Sunnyside is a city in Yakima County, United States. As of the 2010 census the population was 15,858. On September 16, 1902, residents voted 42 to one to incorporate as the town of Sunnyside. By state law a town needed to have 300 citizens in order to incorporate. With 314 residents, Sunnyside was just eligible to vote for incorporation; the first mayor of Sunnyside was the town druggist James Henderson. The settlement was founded by Walter Granger in 1893; the name "Sunnyside" was coined by a merchant named W. H. Cline. Granger was involved in the financing and construction of the Sunnyside Canal which would allow Yakima River water to irrigate the area. However, due to the Panic of 1893, Granger's creditors foreclosed on the canal, the town's population dwindled to seven families. However, by the end of 1901, the population had doubled exceeding 300 people; the townsite contained "1 bank, 11 stores, 3 hotels, 1 newspaper, 2 blacksmith shops, 2 livery barns, 3 churches, a large and growing school."Sunnyside's population increase at this time was stimulated by the immigration of the Dunkards from South Dakota who were moving to the town.
The population of Dunkards was of such notable size that by 1902 it was noted that they had "built a commodious place of worship at Sunnyside", the largest church in Yakima County at the time. The Dunkards, members of the German Baptist Progressive Brethren, relocated to Sunnyside in order to form what they called the Christian Cooperative Colony; the Brethren bought the entire town site and were the developers of its first bank, a telephone system. They enforced clauses prohibiting alcohol and gambling as a condition on every parcel of land sold; because of this, old maps of Washington identify the town with a halo symbol. In the 1930s, refugees from the Dust Bowl moved to Sunnyside. Under the leadership of mayor William Bright "Billy" Cloud, Sunnyside initiated a project to pave its dirt streets on June 5, 1917; this project was necessary since years of irrigation had raised the water table to the point that the streets had become unbearably muddy. The cost of the entire project was $62,629.45.
In 1948, Sunnyside became the first city in the State of Washington to adopt the Council-manager plan of government. This plan provides for an elected city council, responsible for policy making, a professional city manager, appointed by the council, responsible for administration; the city manager provides policy advice, directs the daily operations of city government, handles personnel functions and is responsible for preparing the city budget. Under the council-manager statutes, the city council is prohibited from interfering with the manager's administration; the city manager. Sunnyside was awarded the distinction of being an All-America City in 1979. First held in 1989, the'Lighted Farm Implement Parade has been called "the NW's premier lighted parade." Taking place in early December, the parade includes "farm implements: combines, boom trucks, swathers, grape pickers, all types of tractors" decorated with colorful lights. The 2006 edition of the event had more than 70 parade entrants; the A&E network once named the event one of the "Top 10" such parades in the United States.
The parade was the first of its kind in the Yakima Valley. The Darigold Dairy Fair manufactures cheese, but was noted for its colorful facade and circus-like decorations, which included a pair of cows swinging on a flying trapeze; the Dairy Fair Store was shut down in 2012. Located downtown, the museum houses and displays artifacts and documents with a focus on daily life in Sunnyside during its early years; the building housing the museum was donated to the city by Robert and Martha McIntosh, who had purchased the business from the family of Walter C. Ball & Sons, the local undertaking business. Both were among the pioneering families that founded Sunnyside; the Sunnyside Memorial Cemetery, founded by the Ball Family, is located north of town. The lone structure at that location was designed by Percy Ball to resemble Chingford Church in Walthamstow, England where Walter C. Ball and his wife Amelia grew up together; this building was used to house the retort for cremations. The family plots of the Ball family are located on the east side of the structure.
Many of the original school buildings in Sunnyside, the town of Outlook just northwest of town, have either burned to the ground or been demolished to make way for bigger and better structures. One of the original structures still in use is the Lincoln School Building which sits at the intersection of Lincoln and Sixth Street. Erected in 1927, it is a two-storey structure with an adjacent gymnasium attached to the east wing of the building. In 1928, female teachers were not allowed to marry. Doing so would void their contract to teach; the land that Lincoln School sits on was donated to the school district by H. Lloyd Miller in 1926, he and his wife donated the land next to it between the school and 9th Ave. to be used for play fields for the students. Lincoln still remains as one of the oldest buildings in the school district, it has been renovated to accommodate the administrative offices for the district. Sunnyside High School was named a School of Distinction in 2015 and 2016. According to ESD105, "The Schools of Distinction Award goes to the top 5 percent of Washington schools that have attained the most outstanding levels of sustained improvement in English language arts and graduation rates among their student
Bultaco was a Spanish manufacturer of two-stroke motorcycles from 1958 to 1983. In May 2014, a new Bultaco was announced, the company will be selling electric-powered street motorcycles from 2015; the R&D department will be based in Madrid. The origin of the Bultaco motorcycle company dates back to May 1958. Francesc "Paco" Bultó was a director of the Montesa motorcycle company founded in 1944. After several years of steady growth and road racing success, in 1957 Montesa moved to larger facilities; the move was protracted, disrupting production and was followed by a downturn in the Spanish economy. This slump brought to a head disagreements between Bultó and the other senior director Pere Permanyer; as an economy measure, Permanyer felt. Bultó, the driving force behind the racing program and responsible for much of the company’s technical expertise was vehemently opposed. Failing to reach a compromise, Bultó decided to leave Montesa to concentrate on his other business interests. Unsurprisingly, the majority of Montesa's racing department left shortly afterwards as well.
The suggestion to form a new company is said to have come a few days when Sr. Bultó was invited to a meeting by several of the former staff of Montesa's racing department. Keen to return to racing, they persuaded him. Setting up shop in primitive conditions at an old farm owned by Bultó, things developed quickly. On March 24, 1959, Bultaco held a press day and launched its first bike, the road-going 125cc Bultaco Tralla 101, named after a Spanish word for whip. Just two months Bultaco entered its first Spanish Grand Prix taking seven of the first ten places. "Bultaco" comes from combining the first four letters of Sr. Bultó's surname with the last three of his nickname "Paco"; the name was a suggestion of one of Bultaco's premier racers, close friend of Sr. Bultó, John Grace from Gibraltar. CEMOTO is an acronym for "Compañia Española de Motores"; the other part of the company logo, the "Thumbs up" symbol, came after Sr. Bultó witnessed British motorcycle racer David Whitworth giving the signal to his pit crew to signify that all was well.
Sete Gibernau used to have this on the back of his crash helmet when he raced MotoGP. In 1998, rights to the Bultaco name were purchased by Marc Tessier, who used it to help launch a range of purpose-built trials motorcycles from his company Sherco Moto S. A. R. L; the bikes were named Bultaco Shercos. In 2000, the bikes became'Sherco by Bultaco', in 2001 the Bultaco name was dropped altogether; the US trademark is now owned by HDW Enterprises, parent company of a parts and repair specialist for vintage Bultacos. As of 2017, Bultaco produces electric motorbikes in Barcelona, Spain the site of the original 1958 factory. Although they made road and road racing motorcycles, the company had its greatest success with models for off-road competition; the most famous Bultaco model is the Sherpa T, a trials bike, which revolutionised the sport in the 1960s. At that time trials was exclusively a British sport using big heavy four-stroke machines. Irish trials ace Sammy Miller teamed with Bultó to produce a lightweight two-stroke machine which, rendered the heavy four-strokes obsolete.
Miller won the gruelling Scottish Six Days Trial in 1965, repeated the feat with wins in 1967 and 1968. He claimed the European Trials Championship in 1968 and 1970; this coincided with and stimulated the growth in the popularity of trials in Europe and the USA, which provided a lucrative market for Bultaco in the years to come. Bultaco dominated the World Trials Championship in the 1970s, winning the title eight times, winning the Scottish Six Days Trial four times. Legend has it that the Sherpa T is a reference to Tenzing Norgay, Sir Edmund Hillary's indefatigueable climbing companion during his famous first ascent of Mount Everest. Bultaco's premier model in the USA, the Pursang, was an excellent handling and powerful 250 cc competition model, competitive in any type of speed-based off-road competition; the Pursang range was expanded to 125 cc, 360cc and 370 cc. The Bultaco Astro was a popular short-track racer in the United States, was used by many AMA Grand National Number 1 holders in the US in pursuit of their championships, including Gene Romero, Kenny Roberts, Jay Springsteen, hundreds of other top-class competitors.
The Astro had a superb power-band suited for short-tracks, some half-miles as well. Bultaco motorcycles were powered by single-cylinder, air cooled, two-stroke engines, but they made water cooled powerplants; the rider was required to mix the gasoline manually. Built in Barcelona, Bultaco motorcycles were exported throughout the world, but their largest market became the USA, allowing aspiring racers to purchase legitimately competitive motorcycles without modification; the Bultaco engine & transmission were universally interchangeable between models and engine capacities. As Bultaco produced the cylinders, rings & cylinder heads for all engine capacities, no aftermarket parts were required, as with other brands. Due to industrial unrest and market pressures, Bultaco production closed in 1979; the factory reopened in 1980, but closed again in 1983. A new series of electric Bultacos was announced mid-2014, it began sales in 2015. MotoGP star, Sete Gibernau is the
Yakima is a city in and the county seat of Yakima County and the state's eleventh-largest city by population. As of the 2010 census, the city had a total population of 91,067 and a metropolitan population of 243,231; the unincorporated suburban areas of West Valley and Terrace Heights are considered a part of greater Yakima. Yakima is about 60 miles southeast of Mount Rainier in Washington, it is situated in the Yakima Valley, a productive agricultural region noted for apple and hop production. As of 2011, the Yakima Valley produces 77% of all hops grown in the United States; the name Yakima originates from the Yakama Nation Native American tribe, whose reservation is located south of the city. The Yakama people were the first known inhabitants of the Yakima Valley. In 1805, the Lewis and Clark Expedition came to the area and discovered abundant wildlife and rich soil, prompting the settlement of homesteaders. A Catholic Mission was established in Ahtanum, southwest of present-day Yakima, in 1847.
The arrival of settlers and their conflicts with the natives resulted in the Yakima War. The U. S. Army established Fort Simcoe in 1856 near present-day White Swan as a response to the uprising; the Yakamas were forced to relocate to the Yakama Indian Reservation. Yakima County was created in 1865; when bypassed by the Northern Pacific Railroad in December 1884, over 100 buildings were moved with rollers and horse teams to the nearby site of the depot. The new city was dubbed North Yakima and was incorporated and named the county seat on January 27, 1886; the name was changed to Yakima in 1918. Union Gap was the new name given to the original site of Yakima. On May 18, 1980, the eruption of Mount St. Helens caused a large amount of volcanic ash to fall on the Yakima area. Visibility was reduced to near-zero conditions that afternoon, the ash overloaded the city's wastewater treatment plant. According to the United States Census Bureau, the city has a total area of 27.69 square miles, of which, 27.18 square miles is land and 0.51 square miles is water.
Yakima is 1095 feet above mean sea level. The city of Yakima is located in the Upper Valley of Yakima County; the county is geographically divided by Ahtanum Ridge and Rattlesnake Ridge into two regions: the Upper and Lower valleys. Yakima is located in the more urbanized Upper Valley, is the central city of the Yakima Metropolitan Statistical Area; the unincorporated suburban areas of West Valley and Terrace Heights are considered a part of greater Yakima. Other nearby cities include Moxee, Cowiche, Wiley City, Tampico and Naches in the Upper Valley, as well as Wapato, Zillah, White Swan, Buena, Granger, Mabton and Grandview in the Lower Valley; the primary irrigation source for the Yakima Valley, the Yakima River, runs through Yakima from its source at Lake Keechelus in the Cascade Range to the Columbia River at Richland. In Yakima, the river is used for both recreation. A 10-mile walking and cycling trail, a park, a wildlife sanctuary are located at the river's edge; the Naches River forms the northern border of the city.
Several small lakes flank the northern edge of the city, including Myron Lake, Lake Aspen, Bergland Lake and Rotary Lake. These lakes are popular with swimmers during the summer. Yakima has a semi-arid climate with a Mediterranean precipitation pattern. Winters are cold, with December the coolest month, with a mean temperature of 28.5 °F. Annual average snowfall is 21.7 inches or 0.55 metres, with most occurring in December and January, when the snow depth averages 2 to 3 inches or 0.051 to 0.076 metres. There are 22 afternoons per year in which the high does not surpass freezing, 2.3 mornings where the low is 0 °F or lower. Springtime warming is gradual, with the average last freeze of the season May 13. Summer days are hot, but the diurnal temperature variation is large, exceeding 35 °F, sometimes reaching as high as 50 °F during that season. Autumn cooling is rapid, with the average first freeze of the season occurring on September 30. Due to the city's location in a rain shadow, precipitation, at an average of 8.22 inches or 209 millimetres annually, is low year-round, but during summer.
Extreme temperatures have ranged from −25 °F on February 1, 1950, to 110 °F on August 10, 1971. As of the census of 2010, there were 91,067 people with 33,074 households, 21,411 families residing in the city; the population density was 3,350.5 people per square mile. There were 34,829 housing units at an average density of 1,281.4 per square mile. The racial makeup of the city was 67.1% Caucasian, 1.7% African American, 2.0% Native American, 1.5% Asian, 0.1% Pacific Islander, 23.3% from other races, 4.4% from two or more races. 41.3% were Hispanic or Latino, of any race. 19.1 % of the population had higher. There were 33,074 households of which 33.2% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 44.7% were married couples living together, 15.7% had a female householder with no husband present, 6.3% had a male householder with no wife present, 35.3% were non-families. 28.7% of all households were made up of individuals and 11.9% had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.68 and the average family size was 3.3.
28.3% of the population was under the age of 18 and 13.1% were 65 years or older. The median age was 33.9 years. 50.7% of the population was female. The median household income w
Beta (motorcycle manufacturer)
Beta is an Italian motorcycle manufacturer, specialising in off-road motorcycles. Beta are best known for their popular trials bikes. In 2005, they launched a range of enduro motorcycles using KTM engines. In 2010 they launched the new RR series, with a new engine made in-house. Beta motorcycles have been used by world trials champions such as Jordi Tarrés, Dougie Lampkin and Albert Cabestany. Beta has its origins in 1904 as a bicycle manufacturing company named "Società Giuseppe Bianchi" based in Florence; the company started making motorcycles in 1948. The name Beta comes from the initials of Enzo Bianchi and Arrigo Tosi, who ran the company at that time. Focusing on two-stroke bikes through the 1950s and 1960s, the company started focusing development and production to off-road motorcycles in the 1970s. Beta have produced motorcycles for observed trials since the early 1980s and are now one of the leading manufacturers. Unlike the Trail and Enduro models, the trials bike have used Beta's own engines.
TR240 First trials model, twinshock suspension 125cc, 200cc engines, the majority with reed valve induction. TR32, Air-cooled, monoshock model, produced in parallel with the twinshock model, same engine as TR240 TR33, TR34, Very successful trials model, stripey paintwork, 125cc - 260cc engines TR35, Air-cooled engine series Zero, Water-cooled monoshock Synt, Water-cooled monoshock SuperTrial, Air-cooled engine Gara, Techno, 125cc version from 1995 Rev-3, 2-stroke trials Rev-4, 4-stroke trials Evo 2-stroke and 4-stroke Beta made a range of motocross and enduro bikes during the 1970s and 1980s; the Beta Enduro bikes have used KTM engines since their return in 2004, though 2009 sees the launch of bikes with Beta's own power units. The Alp trail motorcycle models have used air-cooled Suzuki DR-model engines and have a good reputation at commuters and'green-lane' trail bikes. With a low seat height and a reputation as an easy to ride motorcycle, they are ideal to beginners of off-road riding. Alp, 125cc, 200cc and 350cc models.
Air-cooled bikes with Suzuki engines. Beta RR Motard Track Motorcycle List of scooters Scooter List of scooter manufacturers List of Italian companies List of motorcycle manufacturers Beta Official site. Beta Racing UK Uk based Beta Trials site. Www.betausa.com US site. Www. BetaBikes.de German Site: Information, Gallery and more, all about Betamotorcycles] www.betarider.org Beta Riders Club www.betarider.org/forum Beta Discussion Forum
American Motorcyclist Association
The American Motorcyclist Association is an American nonprofit organization of more than 200,000 motorcyclists that organizes numerous motorcycling activities and campaigns for motorcyclists' legal rights. Its mission statement is "to promote the motorcycling lifestyle and protect the future of motorcycling." The organization was founded in 1924 and as of October 2016 had more than 1,100 chartered clubs. For clubs and promoters it provides guidance and advice on running events and rallies, allows affiliated members to vote on AMA matters, it has a corporate membership category with representatives from the US motorcycle industry. The AMA was a whites-only organization from its inception in 1924 until the 1950s, not allowing African Americans to join for its first 30 years. Prior to the acceptance of black members, the term outlaw motorcycle club could refer to either a white counterculture biker club, "uninterested in'square' events and competitions", or else a club that accepted non-white members and was therefore not allowed to participate in the AMA.
In the 1920s and 1930s, black hillclimbing racer William B. Johnson evaded the whites-only restriction and obtained an AMA membership card, which allowed him to compete around the Northeastern United States and become the first black AMA member. In 1995, AMA President Ed Youngblood said that as a consequence of this racist policy, blacks continued to be underrepresented in AMA events for decades after the segregationist policy was rescinded; that year, Youngblood presented black AMA member Norman Gaines in their membership advertisement in the campaign "I want to protect my rights as a motorcyclist. That's why I'm an AMA member" in both Motorcyclist magazine; the term one-percenter was coined after the 1947 Hollister riot in California. The AMA is said to have responded that 99% of motorcyclists were law-abiding citizens, the last one percent were outlaws; the AMA now says they have no record of such a statement to the press, call this story apocryphal. One-percenter motorcycle clubs are also known as outlaw motorcycle gangs or OMGs according to the U.
S. Bureau of Alcohol, Tobacco and Explosives. AMA Grand National Championship AMA Motocross Championship AMA Supercross Championship Grand National Cross Country AMA Road Racing Series AMA Superbike Championship AMA Supersport Championship AMA Formula Xtreme AMA Pro Daytona Sportbike Championship AMA Supermoto Championship AMA EnduroCross Championship AMA Land Speed Grand Championship The AMA is the largest motorsports organization in the world, overseeing 80 professional and more than 4,000 amateur events each year; the AMA maintains the Motorcycle Hall of Fame located near Columbus, Ohio. It is the designated governing body of motorcycle sport in the US by the world governing body, the Fédération Internationale de Motocyclisme. AMA Pro Racing was formed in 1994 to respond to the growth of motorcycle racing in United States and holds many events; the AMA Road Racing Series includes the AMA American Superbike Championship, the AMA Daytona Sportbike Championship, the new AMA Supersport Championship, limited to riders of age 16-21 on near stock 600cc motorcycles.
Off-road racing series include AMA Grand National Championship, AMA Supercross, AMA Motocross Championship, AMA Hillclimb, AMA Supermoto Championship and AMA EnduroCross Championship. On March 7, 2008, the AMA Pro Racing series was sold to the Daytona Motorsports Group, headed by Roger Edmondson and Jim France; the DMG became responsible for the AMA Superbike Series, AMA Motocross Series, AMA Flat Track Series, AMA Supermoto Series, AMA Hillclimb Series and ATV Pro Racing. The sale did not include the AMA Supercross and AMA Arenacross Series, whose rights are owned by Feld Entertainment. DMG would license the AMA name and trademarks to promote the motorcycle racing series; the new management sparked criticism among some of the press and fans for alienating the factory teams and for introducing NASCAR style rules such as rolling start and pace car. DMG was replaced by MotoAmerica as AMA Superbikes promoter in 2015. American Motorcyclist magazine is published by the AMA, it has a monthly circulation of 260,000 copies.
Outline of motorcycles and motorcycling AMA official website
Americans are nationals and citizens of the United States of America. Although nationals and citizens make up the majority of Americans, some dual citizens and permanent residents may claim American nationality; the United States is home to people of many different ethnic origins. As a result, American culture and law does not equate nationality with race or ethnicity, but with citizenship and permanent allegiance. English-speakers, speakers of many other languages use the term "American" to mean people of the United States; the word "American" can refer to people from the Americas in general. The majority of Americans or their ancestors immigrated to America or are descended from people who were brought as slaves within the past five centuries, with the exception of the Native American population and people from Hawaii, Puerto Rico and the Philippine Islands, who became American through expansion of the country in the 19th century, additionally America expanded into American Samoa, the U. S. Virgin Islands and Northern Mariana Islands in the 20th century.
Despite its multi-ethnic composition, the culture of the United States held in common by most Americans can be referred to as mainstream American culture, a Western culture derived from the traditions of Northern and Western European colonists and immigrants. It includes influences of African-American culture. Westward expansion integrated the Creoles and Cajuns of Louisiana and the Hispanos of the Southwest and brought close contact with the culture of Mexico. Large-scale immigration in the late 19th and early 20th centuries from Southern and Eastern Europe introduced a variety of elements. Immigration from Asia and Latin America has had impact. A cultural melting pot, or pluralistic salad bowl, describes the way in which generations of Americans have celebrated and exchanged distinctive cultural characteristics. In addition to the United States and people of American descent can be found internationally; as many as seven million Americans are estimated to be living abroad, make up the American diaspora.
The United States of America is a diverse country and ethnically. Six races are recognized by the U. S. Census Bureau for statistical purposes: White, American Indian and Alaska Native, Black or African American, Native Hawaiian and Other Pacific Islander, people of two or more races. "Some other race" is an option in the census and other surveys. The United States Census Bureau classifies Americans as "Hispanic or Latino" and "Not Hispanic or Latino", which identifies Hispanic and Latino Americans as a racially diverse ethnicity that comprises the largest minority group in the nation. People of European descent, or White Americans, constitute the majority of the 308 million people living in the United States, with 72.4% of the population in the 2010 United States Census. They are considered people who trace their ancestry to the original peoples of Europe, the Middle East, North Africa. Of those reporting to be White American, 7,487,133 reported to be Multiracial. Additionally, there are Latinos.
Non-Hispanic Whites are the majority in 46 states. There are four minority-majority states: California, New Mexico, Hawaii. In addition, the District of Columbia has a non-white majority; the state with the highest percentage of non-Hispanic White Americans is Maine. The largest continental ancestral group of Americans are that of Europeans who have origins in any of the original peoples of Europe; this includes people via African, North American, Central American or South American and Oceanian nations that have a large European descended population. The Spanish were some of the first Europeans to establish a continuous presence in what is now the United States in 1565. Martín de Argüelles born 1566, San Agustín, La Florida a part of New Spain, was the first person of European descent born in what is now the United States. Twenty-one years Virginia Dare born 1587 Roanoke Island in present-day North Carolina, was the first child born in the original Thirteen Colonies to English parents. In the 2017 American Community Survey, German Americans, Irish Americans, English Americans and Italian Americans were the four largest self-reported European ancestry groups in the United States forming 35.1% of the total population.
However, the English Americans and British Americans demography is considered a serious under-count as they tend to self-report and identify as "Americans" due to the length of time they have inhabited America. This is over-represented in the Upland South, a region, settled by the British. Overall, as the largest group, European Americans have the lowest poverty rate and the second highest educational attainment levels, median household income, median personal income of any racial demographic in the nation. According to the American Jewish Archives and the Arab American National Museum, some of the first Middle Easterners and North Africans arrived in the Americas between the late 15th and mid-16th centuries. Many were fleeing ethnic or ethnoreligious persecution during the Spanish Inquisition, a few were taken to the Americas as slaves. In 2014, The United States Census Bureau began finalizing the ethnic classification of MENA populations. According to the Arab American Institute, Arab
The United States of America known as the United States or America, is a country composed of 50 states, a federal district, five major self-governing territories, various possessions. At 3.8 million square miles, the United States is the world's third or fourth largest country by total area and is smaller than the entire continent of Europe's 3.9 million square miles. With a population of over 327 million people, the U. S. is the third most populous country. The capital is Washington, D. C. and the largest city by population is New York City. Forty-eight states and the capital's federal district are contiguous in North America between Canada and Mexico; the State of Alaska is in the northwest corner of North America, bordered by Canada to the east and across the Bering Strait from Russia to the west. The State of Hawaii is an archipelago in the mid-Pacific Ocean; the U. S. territories are scattered about the Pacific Ocean and the Caribbean Sea, stretching across nine official time zones. The diverse geography and wildlife of the United States make it one of the world's 17 megadiverse countries.
Paleo-Indians migrated from Siberia to the North American mainland at least 12,000 years ago. European colonization began in the 16th century; the United States emerged from the thirteen British colonies established along the East Coast. Numerous disputes between Great Britain and the colonies following the French and Indian War led to the American Revolution, which began in 1775, the subsequent Declaration of Independence in 1776; the war ended in 1783 with the United States becoming the first country to gain independence from a European power. The current constitution was adopted in 1788, with the first ten amendments, collectively named the Bill of Rights, being ratified in 1791 to guarantee many fundamental civil liberties; the United States embarked on a vigorous expansion across North America throughout the 19th century, acquiring new territories, displacing Native American tribes, admitting new states until it spanned the continent by 1848. During the second half of the 19th century, the Civil War led to the abolition of slavery.
By the end of the century, the United States had extended into the Pacific Ocean, its economy, driven in large part by the Industrial Revolution, began to soar. The Spanish–American War and World War I confirmed the country's status as a global military power; the United States emerged from World War II as a global superpower, the first country to develop nuclear weapons, the only country to use them in warfare, a permanent member of the United Nations Security Council. Sweeping civil rights legislation, notably the Civil Rights Act of 1964, the Voting Rights Act of 1965 and the Fair Housing Act of 1968, outlawed discrimination based on race or color. During the Cold War, the United States and the Soviet Union competed in the Space Race, culminating with the 1969 U. S. Moon landing; the end of the Cold War and the collapse of the Soviet Union in 1991 left the United States as the world's sole superpower. The United States is the world's oldest surviving federation, it is a representative democracy.
The United States is a founding member of the United Nations, World Bank, International Monetary Fund, Organization of American States, other international organizations. The United States is a developed country, with the world's largest economy by nominal GDP and second-largest economy by PPP, accounting for a quarter of global GDP; the U. S. economy is post-industrial, characterized by the dominance of services and knowledge-based activities, although the manufacturing sector remains the second-largest in the world. The United States is the world's largest importer and the second largest exporter of goods, by value. Although its population is only 4.3% of the world total, the U. S. holds 31% of the total wealth in the world, the largest share of global wealth concentrated in a single country. Despite wide income and wealth disparities, the United States continues to rank high in measures of socioeconomic performance, including average wage, human development, per capita GDP, worker productivity.
The United States is the foremost military power in the world, making up a third of global military spending, is a leading political and scientific force internationally. In 1507, the German cartographer Martin Waldseemüller produced a world map on which he named the lands of the Western Hemisphere America in honor of the Italian explorer and cartographer Amerigo Vespucci; the first documentary evidence of the phrase "United States of America" is from a letter dated January 2, 1776, written by Stephen Moylan, Esq. to George Washington's aide-de-camp and Muster-Master General of the Continental Army, Lt. Col. Joseph Reed. Moylan expressed his wish to go "with full and ample powers from the United States of America to Spain" to seek assistance in the revolutionary war effort; the first known publication of the phrase "United States of America" was in an anonymous essay in The Virginia Gazette newspaper in Williamsburg, Virginia, on April 6, 1776. The second draft of the Articles of Confederation, prepared by John Dickinson and completed by June 17, 1776, at the latest, declared "The name of this Confederation shall be the'United States of America'".
The final version of the Articles sent to the states for ratification in late 1777 contains the sentence "The Stile of this Confederacy shall be'The United States of America'". In June 1776, Thomas Jefferson wrote the phrase "UNITED STATES OF AMERICA" in all capitalized letters in the headline of his "original Rough draught" of the Declaration of Independence; this draft of the document did not surface unti