Just for Laughs
Just for Laughs is a comedy festival held each July in Montreal, Canada. Founded in 1983, it is the largest international comedy festival in the world. Just for Laughs was founded in 1983 by Gilbert Rozon as a two-day French language event. In 1985, Andy Nulman introduced English language events as well. International and non-verbal acts are scattered throughout the program. In 1999, Nulman left the festival's full-time employ. After an 11-year absence, Nulman returned to Just for Laughs in July 2010 as president of Festivals and Television; each day, performers, "New Vaudevillians" and other acts both vocal and visual perform throughout the city in the "Latin Quarter"—an area known for its theatres, cafés and boutique shopping. In the evenings, the nightclubs and live venue theatres offer special programs supporting the performers. Although Just for Laughs attracts spectators from around the world, many of those in the audience are talent scouts, booking agents and managers from the entertainment industry.
Performing at the festival is one of the biggest opportunities for undiscovered talent to showcase their act in front of industry professionals. The Just for Laughs festival has the Comedia comedy film festival component, which started in 1996, it gives awards for feature and short films. 2005, Comedia screened 125 short films from around the world as well as several feature-length films. In February 1994, the festival sponsored a splinter project in Florida; that coastal area is a favourite winter destination for Quebecers who head south to vacation in the warmer weather. The event, Juste Pour Rire—En Vacances, was held in the Young Circle Park, an outdoor venue with an urban park setting. In July 2007, Just For Laughs celebrated its 25th edition, launching a festival in Toronto, Ontario. In 2009, the Chicago festival was launched and aired on TBS. In July 2016, Just For Laughs London was held at Russel Square. On October 18, 2017, festival president and founder Gilbert Rozon resigned from his position following allegations of sexual misconduct.
Rozon announced that he would sell the festival. As per a partnership with the conglomerate, Quebecor was given right of first refusal to counter competing offers; the company, declined. On March 21, 2018, it was announced that the festival would be acquired by a partnership between U. S.-based talent agency ICM Partners and Canadian comedian Howie Mandel. In their announcement of the purchase, it was stated that Just for Laughs would remain based in Montreal, that there would be no changes in its management or operations, it was stated that the partnership was seeking other local partners. Quebecor subsequently announced that it would become a "founding partner" of Le Grand Montréal Comédie Fest—a competing event, being established by a group of Quebecois comedians as a competitor in the wake of the Rozon scandal. In May 2018, La Presse reported that the partnership planned to sell a 51% stake in Just for Laughs to Bell Canada and Evenko, so that the event would remain majority-owned by Canadian interests.
On June 7, 2018, Just for Laughs confirmed that Bell Media and Groupe CH had acquired stakes in the festival. Tapings from festival performances have been featured in Just for Laughs-branded television programs and specials, which have aired on channels such as CBC Television, The Comedy Network, TVA; the festival has lent its name to a hidden camera comedy series, Just for Laughs: Gags, aired by various Canadian channels, has been sold internationally. Culture of Quebec Television of Quebec List of Quebec television series List of Quebec comedians Just for Laughs Museum Edinburgh Festival Fringe Melbourne International Comedy Festival Official site of acts and tickets Montreal Just For Laughs' video portal Official CBC Website Just for Laughs on IMDb Juste pour rire on IMDb Just for Laughs: Montreal Comedy Festival on IMDb Just for Laughs on IMDb Just for Laughs on IMDb Just for Laughs ASIN B000JO8Z2C Juste Pour Rire: Juste Le Meilleur des Galas 2005 ASIN B000CEORVW Juste Pour Rire: Juste le Meilleur des Galas 2006 ASIN B000S6OJBW Juste Pour Rire: Les Grands Moments - Volume 1 ASIN B000T39PKY Just for Laughs: Stand Up, Vol. 1 - Best of the Uptown Comics ASIN B000BD1LB8 Just for Laughs: Stand Up, Vol. 2 - On the Edge ASIN B000C20VNC
Channel 5 (UK)
Channel 5 is a British free-to-air television network. It was launched in 1997, was the fifth national terrestrial analogue network in the United Kingdom after BBC One, BBC Two, ITV, Channel 4, it is the fifth-placed network in the country in audience share, has been since its inception. The station was branded as Five between 2011, when it was owned by the RTL Group. Richard Desmond purchased the station from RTL on 23 July 2010, announcing plans to invest more money in programming and return to the name Channel 5 with immediate effect, it was relaunched on 14 February 2011. On 1 May 2014 the channel was acquired by Viacom for £450 million. Channel 5 is a general entertainment channel that shows both internally commissioned programmes such as Fifth Gear, Big Brother & Celebrity Big Brother, The Gadget Show, The Hotel Inspector, Can't Pay? We'll Take It Away! and Gibraltar: Britain in the Sun and foreign programmes. The station has been successful with imports from the United States in particular, including the CSI franchise, the NCIS franchise, the first 3 series in the Law & Order franchise, Power Rangers, The Mentalist, Body of Proof, Once Upon a Time and Under the Dome.
In July 2014, Channel 5 announced plans to open up its production arm and allow it to create shows for other channels, following the new policies of the BBC and ITV Studios. Channel 5 Broadcasting Limited was licensed by the UK Government in 1995 after a bidding process that started in 1993 and lasted throughout 1994; the initial round of bidders, which included a network of city-TV stations planned by Thames Television and the Italian politician and media tycoon Silvio Berlusconi, was rejected outright and the ITC contemplated not awarding the licence at all. The difficulty with the project lay in use of television broadcast frequencies, allocated to RF outputs from domestic videocassette recorders. To achieve national coverage, large numbers of domestic video recorders had to be retuned or fitted with a filter, at the bidding company's expense; the project was revived in mid-1994. Tom McGrath, then-president of Time Warner International Broadcasting, put together a revised frequency plan with NTL and consulting engineer Ellis Griffiths, involving less retuning and greater signal coverage.
Lord Hollick chief executive of Meridian Broadcasting took up the project as lead investor as UK law prohibited Time Warner from owning more than 25%. Pearson Television, who by now owned original licence bidders Thames Television came on board; when McGrath left to become President of Paramount, Time Warner dropped out of the project and was replaced by CLT. Other bidders for the licence included UKTV (led by Canwest and Select TV which bid £36m for the licence, New Century Television Virgin TV Wolf Olins and Saatchi & Saatchi were the main companies behind the pre-launch advertising campaign: "Give Me 5"; the channel would be both mainstream. A logo and visual motif were used, an attempt was made to establish a collection of Channel 5 faces. A series of pre-launch screens were displayed on the frequencies Channel 5 would begin broadcasting on in the months before launch as well, including a trailer for the channel and information screens. After re-tuning, around 65% of the population's televisions could view the channel on launch night.
The channel's launch on Easter Sunday 1997 at 6 pm featured the Spice Girls singing a re-written version of Manfred Mann's hit "5-4-3-2-1" as "1-2-3-4-5". Presenters Tim Vine and Julia Bradbury introduced the nation to the UK's fifth terrestrial channel with half-an-hour of previews; the rest of the Channel 5 launch night schedule, along with the official viewing figures, was as follows: Overall, an estimated 2,490,000 tuned in to see Britain's fifth free network launch, a figure higher than that achieved by launch of Channel 4, fourteen and a half years earlier. On 16 September 2002, Channel 5 re-branded to Five, in a multimillion-pound project directed by Trevor Beattie; the channel's director of marketing at the time, David Pullen, said: On 27 February 2004, it was reported that Five and Channel 4 were discussing a possible merger. Channel 4 and Five announced in November of that year. Early in 2009, rumours started re-surfacing about Five, Channel 4 and ITV conducting a three-way merger.
Pearson Television and CLT merged, becoming RTL Group who became part of Bertelsmann and, control the network, after buying UBM's 35.4% stake for £247.6 million on 20 July 2005. The acquisition was approved on 26 August 2005. After Holleck became involved, he and McGrath brought on board Greg Dyke as interim CEO during the application and launch phase of the project. On 18 November 2005, it was announced that Five had bought a stake in DTT's pay-TV operator, Top Up TV, it was said that the investment may lead to the development of new free and pay services on DTT, other platforms. Following this, Five launched two new digital TV channels in autumn 2006 on Freeview and Virgin Media: 5 STAR launched as Five Life on 15 October 2006
Pudsey the Dog: The Movie
Pudsey The Dog: The Movie is a 2014 British 3D live action family comedy film directed by Nick Moore, produced by Simon Cowell, written by Paul Rose with music by Simon Woodgate and starring Pudsey the Dog, one half of the dancing duo Ashleigh and Pudsey, voiced by David Walliams. Other stars include John Sessions, Jim Tavaré and Izzy Meikle-Small; the film was made by Vertigo Films and Syco Entertainment, was released in the United Kingdom on 18 July 2014, after it was set to be released in December the previous year. The film received negative reviews from critics, it earned £2.6 million on a £2.5 million budget. On 10 November 2014, Pudsey the Dog: The Movie was released on DVD in the United Kingdom; the film is about 2012 Britain's Got Talent winner Pudsey the dog on an adventure. Pudsey uses his ability to knock people over to save the day. Pudsey starts as a dog in a movie set. Pudsey runs away in disgrace and catches a bus, there are several school kids on there; when the bus stops, Pudsey runs down the street.
Some bullies from the bus bully some other kids. Pudsey knocks the bullies over; the bullied kids take Pudsey home with them. They are siblings and their names are Molly and George. Tommy does not speak much; the kid's mum gets rid of Pudsey. Molly and Tommy take Pudsey to a lady who looks after dogs, but the lady turns out to be evil after she says she is going to dye him pink and do horrible things to him like she has done to some poodles. Pudsey, because he is specially trained, opens the door and runs away, jumps into a white van; the poodles escape too. The white van turns out to be the van, moving the siblings' things, so Pudsey is moved to Chuffington with the family. Pudsey gets to speak. David Walliams as Pudsey John Sessions as Thorne Jessica Hynes as Gail Izzy Meikle-Small as Molly Malachy Knights as Tommy Luke Neal as Farmer Jack Lorraine Kelly as Cat Dan Farrell as Ken and Finn Jim Tavare as The Dog Catcher Peter Serafinowicz as Edward the Horse Olivia Colman as Nelly the Horse Ashleigh Butler as Anabella The Cow In January 2013, it was announced that Simon Cowell would produce Pudsey The Dog: The Movie.
The film, released on 18 July 2014, follows Pudsey and his siblings Molly and Tommy as they move to the village of Chuffington-on-Sea with their mother Gail and set out to save the village, from their landlord Mr Thorne and his cat Faustus. Pudsey is voiced by comedian David Walliams. Pudsey: He's Got The Love – Performed by Echobass Things Are Getting Better – Performed by Echobass Breaking It Down – Performed by Echobass Tea Dance – Composed by Norman Warren All Music – Composed by Simon Woodgate On 10 November 2014, Pudsey the Dog: The Movie was released on DVD in the United Kingdom. In its first week, the film grossed £446,000, finishing outside of a Top 5 led by Dawn of the Planet of the Apes with £8.7 million. This was described by the BBC as a "flop". Pudsey: The Movie was critically panned. On review aggregator website Rotten Tomatoes it holds a rare 0% approval rating with an average score of 3.3/10 based on 14 reviews. Peter Bradshaw of The Guardian called the film "so depressingly bad that cinemas should play the adagietto from Mahler's Fifth over a loudspeaker as audiences file out grimly into the foyer afterwards, silently asking themselves if life has any value...
Watching this movie, I was overwhelmed with three emotions: boredom and chiefly shame on behalf of everyone involved, shame that something so shoddily made and mediocre could have emerged from our film industry."Writing in The Observer, Mark Kermode said "nothing can explain the sheer skull scraping ugliness of this relentlessly tacky Britain's Got Talent spin off... If you paid to see this, you would feel duty bound to demand your money back. David Edwards of the Daily Mirror called the film a "cheap and cheerless embarrassment" with a "thin and familiar" plot and said it "deserves to be scraped from the lawn, dropped in the bin." Pudsey the Dog: The Movie on IMDb Pudsey the Dog: The Movie at Rotten Tomatoes
Colin Andrew Firth is an English actor who has received an Academy Award, a Golden Globe Award, two BAFTA Awards, three Screen Actors Guild Awards, as well as the Volpi Cup for Best Actor at the Venice Film Festival. In 2010, Firth's portrayal of King George VI in Tom Hooper's The King's Speech won him the Academy Award for Best Actor. Identified in the late 1980s with the "Brit Pack" of rising, young British actors, it was not until his portrayal of Fitzwilliam Darcy in the 1995 television adaptation of Jane Austen's Pride and Prejudice that he received more widespread attention; this led to roles in films, such as The English Patient, Bridget Jones's Diary, for which he was nominated for a BAFTA Award, Shakespeare in Love, Love Actually. In 2009, Firth received widespread critical acclaim for his leading role in A Single Man, for which he gained his first Academy Award nomination, won a BAFTA Award. In 2014, Firth portrayed secret agent Harry Hart in the film Kingsman: The Secret Service.
In 2018, he co-starred as William "Weatherall" Wilkins in the musical fantasy Mary Poppins Returns. His films have grossed more than $3 billion from 42 releases worldwide. In 2011, Firth received a star on the Hollywood Walk of Fame, was selected as one of the Time 100, he was awarded an honorary degree from the University of Winchester in 2007, was made a Freeman of the City of London in 2012. He has campaigned for the rights of indigenous tribal people, is a member of Survival International. Firth has campaigned on issues of asylum seekers, refugees' rights, the environment, he commissioned and co-authored a scientific paper on a study into the differences in brain structure between people of differing political orientations. Firth was born in the village of Grayshott, Hampshire, to parents who were both academics and teachers, his mother, Shirley Jean, was a comparative religion lecturer at King Alfred's College, his father, David Norman Lewis Firth, was a history lecturer at King Alfred's and education officer for the Nigerian Government.
Firth is the eldest of three children. His maternal grandparents were Congregationalist ministers and his paternal grandfather was an Anglican priest; as a child, Firth travelled due to his parents' work, spending some years in Nigeria. He lived in St. Louis, when he was 11, which he has described as "a difficult time". On returning to England, he attended the Montgomery of Alamein Secondary School, which at the time was a state comprehensive school in Winchester, Hampshire, he was the target of bullying. To counter this, he adopted the local working class Hampshire accent and copied his schoolmates' lack of interest in schoolwork. By the time he was 14, Firth had decided to be a professional actor, having attended drama workshops from the age of 10; until further education, he was not academically inclined saying in an interview, "I didn't like school. I just thought it was boring and mediocre and nothing they taught me seemed to be of any interest at all." However, at Barton Peveril Sixth Form College in Eastleigh, he was imbued with a love of English literature by an enthusiastic teacher, Penny Edwards, has said that his two years at Barton Peveril were "among the two happiest years of my life".
After his sixth form years, Firth joined the National Youth Theatre. There, he made many contacts in the acting world, from which he got a job in the wardrobe department at the National Theatre. From there, he went on to study at Drama Centre London. Playing Hamlet in the Drama Centre end of year production, Firth was spotted by playwright Julian Mitchell, who cast him as the gay, ambitious public schoolboy Guy Bennett in the 1983 West End production of Another Country. In 1984, Firth made his film debut in the role of Tommy Judd, Guy Bennett's straight, Marxist school friend in the screen adaptation of the play; this was the start of longstanding public feud between Firth and Everett, resolved. He starred with Sir Laurence Olivier in Lost Empires, a TV adaptation of J. B. Priestley's novel. In 1987, Firth along with other up and coming British actors such as Tim Roth, Bruce Payne and Paul McGann were dubbed the'Brit Pack'; that same year, he appeared alongside Kenneth Branagh in the film version of J. L. Carr's A Month in the Country.
Sheila Johnston observed a theme in his early works of playing those traumatised by war. Firth portrayed real-life British soldier Robert Lawrence MC in the 1988 BBC dramatisation Tumbledown. Lawrence was injured at the Battle of Mount Tumbledown during the Falklands War, the film details his struggles to adjust to his disability whilst confronted with indifference from the government and the public; the film attracted controversy at the time, with criticism coming from left and right ends of the political spectrum. Firth's performance led to a Royal TV Society Best Actor Award and he was nominated for the 1989 BAFTA Television Award. In 1989, he played the title role based on Les Liaisons dangereuses; this did not make a big impact in comparison. The same year, he played a paranoid awkward character in Argentinian psychological thriller Apartment Zero. Firth became a household name through his role as the aloof and haughty aristocrat Mr. Darcy in the 1995 BBC television adaptation of Jane Austen's Pride and
Charles Spencer, 9th Earl Spencer
Charles Edward Maurice Spencer, 9th Earl Spencer, styled Viscount Althorp between 1975 and 1992, is a British nobleman, author and broadcaster. He is the younger brother of Diana, Princess of Wales, which makes him the maternal uncle of Prince William, Duke of Cambridge, Prince Harry, Duke of Sussex. Spencer was born in London on 20 May 1964 and named Charles Edward Maurice, with Queen Elizabeth II as his godmother, his parents were called Viscount and Viscountess Althorp, as his paternal grandfather, Albert Spencer, 7th Earl Spencer, was still alive at the time of his birth. Spencer had three elder sisters: Sarah and Diana. Diana became the Princess of Wales, his infant elder brother, had died within hours of his birth four years before Spencer was born. He and Diana were close to each other in their childhood. After his parents' divorce when he was four years old, Spencer was educated at Eton and Magdalen College, where he read Modern History. Spencer worked as an on-air correspondent with NBC News from 1986 to 1995 for the network's morning programme, NBC Nightly News.
He wrote and presented the 12-part documentary series, Great Houses of the World for NBC Super Channel. He worked as a reporter for Granada Television from 1991 to 1993. Spencer has written several book reviews for The Guardian and The Independent on Sunday as well as feature stories for The Guardian, The Daily Telegraph, The Sunday Telegraph and American publications such as Vanity Fair and Nest. Upon his father's death on 29 March 1992, 27-year-old Spencer succeeded as 9th Earl Spencer, 9th Viscount Althorp, 9th Viscount Spencer of Althorp, 9th Baron Spencer of Althorp, 4th Viscount Althorp, he inherited Althorp, the family's ancestral seat in Northamptonshire. At the height of her emotional difficulties, he had refused to allow his sister Diana to live in a cottage on the Althorp estate - despite her pleas. Since 2009, he has restored Althorp, re-roofing it and restoring its entire exterior for the first time since the 1780s, he has helped establish Althorp Living History, a handmade fine-furniture line reproducing pieces from the collection at Althorp.
The Spencer family's wealth derived from their profitable sheep farming in the Tudor era. On 31 August 1997, his older sister Diana died after a car crash in Paris and Spencer delivered the eulogy at her funeral service held at Westminster Abbey six days later. In his eulogy he rebuked both Britain's royal family and the press for their treatment of his sister. Spencer has ruled out the conspiracy theories regarding his sister's death, called the alleged letter she wrote 10 months before her death in which she discussed her fears of a planned accident "just a bizarre coincidence rather than tied in with reality."He was Member of the House of Lords from 29 March 1992 until the House of Lords Act 1999 excluded most hereditary peers on 11 November 1999. It was reported in 2003 that Spencer had refused to allow his sister Diana to live at Althorp, despite her request, it was reported that Spencer had accused Diana of displaying "deceitful" and "manipulative" behaviour which were characteristics of the mental illness associated with bulimia nervosa which Diana herself had admitted she suffered.
Diana was buried on Spencer's ancestral estate, where he built a garden temple memorial and a museum to her memory, displaying her wedding dress and other personal effects. The museum was opened to the public in 1998 with all profits going to Diana's Memorial Fund set up by Spencer. At this stage, Spencer began writing a series of books dealing with the estate itself and with his family history, beginning with an account of his ancestral home, Althorp: the Story of an English House published in 1998. In 2003, Spencer founded the Althorp Literary Festival. Speakers at the annual event have included the authors Bill Bryson, Helen Fielding, Antonia Fraser, Boris Johnson. In 2004, he presented two documentaries for the History Channel on Blenheim: Battle for Europe. Spencer was appointed a Deputy Lieutenant of Northamptonshire in November 2005. Spencer is a patron of the Northamptonshire County Cricket Club. On 16 September 1989, Spencer known by the courtesy title of Viscount Althorp, married Victoria Lockwood.
The wedding was held at the Church of St Mary, Great Brington, Darius Guppy was the best man. Two nieces, Emily McCorquodale and The Hon. Eleanor Fellowes, were bridesmaids. Two nephews, Prince Harry and The Hon. Alexander Fellowes, were page boys. Spencer and Lockwood, who had moved to Cape Town, South Africa, were divorced on 3 December 1997. Diana's death occurred; the Earl has four children by Victoria Lockwood, three daughters and one son: Lady Kitty Spencer Lady Eliza Spencer Lady Amelia Spencer Louis Spencer, Viscount Althorp. On 15 December 2001, he married former wife of Matthew Freud, they separated in 2007 and divorced. They have two children: The Hon. Edmund Spencer Lady Lara Spencer On 18 June 2011 at Althorp House, Spencer married Karen Gordon, a Canadian philanthropist, the founder and chief executive of Whole Child International, a charity based in Los Angel
Charles, Prince of Wales
Charles, Prince of Wales is the heir apparent to the British throne as the eldest child of Queen Elizabeth II. He has been Duke of Cornwall and Duke of Rothesay since 1952, is the oldest and longest-serving heir apparent in British history, he is the longest-serving Prince of Wales, having held that title since 1958. Charles was born at Buckingham Palace as the first grandchild of King George Queen Elizabeth, he was educated at Cheam and Gordonstoun schools, which his father, Prince Philip, Duke of Edinburgh, had attended as a child, as well as the Timbertop campus of Geelong Grammar School in Victoria, Australia. After earning a Bachelor of Arts degree from the University of Cambridge, Charles served in the Royal Air Force and Royal Navy from 1971 to 1976. In 1981, he married Lady Diana Spencer and they had two sons: Prince William —later to become Duke of Cambridge—and Prince Harry —later to become Duke of Sussex. In 1996, the couple divorced following well-publicised extramarital affairs by both parties.
Diana was killed in a car crash in Paris the following year. In 2005, Charles married long-time partner Camilla Parker Bowles; as Prince of Wales, Charles undertakes official duties on behalf of the Queen and the Commonwealth realms. Charles founded The Prince's Trust in 1976, sponsors The Prince's Charities, is a patron, president and a member of over 400 other charities and organisations; as an environmentalist, he raises awareness of organic farming and climate change which has earned him awards and recognition from environmental groups. His support for alternative medicine, including homeopathy, has been criticised by some in the medical community and his views on the role of architecture in society and the conservation of historic buildings have received considerable attention from British architects and design critics. Since 1993, Charles has worked on the creation of Poundbury, an experimental new town based on his preferences, he is an author and co-author of a number of books. Charles was born at Buckingham Palace in London during the reign of his maternal grandfather George VI on 14 November 1948, at 9:14 pm, the first child of Princess Elizabeth, Duchess of Edinburgh, Philip, Duke of Edinburgh, first grandchild of King George VI and Queen Elizabeth.
He was baptised in the palace's Music Room by the Archbishop of Canterbury, Geoffrey Fisher, on 15 December 1948. The death of his grandfather and the accession of his mother as Queen Elizabeth II in 1952 made Charles her heir apparent; as the monarch's eldest son, he automatically took the titles Duke of Cornwall, Duke of Rothesay, Earl of Carrick, Baron of Renfrew, Lord of the Isles and Prince and Great Steward of Scotland. Charles attended his mother's coronation at Westminster Abbey on 2 June 1953; as was customary for upper-class children at the time, a governess, Catherine Peebles, was appointed and undertook his education between the ages of five and eight. Buckingham Palace announced in 1955 that Charles would attend school rather than have a private tutor, making him the first heir apparent to be educated in that manner. On 7 November 1956, Charles commenced classes in west London, he did not receive preferential treatment from the school's founder and headmaster, Stuart Townend, who advised the Queen to have Charles train in football because the boys were never deferential to anyone on the football field.
Charles attended two of his father's former schools, Cheam Preparatory School in Berkshire, from 1958, followed by Gordonstoun in the north-east of Scotland, beginning classes there in April 1962. Though he described Gordonstoun, noted for its rigorous curriculum, as "Colditz in kilts", Charles subsequently praised Gordonstoun, stating it had taught him "a great deal about myself and my own abilities and disabilities, it taught me to accept challenges and take the initiative." In a 1975 interview, he said he was "glad" he had attended Gordonstoun and that the "toughness of the place" was "much exaggerated". He spent two terms in 1966 at the Timbertop campus of Geelong Grammar School in Victoria, during which time he visited Papua New Guinea on a school trip with his history tutor, Michael Collins Persse. In 1973, Charles described his time at Timbertop as the most enjoyable part of his whole education. Upon his return to Gordonstoun, Charles emulated his father in becoming Head Boy, he left in 1967, with six GCE O-levels and two A-levels in history and French, at grades B and C respectively.
On his early education, Charles remarked, "I didn't enjoy school as much as I might have, but, only because I'm happier at home than anywhere else."Charles broke royal tradition a second time when he proceeded straight to university after his A-levels, rather than joining the British Armed Forces. In October 1967, he was admitted to Trinity College, where he read anthropology and history. During his second year, Charles attended the University College of Wales in Aberystwyth, studying Welsh history and language for a term, he graduated from Cambridge with a 2:2 Bachelor of Arts on 23 June 1970, the first heir apparent to earn a university degree. On 2 August 1975, he was awarded a Master of Arts degree from Cambridge, in accordance with the university's practice. Charles was created Prince of Wales and Earl of Chester on 26 July 1958, though his investiture was not held until 1 July 1969, when he was crowned by his mother in a televised ceremony held at Caernarfon Castle, he took his seat in the House of Lords in 1970, he made his maiden speech at a debate in June 1974, becoming the first royal to speak in the Lords since his great-great-grandfather Edward VII speaking as Prince of Wales, in 1884.
BBC Two is the second flagship television channel of the British Broadcasting Corporation in the United Kingdom, Isle of Man and Channel Islands. It covers a wide range of subject matter, but tends to broadcast more "highbrow" programmes than the more mainstream and popular BBC One. Like the BBC's other domestic TV and radio channels, it is funded by the television licence, is therefore free of commercial advertising, it is a comparatively well-funded public-service network attaining a much higher audience share than most public-service networks worldwide. Styled BBC2, it was the third British television station to be launched, from 1 July 1967, Europe's first television channel to broadcast in colour, it was envisaged as a home for less mainstream and more ambitious programming, while this tendency has continued to date, most special-interest programmes of a kind broadcast on BBC Two, for example the BBC Proms, now tend to appear on BBC Four instead. British television at the time of BBC2's launch consisted of two channels: the BBC Television Service and the ITV network made up of smaller regional companies.
Both channels had existed in a state of competition since ITV's launch in 1955, both had aimed for a populist approach in response. The 1962 Pilkington Report on the future of broadcasting noticed this, that ITV lacked any serious programming, it therefore decided that Britain's third television station should be awarded to the BBC. Prior to its launch, the new BBC2 was promoted on the BBC Television Service: the soon to be renamed BBC1; the animated adverts featured the campaign mascots "Hullabaloo", a mother kangaroo, "Custard", her joey. Prior to, several years after, the channel's formal launch, the channel broadcast "Trade Test Transmissions", short films made externally by companies such as Shell and BP, which served to enable engineers to test reception, but became cult viewing; the channel was scheduled to begin at 19:20 on 20 April 1964, showing an evening of light entertainment, starting with the comedy show The Alberts, a performance from Soviet comedian Arkady Raikin, a production of Cole Porter's Kiss Me, culminating with a fireworks display.
However, at around 18:45 a huge power failure, originating from a fire at Battersea Power Station, caused Television Centre, indeed much of west London, to lose all power. BBC1 was able to continue broadcasting via its facilities at Alexandra Palace, but all attempts to show the scheduled programmes on the new channel failed. Associated-Rediffusion, the London weekday ITV franchise-holder, offered to transmit on the BBC's behalf, but their gesture was rejected. At 22:00 programming was postponed until the following morning; as the BBC's news centre at Alexandra Palace was unaffected, they did in fact broadcast brief bulletins on BBC2 that evening, beginning with an announcement by the newsreader Gerald Priestland at around 19:25. There was believed to be no recording made of this bulletin, but a videotape was discovered in early 2003. By 11:00 on 21 April, power had been restored to the studios and programming began, thus making Play School the first programme to be shown on the channel; the launch schedule, postponed from the night before, was successfully shown that evening, albeit with minor changes.
In reference to the power cut, the transmission opened with a shot of a lit candle, sarcastically blown out by presenter Denis Tuohy. To establish the new channel's identity and draw viewers to it, the BBC decided that a promoted, lavish series would be essential in its earliest days; the production chosen was The Forsyte Saga, a no-expense-spared adaptation of the novels by John Galsworthy, featuring well-established actors Kenneth More and Eric Porter. Critically for the future of the fledgling channel, the BBC's gamble was hugely successful, with an average of six million viewers tuning in per episode: a feat made more prominent by the fact that only 9 million were able to receive the channel at the time. Unlike BBC1 and ITV, BBC2 was broadcast only on the 625 line UHF system, so was not available to viewers still using sets on the 405-line VHF system; this created a market for dual standard receivers. Set manufacturers ramped up production of UHF sets in anticipation of a large market demand for the new BBC2, but the market did not materialise.
The early technical problems, which included being unable to transmit US-recorded videotapes due to a lack of system conversion from the US NTSC system, were resolved by a committee headed by James Redmond. On 1 July 1967, during the Wimbledon Championships, BBC2 became the first channel in Europe to begin regular broadcasts in colour, using the PAL system; the thirteen part series Civilisation was created as a celebration of two millennia of western art and culture to showpiece the new colour technology. BBC1 and ITV joined BBC2 on 625-line UHF band, but continued to simulcast on 405-line VHF until 1985. BBC1 and ITV introduced PAL colour on UHF on 15 November 1969, although they both had broadcast some programmes in colour "unofficially" since September 1969. In 1979, the station adopted the first computer-generated channel identification in Britain, with its use of the double striped, orange'2' logo; the ident, created in house by BBC engineers, lasted until March 1986 and heralded the start of computer-generated logos.
As the switch to digital-only terrestrial transmission progressed, BBC Two was the first analogue TV channel to be replaced with the BBC multiplex, at first four two weeks ahead of the other four channels. This was required for those relay transmitters that had no current Freeview service giving vie