James Harris Simons is an American mathematician, billionaire hedge fund manager, philanthropist. He is known as a quantitative investor and in 1982 founded Renaissance Technologies, a private hedge fund based in Setauket-East Setauket, New York. Due to the success of Renaissance in general and its Medallion Fund in particular, Simons has been described as the greatest investor on Wall Street; as reported by Forbes, his net worth as of October 2019 is estimated to be $21.6 billion, making Simons the 21st-richest man in the United States. Simons is known for his studies on pattern recognition, he developed the Chern–Simons form, contributed to the development of string theory by providing a theoretical framework to combine geometry and topology with quantum field theory. From 1968 to 1978, Simons was a mathematics professor and chairman of the mathematics department at Stony Brook University. In 1994, Simons founded the Simons Foundation with his wife to support researches in mathematics and fundamental sciences.
He is one of the biggest donors to the University of California, Berkeley's Mathematical Sciences Research Institute where he serves as a member of Board of Trustees, established the Simons Institute for the Theory of Computing at Berkeley in 2012. In 2016, asteroid 6618 Jimsimons, discovered by Clyde Tombaugh in 1936, was named after Simons by the International Astronomical Union in honor of his contributions to mathematics and philanthropy. James Harris Simons was born on April 25, 1938 to an American Jewish family, the only child of Marcia and Matthew Simons, raised in Brookline, Massachusetts, his father owned a shoe factory, his mother was a distant relation of Georg Cantor. When James Simons was a teenager, he worked a job in the basement stockroom of a garden supply store, his inefficiency at the job resulted in his demotion to a floor sweeper. He received a bachelor's degree in mathematics from the Massachusetts Institute of Technology in 1958 and a PhD in mathematics, from the University of California, under supervision of Bertram Kostant in 1961, at the age of 23.
Simons' mathematical work has focused on the geometry and topology of manifolds. His 1962 Berkeley PhD thesis, written under the direction of Bertram Kostant, gave a new proof of Berger's classification of the holonomy groups of Riemannian manifolds, he subsequently began to work with Shing-Shen Chern on the theory of characteristic classes discovering the Chern–Simons secondary characteristic classes of 3-manifolds, which are related to the Yang-Mills functional on 4-manifolds, have had an effect on modern physics. These and other contributions to geometry and topology led to Simons becoming the 1976 recipient of the AMS Oswald Veblen Prize in Geometry. In 2014, he was elected to the National Academy of Sciences of the USA. In 1964, Simons worked with the National Security Agency to break codes. Between 1964 and 1968, he was on the research staff of the Communications Research Division of the Institute for Defense Analyses and taught mathematics at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology and Harvard University joining the faculty at Stony Brook University.
From 1968 to 1978, he was appointed chairman of the math department at Stony Brook University. Simons was asked by IBM in 1973 to attack the block cipher Lucifer, an early but direct precursor to the Data Encryption Standard. Simons founded Math for America, a nonprofit organization, in January 2004 with a mission to improve mathematics education in United States public schools by recruiting more qualified teachers. For more than two decades, Simons' Renaissance Technologies' hedge funds, which trade in markets around the world, have employed mathematical models to analyze and execute trades, many automated. Renaissance uses computer-based models to predict price changes in financial instruments; these models are based on analyzing as much data as can be gathered looking for non-random movements to make predictions. Renaissance employs specialists with non-financial backgrounds, including mathematicians, signal processing experts and statisticians; the firm's latest fund is the Renaissance Institutional Equities Fund.
RIEF has trailed the firm's better-known Medallion fund, a separate fund that contains only the personal money of the firm's executives. "It's startling to see such a successful mathematician achieve success in another field," says Edward Witten, professor of physics at the Institute for Advanced Study in Princeton, NJ, considered by many of his peers to be the most accomplished theoretical physicist alive... In 2006, Simons was named Financial Engineer of the Year by the International Association of Financial Engineers. In 2007, he was estimated to have earned $2.8 billion, $1.7 billion in 2006, $1.5 billion in 2005, $670 million in 2004. Simons shuns the limelight and gives interviews, citing Benjamin the Donkey in Animal Farm for explanation: "God gave me a tail to keep off the flies, but I'd rather have had no tail and no flies." On October 10, 2009, Simons announced he would retire on January 1, 2010 but remain at Renaissance as nonexecutive chairman. In 1996, his son Paul, aged 34, was riding a bicycle.
In 2003, his son Nicholas, aged 24, drowned on a trip to Indonesia. His son Nat Simons is an philanthropist. Simons is a major contributor to Democratic Party political action committees. According to the Center for Responsive Politics, Simons is ranked the #5 donor to federal candidates in the 2016 election cycle, coming behind co-CEO Robert Mercer, ranked #1 and gener
Alexa Junge is a television writer and screenwriter. She is best known for her work on the series Friends. A four-time Emmy and two-time WGA Award nominee, Junge grew up in Los Angeles and attended Barnard College, where she wrote for and performed in the Columbia University Varsity Show with David Rakoff and Jeanine Tesori. Junge continued her education at NYU's Tisch School of the Arts. Junge wrote for Friends from 1994 to 1999. Nominated for three Emmy Awards and a Writers Guild of America Award for the show, Junge won the National AOL Poll for writing the "All Time Favorite Friends Episode" for "The One Where Everybody Finds Out". Junge went on to write for Once and Again and the City, The West Wing as well as Big Love and the BBC comedy Clone. Junge wrote lyrics for Disney's Mulan 2, screenplay and lyrics for Disney's Lilo & Stitch 2. A frequent contributor to National Public Radio's This American Life, Junge performed live for their 2008 "What I Learned From Television" tour, she served as Executive Producer and showrunner for the first season of Showtime's series The United States of Tara and worked on Tilda for HBO with Bill Condon, Alan Poul and John Hoffman, was the executive producer on Best Friends Forever starring Lennon Parham and Jessica St. Clair for NBC.
Junge's theatrical adaptation of Sarah Waters' novel Fingersmith had its world premiere at the Oregon Shakespeare Festival in March 2015. She wrote four episodes of the 2015-16 Netflix series Grace and Frankie. Junge has one son, Henry Petrie. Alexa Junge on science and society: Science cannot exist in a vacuum. By nature it is the basis of a free society, but when science is attacked on ideological grounds, its integrity and usefulness are threatened. Independent peer-reviewed research is the cornerstone of science in America. I believe all Americans and all people employed everywhere, no matter who they are or how they live, deserve research to improve their lives... Scientific truth ennobles us, it tells us who we are, where we have been, where we are going. Alexa Junge on IMDb
Nielestno is a village in the administrative district of Gmina Wleń, within Lwówek Śląski County, Lower Silesian Voivodeship, in south-western Poland. Prior to 1945 it was in Germany, it lies 2 kilometres south of Wleń, 15 km south-east of Lwówek Śląski, 98 km west of the regional capital Wrocław. Horst Knobloch: Waltersdorf. Dziś Nielestno. Kronika Horsta Knoblocha. Z niemieckiego przełożyła Izabela Taraszczuk. Beverstedt: Wydawnictwo własne 2013. Horst Knobloch: Waltersdorf. Heute Nielestno. Chronik von Horst Knobloch. Beverstedt: Eigenverlag 2013. Izabela Taraszczuk: Bemerkenswertes aus Waltersdorf. Heimatchronik vorgestellt und Gefallenendenkmal saniert. In: "Schlesien heute", No 6/2013. Görlitz: Senfkorn Verlag Alfred Theisen 2013, pp. 56-57