1959 Italian Grand Prix
The 1959 Italian Grand Prix was a Formula One motor race held at Monza on 13 September 1959. It was race 8 of 9 in the 1959 World Championship of Drivers and race 7 of 8 in the 1959 International Cup for Formula One Manufacturers, it was the 24th to be held at Monza. The race was held over 72 laps of the five kilometre circuit for a total race distance of 414 kilometres; the race was won by British driver Stirling Moss driving a Cooper T51 for the privateer Rob Walker Racing Team. Moss won by 46 seconds over American driver Phil Hill driving a Ferrari Dino 246 for Scuderia Ferrari. Championship points leader Australian Jack Brabham finished third in works entered Cooper T51, expanding his points lead, but not sufficiently to prevent a championship showdown with Moss and Ferrari driver Tony Brooks at the United States Grand Prix; this race was won on the weight of the cars, with Stirling Moss and team manager Rob Walker gambling on running the whole race without a tyre change in the little lightweight Cooper - although they substituted knock-on wheels for bolt-ons in case a pit stop was necessary.
Stirling drove a careful race. Tony Brooks made a good start but a piston failure eliminated him on the first lap. Graham Hill and Dan Gurney led, but lost their advantages through clumsy pit-stop action. Moss continued to win at an average speed of a track record. Phil Hill was second for Ferrari on their home track, ahead of a Ferrari 4-5-6 in the order Gurney, Cliff Allison and Olivier Gendebien. Moss' win closed the championship gap to only 5½ points behind Jack Brabham with Brooks eight points behind Brabham; the combined efforts of Brabham, Maurice Trintignant, Bruce McLaren and Masten Gregory secured the constructors championship for the Cooper Car Company. Notes^1 – Includes 1 point for fastest lap Notes: Only the top five positions are included for both sets of standings. Only the best 5 results counted towards each Championship. Numbers without parentheses are Championship points.
1960 Dutch Grand Prix
The 1960 Dutch Grand Prix was a Formula One motor race held at Zandvoort on 6 June 1960. It was race 4 of 10 in the 1960 World Championship of Drivers and race 3 of 9 in the 1960 International Cup for Formula One Manufacturers. Due to a crash by Dan Gurney, a spectator, in a prohibited area, was killed during this event. Notes: Only the top five positions are included for both sets of standings
1960 Belgian Grand Prix
The 1960 Belgian Grand Prix was a Formula One motor race held at Spa-Francorchamps on 19 June 1960. It was race 5 of 10 in the 1960 World Championship of Drivers and race 4 of 9 in the 1960 International Cup for Formula One Manufacturers. Stirling Moss and Mike Taylor were injured in crashes during practice, Chris Bristow and Alan Stacey were killed in accidents during the race. With the 1994 San Marino Grand Prix, it is one of two occasions in which two driver fatalities have occurred at a Formula One race meeting. Practice for the event saw Stirling Moss and Mike Taylor injured in separate accidents, Taylor suffering injuries which would end his racing career, Moss injured enough to keep him out of racing for a number of months. In the race itself, the Lotus drivers Innes Ireland & Jim Clark got off to good starts before Ireland spun out with clutch trouble by lap 14, Chris Bristow, driving a year-old Cooper for the British Racing Partnership, got off line and lost control at Malmedy, crashed into a four foot high embankment and was thrown from his car whilst battling for 6th with the Ferrari of Mairesse, landed on some barbed wire which beheaded him, killing him on lap 20.
Five laps Alan Stacey was hit in the face by a bird at Masta as his car crashed somersaulted off the track and landed in a field as it went up in flames and Stacey was burned to death whilst Stacey was still in the car on lap 25. It was the only Formula One race meeting in which two drivers were killed until the deaths of Roland Ratzenberger and Ayrton Senna at the 1994 San Marino Grand Prix; the race distance had been lengthened to 36 laps from 24 laps. The results highlight an unusual quirk in the rules regarding classification of non-finishers. Under modern rules, Graham Hill would have been classified third, since he completed lap 35 before the lapped Olivier Gendebien. Hill retired, in the pits, but was not classified since he did not push his car over the line after the winner took the finish. In fact the rule about crossing the finishing line was inconsistently applied – at the 1959 German Grand Prix, Harry Schell was classified seventh despite only completing 49 of the race's 60 laps.
Notes: Only the top five positions are included for both sets of standings
1959 British Grand Prix
The 1959 British Grand Prix was a Formula One motor race held at the Aintree Circuit on 18 July 1959. It was race 5 of 9 in the 1959 World Championship of Drivers and race 4 of 8 in the 1959 International Cup for Formula One Manufacturers, it was the 14th British Grand Prix and the third to be held at the Aintree Motor Racing Circuit, a circuit mapped out in the grounds of the Aintree Racecourse horse racing venue. The race was held over 75 laps of the four kilometre circuit for a race distance of 362 kilometres; the race was won by Australian Jack Brabham taking his second Grand Prix victory in a works Cooper T51. Brabham dominated the race, leading all 75 laps to win by 22 seconds over British driver Stirling Moss driving a British Racing Partnership entered BRM P25, it was the first time. Brabham's Cooper Car Company team mate, New Zealader Bruce McLaren finished in third place, just 0.2 seconds behind Moss, having lost second place late in the race. Harry Schell finished fourth for the Owen Racing Organisation BRM team a lap behind Brabham.
The British Grand Prix had the biggest entry of the season outside the Indianapolis 500 with 30 cars competing and 24 starting the race, all despite the absence of Ferrari. Strikes in Italy trapped the team at home. Ferrari's new lead driver Tony Brooks was given a release and started the race in a Vanwall but was the first to retire with misfire after 13 laps having started in a lowly 17th after winning the French Grand Prix a few weeks earlier; the win saw Brabham expand his points lead over Brooks to 13 points. Moss and McLaren moved into fourth place just half a point behind the absent Phil Hill. On the last lap of this race, McLaren became the youngest driver to set a fastest lap in Formula One, aged 21 years and 322 days, it was another 44 years before Fernando Alonso relieved him of that achievement with fastest lap in the 2003 Canadian GP. He was a day younger aged 321 days. Notes^1 – Includes 0.5 points for shared fastest lap Notes: Only the top five positions are included for both sets of standings.
"Brabham presses home his claim on the title". Grand Prix Racing. Archived from the original on 14 August 2007. Retrieved 7 September 2007. "GRAND PRIX RESULTS: BRITISH GP, 1959". GrandPrix.com. Archived from the original on 29 September 2007. Retrieved 2007-09-07. "1959 British GP". ChicaneF1.com. Archived from the original on 29 September 2007. Retrieved 2007-09-07
Indiana is a U. S. state located in the Midwestern and Great Lakes regions of North America. Indiana is the 17th most populous of the 50 United States, its capital and largest city is Indianapolis. Indiana was admitted to the United States as the 19th U. S. state on December 11, 1816. Indiana borders Lake Michigan to the northwest, Michigan to the north, Ohio to the east, Kentucky to the south and southeast, Illinois to the west. Before becoming a territory, various indigenous peoples and Native Americans inhabited Indiana for thousands of years. Since its founding as a territory, settlement patterns in Indiana have reflected regional cultural segmentation present in the Eastern United States. Indiana has a diverse economy with a gross state product of $359.12 billion in 2017. Indiana has several metropolitan areas with populations greater than 100,000 and a number of smaller industrial cities and towns. Indiana is home to professional sports teams, including the NFL's Indianapolis Colts and the NBA's Indiana Pacers, hosts several notable athletic events, such as the Indianapolis 500 and Brickyard 400 motorsports races.
The state's name means "Land of the Indians", or "Indian Land". It stems from Indiana's territorial history. On May 7, 1800, the United States Congress passed legislation to divide the Northwest Territory into two areas and named the western section the Indiana Territory. In 1816, when Congress passed an Enabling Act to begin the process of establishing statehood for Indiana, a part of this territorial land became the geographic area for the new state. A resident of Indiana is known as a Hoosier; the etymology of this word is disputed, but the leading theory, as advanced by the Indiana Historical Bureau and the Indiana Historical Society, has "Hoosier" originating from Virginia, the Carolinas, Tennessee as a term for a backwoodsman, a rough countryman, or a country bumpkin. The first inhabitants in what is now Indiana were the Paleo-Indians, who arrived about 8000 BC after the melting of the glaciers at the end of the Ice Age. Divided into small groups, the Paleo-Indians were nomads, they created stone tools made out of chert by chipping and flaking.
The Archaic period, which began between 5000 and 4000 BC, covered the next phase of indigenous culture. The people developed new tools as well as techniques to cook food, an important step in civilization; such new tools included different types of spear knives, with various forms of notches. They made ground-stone tools such as woodworking tools and grinding stones. During the latter part of the period, they built earthwork mounds and middens, which showed that settlements were becoming more permanent; the Archaic period ended at about 1500 BC, although some Archaic people lived until 700 BC. The Woodland period commenced around 1500 BC. During this period, the people created ceramics and pottery, extended their cultivation of plants. An early Woodland period group named the Adena people had elegant burial rituals, featuring log tombs beneath earth mounds. In the middle portion of the Woodland period, the Hopewell people began developing long-range trade of goods. Nearing the end of the stage, the people developed productive cultivation and adaptation of agriculture, growing such crops as corn and squash.
The Woodland period ended around 1000 AD. The Mississippian culture emerged, lasting from 1000 AD until the 15th century, shortly before the arrival of Europeans. During this stage, the people created large urban settlements designed according to their cosmology, with large mounds and plazas defining ceremonial and public spaces; the concentrated settlements depended on the agricultural surpluses. One such complex was the Angel Mounds, they had large public areas such as plazas and platform mounds, where leaders lived or conducted rituals. Mississippian civilization collapsed in Indiana during the mid-15th century for reasons that remain unclear; the historic Native American tribes in the area at the time of European encounter spoke different languages of the Algonquian family. They included the Shawnee and Illini, they were joined by refugee tribes from eastern regions including the Delaware who settled in the White and Whitewater River Valleys. In 1679, French explorer René-Robert Cavelier, Sieur de La Salle was the first European to cross into Indiana after reaching present-day South Bend at the Saint Joseph River.
He returned the following year to learn about the region. French-Canadian fur traders soon arrived, bringing blankets, tools and weapons to trade for skins with the Native Americans. By 1702, Sieur Juchereau established the first trading post near Vincennes. In 1715, Sieur de Vincennes built Fort Miami at Kekionga, now Fort Wayne. In 1717, another Canadian, Picote de Beletre, built Fort Ouiatenon on the Wabash River, to try to control Native American trade routes from Lake Erie to the Mississippi River. In 1732, Sieur de Vincennes built a second fur trading post at Vincennes. French Canadian settlers, who had left the earlier post because of hostilities, returned in larger numbers. In a period of a few years, British colonists arrived from the East and contended against the Canadians for control of the lucrative fur trade. Fighting between the French and British colonists occurred throughout the 1750s as a result; the Native American tribes of Indiana sided with th
The city of Gainesville is the county seat of Hall County, United States. As of the 2010 census, the city had a population of 33,804. By 2015 the population had risen to an estimated 38,712; because of its large number of poultry processing plants, it is called the "Poultry Capital of the World." Gainesville is the principal city of, is included in, the Gainesville, Georgia Metropolitan Statistical Area, included in the Atlanta-Sandy Springs-Gainesville, Georgia Combined Statistical Area. Gainesville was established as "Mule Camp Springs" by European-American settlers in the early 1800s. Less than three years after the organization of Hall County on December 15, 1818, Mule Camp Springs was renamed "Gainesville" on April 21, 1821, it was named in honor of General Edmund P. Gaines, a hero of the War of 1812 and a noted military surveyor and road-builder. Gainesville was selected to be the county seat and chartered by the Georgia General Assembly on November 30, 1821. A gold rush that began in nearby Lumpkin County in the 1830s resulted in an increase in the number of settlers and the beginning of a business community.
In the middle of the 19th century, Gainesville had two important events. In 1849, it became established with people attracted to the springs. In 1851, much of the small city was destroyed by fire. After the Civil War, Gainesville began to grow from 1870. In 1871 the Airline Railroad named the Georgia Southern Railroad, began to stop in Gainesville, increasing its ties to other markets and stimulating business and population, it grew from 1,000 in 1870, to over 5,000 by 1900. By 1898, textile mills had become the primary driver of the economy, with the railroad integral to delivering raw cotton and carrying away the mills' products. With the revenues generated by the mills, in 1902, Gainesville became the first city south of Baltimore to install street lamps. On March 1, 1905, free mail delivery began in Gainesville, on August 10, 1910, the Gainesville post office was opened. On December 22, 1915, the city's first high-rise, the Jackson Building, had its formal opening. In 1919 Southern Bell made improvements to the phone system.
City services began in Gainesville on February 22, 1873, with the election of a City Marshal, followed by solid waste collection in 1874. In 1890, a bond issue to fund the waterworks was passed, the original water distribution system was developed. In 1943, at the height of World War II, Gainesville contributed to the war effort by leasing the airport to the US government for $1.00. The military used it as a naval air station for training purposes. In 1947, the airport was returned to the city of Gainesville, improved by the addition of two 4,000-foot landing strips. After World War II, a businessman named. Chickens have since become the state's largest agricultural crop; this $1 billion a year industry has given Gainesville the title "Poultry Capital of the World". In 1956, the U. S. Army Corps of Engineers constructed Lake Sidney Lanier, by building Buford Dam on the Chattahoochee River. During the 1996 Summer Olympics, Gainesville served as the venue for the rowing and kayaking medal competitions, which were staged on Lake Lanier.
Gainesville gained accreditation of its Parks and Recreation Department in 2001. This was the third department in the state to be accredited; the Lakeside water treatment plant opened in 2002. The city has sponsored new social activities, including the Spring Chicken Festival in 2003, the Art in the Square gathering in 2004, "Dredgefest" in 2008. 2008 saw the reopening of the Fair Street Neighborhood Center, the reopening of the Linwood Water Reclamation Facility Grand, the completion of the Longwood Park Fishing Pier. Gainesville is located in central Hall County at 34°18′16″N 83°50′2″W, it is bordered to the southwest by the city of Oakwood. Interstate 985/U. S. Route 23 passes through the southern part of the city, leading southwest 54 miles to Atlanta and northeast 23 miles to Baldwin and Cornelia. U. S. Route 129 runs through the east side of the city, leading north 24 miles to Cleveland and southeast 21 miles to Jefferson. According to the United States Census Bureau, the city has a total area of 33.9 square miles, of which 31.9 square miles are land and 1.9 square miles, or 5.75%, are water.
Nestled in the foothills of the Blue Ridge Mountains, parts of Gainesville lie along the shore of one of the nation's most popular inland water destinations, Lake Lanier. Named after Confederate veteran, Georgia author and musician Sidney Lanier, the lake was created in 1956 when the U. S. Army Corps of Engineers dammed the Chattahoochee River near Buford and flooded the river's valley. Although created for hydroelectricity and flood control, it serves as a reservoir providing water to the city of Atlanta and is a popular recreational attraction for all of north Georgia. Much of Gainesville is wooded, with both deciduous and coniferous trees; the Gainesville Amtrak station is situated at 116 Industrial Boulevard. Amtrak's Crescent train connects Gainesville with the cities of New York, Baltimore, Greensboro, Atlanta and New Orleans. Gainesville has a bus transit system, the Gainesville Connection, with 130 stops along three routes through Gainesville; the Hall Area Transit Transportation System began operations in January 2001 with three buses and four mini-buses.
Lee Gilmer Memorial Airport, built in 1940, is a city-owned airport with two runways, supports air taxi operations, itinerant operations, local operations, military operations
Formula One is the highest class of single-seater auto racing sanctioned by the Fédération Internationale de l'Automobile and owned by the Formula One Group. The FIA Formula One World Championship has been one of the premier forms of racing around the world since its inaugural season in 1950; the word "formula" in the name refers to the set of rules to which all participants' cars must conform. A Formula One season consists of a series of races, known as Grands Prix, which take place worldwide on purpose-built circuits and on public roads; the results of each race are evaluated using a points system to determine two annual World Championships: one for drivers, the other for constructors. Drivers must hold valid Super Licences, the highest class of racing licence issued by the FIA; the races must run on tracks graded "1", the highest grade-rating issued by the FIA. Most events occur in rural locations on purpose-built tracks, but several events take place on city streets. Formula One cars are the fastest regulated road-course racing cars in the world, owing to high cornering speeds achieved through the generation of large amounts of aerodynamic downforce.
The cars underwent major changes in 2017, allowing wider front and rear wings, wider tyres, resulting in cornering forces closing in on 6.5g and top speeds of up to 375 km/h. As of 2019 the hybrid engines are limited in performance to a maximum of 15,000 rpm and the cars are dependent on electronics—although traction control and other driving aids have been banned since 2008—and on aerodynamics and tyres. While Europe is the sport's traditional base, the championship operates globally, with 11 of the 21 races in the 2018 season taking place outside Europe. With the annual cost of running a mid-tier team—designing and maintaining cars, transport—being US$120 million, Formula One has a significant economic and job-creation effect, its financial and political battles are reported, its high profile and popularity have created a major merchandising environment, which has resulted in large investments from sponsors and budgets. On 8 September 2016 Bloomberg reported that Liberty Media had agreed to buy Delta Topco, the company that controls Formula One, from private-equity firm CVC Capital Partners for $4.4 billion in cash and convertible debt.
On 23 January 2017 Liberty Media confirmed the completion of the acquisition for $8 billion. The Formula One series originated with the European Grand Prix Motor Racing of the 1930s; the formula is a set of rules. Formula One was a new formula agreed upon after World War II during 1946, with the first non-championship races being held that year. A number of Grand Prix racing organisations had laid out rules for a world championship before the war, but due to the suspension of racing during the conflict, the World Drivers' Championship was not formalised until 1947; the first world championship race was held at Silverstone, United Kingdom in 1950. A championship for constructors followed in 1958. National championships existed in the UK in the 1960s and 1970s. Non-championship Formula One events were held for many years, but due to the increasing cost of competition, the last of these occurred in 1983. On 26 November 2017, Formula One unveiled its new logo, following the 2017 season finale in Abu Dhabi during the Abu Dhabi Grand Prix at Yas Marina Circuit.
The new logo replaced F1's iconic'flying one', the sport's trademark since 1993. After a hiatus in European motor racing brought about by the outbreak of World War II in 1939, the first World Championship for Drivers was won by Italian Giuseppe Farina in his Alfa Romeo in 1950, narrowly defeating his Argentine teammate Juan Manuel Fangio. However, Fangio won the title in 1951, 1954, 1955, 1956, 1957, his streak interrupted by two-time champion Alberto Ascari of Ferrari. Although the UK's Stirling Moss was able to compete he was never able to win the world championship, is now considered to be the greatest driver never to have won the title. Fangio, however, is remembered for dominating Formula One's first decade and has long been considered the "Grand Master" of Formula One; this period featured teams managed by road car manufacturers Alfa Romeo, Mercedes-Benz, Maserati. The first seasons were run using pre-war cars like Alfa's 158, they were front-engined, with narrow tyres and 1.5-litre supercharged or 4.5-litre aspirated engines.
The 1952 and 1953 World Championships were run to Formula Two regulations, for smaller, less powerful cars, due to concerns over the paucity of Formula One cars available. When a new Formula One, for engines limited to 2.5 litres, was reinstated to the world championship for 1954, Mercedes-Benz introduced the advanced W196, which featured innovations such as desmodromic valves and fuel injection as well as enclosed streamlined bodywork. Mercedes drivers won the championship for two years, before the team withdrew from all motorsport in the wake of the 1955 Le Mans disaster. An era of British dominance was ushered in by Mike Hawthorn and Vanwall's championship wins in 1958, although Stirling Moss had been at the forefront of the sport without securing the world title. Between Hawthorn, Jim Clark, Jackie Stewart, John Surtees and Graham Hill, British drivers won nine Drivers' Championships and British teams won fourteen Constructors' Championsh