiliated as students, faculty, or researchers. In addition, Harvard students and alumni have won 10 Academy Awards, 48 Pulitzer Prizes and 108 Olympic medals, have founded a large number of companies worldwide. Harvard was established in 1636 by vote of the Great and General Court of the Massachusetts Bay Colony. In 1638, it acquired British North America's first known printing press. In 1639, it was named Harvard College after deceased clergyman John Harvard, an alumnus of the University of Cambridge, who had left the school £779 and his scholar's library of some 400 volumes; the charter creating the Harvard Corporation was granted in 1650. A 1643 publication gave the school's purpose as "to advance learning and perpetuate it to posterity, dreading to leave an illiterate ministry to the churches when our present ministers shall lie in the dust".
It offered a classic curriculum on the English university model—many leaders in the colony had attended the University of Cambridge—but conformed to the tenets of Puritanism. It was never affiliated with any particular denomination, but many of its earliest graduates went on to become clergymen in Congregational and Unitarian churches; the leading Boston divine Increase Mather served as president from 1685 to 1701. In 1708, John Leverett became the first president, not a clergyman, marking a turning of the college from Puritanism and toward intellectual independence. Throughout the 18th century, Enlightenment ideas of the power of reason and free will became widespread among Congregational ministers, putting those ministers and their congregations in tension with more traditionalist, Calvinist parties; when the Hollis Professor of Divinity David Tappan died in 1803 and the president of Harvard Joseph Willard died a year in 1804, a struggle broke out over their replacements. Henry Ware was elected to the chair in 1805, the liberal Samuel Webber was appointed to the presidency of Harvard two years which signaled the changing of the tide from the dominance of traditional ideas at Harvard to the dominance of liberal, Arminian ideas.
In 1846, the natural history lectures of Louis Agassiz were acclaimed both in New York and on the campus at Harvard College. Agassiz's approach was distinctly idealist and posited Americans' "participation in the Divine Nature" and the possibility of understanding "intellectual existences". Agassiz's perspective on science combined observation with intuition and the assumption that a person can grasp the "divine plan" in all phenomena; when it came to explaining life-forms, Agassiz resorted to matters of shape based on a presumed archetype for his evidence. This dual view of knowledge was in concert with the teachings of Common Sense Realism derived from Scottish philosophers Thomas Reid and Dugald Stewart, whose works were part of the Harvard curriculum at the time; the popularity of Agassiz's efforts to "soar with Plato" also derived from other writings to which Harvard students
Georgetown University is a private research university in the Georgetown neighborhood of Washington, D. C. Founded in 1789 as Georgetown College, the university has grown to comprise nine undergraduate and graduate schools, among which are the School of Foreign Service, School of Business, Medical School, Law School. Located on a hill above the Potomac River, the school's main campus is identifiable by its flagship Healy Hall, a National Historic Landmark. Georgetown offers degree programs in forty-eight disciplines, enrolling an average of 7,500 undergraduate and 10,000 post-graduate students from more than 130 countries. Georgetown is the oldest Catholic and Jesuit-affiliated institution of higher education in the United States; the Jesuits have participated in the university's academic life, both as scholars and as administrators, since 1805. The majority of Georgetown students are not Catholic. Georgetown's notable alumni include U. S. President Bill Clinton, U. S. Supreme Court Justice Antonin Scalia, CIA Director George Tenet, King Felipe of Spain, as well as the royalty and heads of state of more than a dozen countries.
In 2015, Georgetown had 1190 alumni working as diplomats for the U. S. Foreign Service, more than any other university. In 2014, Georgetown ranked second in the nation by the average number of graduates serving in the U. S. Congress. Georgetown is a top feeder school for careers in consulting and investment banking on Wall Street. Georgetown is home to the country's largest student-run business, largest student-run financial institution, the oldest continuously running student theatre troupe, one of the oldest debating societies in the United States; the school's athletic teams are nicknamed the Hoyas and include a men's basketball team that has won a record-tying seven Big East championships, appeared in five Final Fours, won a national championship in 1984. The university has a co-ed sailing team that holds thirteen national championships and one world championship title. Jesuit settlers from England founded the Province of Maryland in 1634. However, the 1646 defeat of the Royalists in the English Civil War led to stringent laws against Roman Catholic education and the extradition of known Jesuits from the colony, including missionary Andrew White, the destruction of their school at Calverton Manor.
During most of the remainder of Maryland's colonial period, Jesuits conducted Catholic schools clandestinely. It was not until after the end of the American Revolution that plans to establish a permanent Catholic institution for education in the United States were realized; because of Benjamin Franklin's recommendation, Pope Pius VI appointed former Jesuit John Carroll as the first head of the Roman Catholic Church in the United States though the papal suppression of the Jesuit order was still in effect. Carroll began meetings of local clergy in 1783 near Annapolis, where they orchestrated the development of a new university. On January 23, 1789, Carroll finalized the purchase of the property in Georgetown on which Dahlgren Quadrangle was built. Future Congressman William Gaston was enrolled as the school's first student on November 22, 1791, instruction began on January 2, 1792. During its early years, Georgetown College suffered from considerable financial strain; the Maryland Society of Jesus began its restoration in 1805, Jesuit affiliation, in the form of teachers and administrators, bolstered confidence in the college.
The school relied on private sources of funding and the limited profits from local lands, donated to the Jesuits. To raise money for Georgetown and other schools in 1838, Maryland Jesuits conducted a mass sale of some 272 slaves to two Deep South plantations in Maringouin, Louisiana from their six in Maryland, ending their slaveholding. President James Madison signed into law Georgetown's congressional charter on March 1, 1815, creating the first federal university charter, which allowed it to confer degrees, with the first bachelor's degrees being awarded two years later. In 1844, the school received a corporate charter, under the name "The President and Directors of Georgetown College", affording the growing school additional legal rights. In response to the demand for a local option for Roman Catholic students, the Medical School was founded in 1851; the U. S. Civil War affected Georgetown as 1,141 students and alumni enlisted in one army or the other, the Union Army commandeered university buildings.
By the time of President Abraham Lincoln's May 1861 visit to campus, 1,400 troops were living in temporary quarters there. Due to the number of lives lost in the war, enrollment levels remained low until well after the war. Only seven students graduated in 1869, down from over 300 in the previous decade; when the Georgetown College Boat Club, the school's rowing team, was founded in 1876 it adopted two colors: blue, used for Union uniforms, gray, used for Confederate uniforms. These colors signified the peaceful unity among students. Subsequently, the school adopted these as its official colors. Enrollment did not recover until during the presidency of Patrick Francis Healy from 1873 to 1881. Born in Georgia as a slave by law and mixed-race by ancestry, Healy was the first head of a predominantly white American university of acknowledged African descent, he identified as Irish Catholic, like his father, was educated in Catholic schools in the United States and France. He is credited with reforming the undergraduate curriculum, lengthening the medical and law programs, creating the Alumni Association.
One of his largest undertakings was the construction of a major new building, subsequently named Healy Hall in his honor. For his work, Healy is known as the school's "second fo
Americans are nationals and citizens of the United States of America. Although nationals and citizens make up the majority of Americans, some dual citizens and permanent residents may claim American nationality; the United States is home to people of many different ethnic origins. As a result, American culture and law does not equate nationality with race or ethnicity, but with citizenship and permanent allegiance. English-speakers, speakers of many other languages use the term "American" to mean people of the United States; the word "American" can refer to people from the Americas in general. The majority of Americans or their ancestors immigrated to America or are descended from people who were brought as slaves within the past five centuries, with the exception of the Native American population and people from Hawaii, Puerto Rico and the Philippine Islands, who became American through expansion of the country in the 19th century, additionally America expanded into American Samoa, the U. S. Virgin Islands and Northern Mariana Islands in the 20th century.
Despite its multi-ethnic composition, the culture of the United States held in common by most Americans can be referred to as mainstream American culture, a Western culture derived from the traditions of Northern and Western European colonists and immigrants. It includes influences of African-American culture. Westward expansion integrated the Creoles and Cajuns of Louisiana and the Hispanos of the Southwest and brought close contact with the culture of Mexico. Large-scale immigration in the late 19th and early 20th centuries from Southern and Eastern Europe introduced a variety of elements. Immigration from Asia and Latin America has had impact. A cultural melting pot, or pluralistic salad bowl, describes the way in which generations of Americans have celebrated and exchanged distinctive cultural characteristics. In addition to the United States and people of American descent can be found internationally; as many as seven million Americans are estimated to be living abroad, make up the American diaspora.
The United States of America is a diverse country and ethnically. Six races are recognized by the U. S. Census Bureau for statistical purposes: White, American Indian and Alaska Native, Black or African American, Native Hawaiian and Other Pacific Islander, people of two or more races. "Some other race" is an option in the census and other surveys. The United States Census Bureau classifies Americans as "Hispanic or Latino" and "Not Hispanic or Latino", which identifies Hispanic and Latino Americans as a racially diverse ethnicity that comprises the largest minority group in the nation. People of European descent, or White Americans, constitute the majority of the 308 million people living in the United States, with 72.4% of the population in the 2010 United States Census. They are considered people who trace their ancestry to the original peoples of Europe, the Middle East, North Africa. Of those reporting to be White American, 7,487,133 reported to be Multiracial. Additionally, there are Latinos.
Non-Hispanic Whites are the majority in 46 states. There are four minority-majority states: California, New Mexico, Hawaii. In addition, the District of Columbia has a non-white majority; the state with the highest percentage of non-Hispanic White Americans is Maine. The largest continental ancestral group of Americans are that of Europeans who have origins in any of the original peoples of Europe; this includes people via African, North American, Central American or South American and Oceanian nations that have a large European descended population. The Spanish were some of the first Europeans to establish a continuous presence in what is now the United States in 1565. Martín de Argüelles born 1566, San Agustín, La Florida a part of New Spain, was the first person of European descent born in what is now the United States. Twenty-one years Virginia Dare born 1587 Roanoke Island in present-day North Carolina, was the first child born in the original Thirteen Colonies to English parents. In the 2017 American Community Survey, German Americans, Irish Americans, English Americans and Italian Americans were the four largest self-reported European ancestry groups in the United States forming 35.1% of the total population.
However, the English Americans and British Americans demography is considered a serious under-count as they tend to self-report and identify as "Americans" due to the length of time they have inhabited America. This is over-represented in the Upland South, a region, settled by the British. Overall, as the largest group, European Americans have the lowest poverty rate and the second highest educational attainment levels, median household income, median personal income of any racial demographic in the nation. According to the American Jewish Archives and the Arab American National Museum, some of the first Middle Easterners and North Africans arrived in the Americas between the late 15th and mid-16th centuries. Many were fleeing ethnic or ethnoreligious persecution during the Spanish Inquisition, a few were taken to the Americas as slaves. In 2014, The United States Census Bureau began finalizing the ethnic classification of MENA populations. According to the Arab American Institute, Arab
Minneapolis is the county seat of Hennepin County and the larger of the Twin Cities, the 16th-largest metropolitan area in the United States. As of 2017, Minneapolis is the largest city in the state of Minnesota and 45th-largest in the United States, with an estimated population of 422,331; the Twin Cities metropolitan area consists of Minneapolis, its neighbor Saint Paul, suburbs which altogether contain about 3.6 million people, is the third-largest economic center in the Midwest. Minneapolis lies on both banks of the Mississippi River, just north of the river's confluence with the Minnesota River, adjoins Saint Paul, the state's capital; the city is abundantly rich in water, with 13 lakes, the Mississippi River and waterfalls. It was once a hub for timber; the city and surrounding region is the primary business center between Seattle. In 2011, Minneapolis proper was home to the fifth-highest number of Fortune 500 headquarters in the United States; as an integral link to the global economy, Minneapolis is categorized as a global city.
Minneapolis has one of the largest LGBT populations in the U. S. proportional to its overall population. Noted for its strong music and performing arts scenes, Minneapolis is home to both the award-winning Guthrie Theater and the historic First Avenue nightclub. Reflecting the region's status as an epicenter of folk and alternative rock music, the city served as the launching pad for several of the 20th century's most influential musicians, including Bob Dylan and Prince. Minneapolis has become noted for its underground and independent hip-hop and rap scenes, producing artists such as Brother Ali and Dessa; the name Minneapolis is attributed to Charles Hoag, the city's first schoolmaster, who combined mni, a Dakota Sioux word for water, polis, the Greek word for city. Descendants of first peoples, Dakota Sioux were the region's sole residents when French explorers arrived in 1680. For a time, amicable relations were based on fur trading. More European-American settlers arrived, competing for game and other resources with the Native Americans.
After the Revolutionary War, Great Britain granted the land east of the Mississippi to the United States. In the early 19th century, the United States acquired land to the west from France in the Louisiana Purchase. Fort Snelling, just south of present-day Minneapolis, was built in 1819 by the United States Army, it attracted traders and merchants, spurring growth in the area. The United States government pressed the Mdewakanton band of the Dakota to sell their land, allowing people arriving from the East to settle there. Preoccupied with the Civil War, the United States government reneged on its promises of cash payments to the Dakota, resulting in hunger, the Dakota War of 1862, internment and hardship; the Minnesota Territorial Legislature authorized Minneapolis as a town in 1856, on the Mississippi's west bank. Minneapolis incorporated as a city in 1867, the year rail service began between Minneapolis and Chicago, it joined with the east-bank city of St. Anthony in 1872. Minneapolis developed around Saint Anthony Falls, the highest waterfall on the Mississippi River and a source of power for its early industry.
Forests in northern Minnesota were a valuable resource for the lumber industry, which operated seventeen sawmills on power from the waterfall. By 1871, the west river bank had twenty-three businesses, including flour mills, woolen mills, iron works, a railroad machine shop, mills for cotton, paper and planing wood. Due to the occupational hazards of milling, six local sources of artificial limbs were competing in the prosthetics business by the 1890s; the farmers of the Great Plains grew grain, shipped by rail to the city's 34 flour mills. Millers have used hydropower elsewhere since the 1st century B. C. but the results in Minneapolis between 1880 and 1930 were so remarkable the city has been described as "the greatest direct-drive waterpower center the world has seen." A father of modern milling in America and founder of what became General Mills, Cadwallader C. Washburn converted his business from gristmills to revolutionary technology, including "gradual reduction" processing by steel and porcelain roller mills capable of producing premium-quality pure white flour quickly.
Some ideas were developed by William Dixon Gray and some acquired through industrial espionage from Hungary by William de la Barre. Charles A. Pillsbury and the C. A. Pillsbury Company across the river were a step behind, hiring Washburn employees to use the new methods; the hard red spring wheat that grows in Minnesota became valuable, Minnesota "patent" flour was recognized at the time as the best in the world. Not until did consumers discover the value in the bran that "... Minneapolis flour millers dumped" into the Mississippi. After 1883, a Minneapolis miller started a new industry when he began to sell bran byproduct as animal feed. Millers cultivated relationships with academic scientists at the University of Minnesota; those scientists backed them politically on many issues, such as in the early 20th century when health advocates in the nascent field of nutrition criticized the flour "bleaching" process. At peak production, a single mill at Washburn-Crosby made enough flour for 12 million loaves of bread each day.
Further, by 1895, through the efforts of silent partner William Hood Dunwoody, Washburn-Crosby exported four