James Francis Thorpe was an American athlete and Olympic gold medalist. A member of the Sac and Fox Nation, Thorpe became the first Native American to win a gold medal for the United States. Considered one of the most versatile athletes of modern sports, he won Olympic gold medals in the 1912 pentathlon and decathlon, played American football, professional baseball, basketball, he lost his Olympic titles after it was found he had been paid for playing two seasons of semi-professional baseball before competing in the Olympics, thus violating the amateurism rules that were in place. In 1983, 30 years after his death, the International Olympic Committee restored his Olympic medals. Thorpe grew up in the Sac and Fox Nation in Oklahoma, attended Carlisle Indian Industrial School in Carlisle, where he was a two-time All-American for the school's football team. After his Olympic success in 1912, which included a record score in the decathlon, he added a victory in the All-Around Championship of the Amateur Athletic Union.
In 1913, Thorpe signed with the New York Giants, he played six seasons in Major League Baseball between 1913 and 1919. Thorpe joined the Canton Bulldogs American football team in 1915, helping them win three professional championships, he played as part of several all-American Indian teams throughout his career, barnstormed as a professional basketball player with a team composed of American Indians. From 1920 to 1921, Thorpe was nominally the first president of the American Professional Football Association, which became the NFL in 1922, he played professional sports until age 41, the end of his sports career coinciding with the start of the Great Depression. He struggled working several odd jobs, he suffered from alcoholism, lived his last years in failing health and poverty. He was married three times and had eight children, before suffering from heart failure and dying in 1953. Thorpe has received various accolades for his athletic accomplishments; the Associated Press named him the "greatest athlete" from the first 50 years of the 20th century, the Pro Football Hall of Fame inducted him as part of its inaugural class in 1963.
A Pennsylvania town was named in his honor and a monument site there is the site of his remains, which were the subject of legal action. Thorpe appeared in several films and was portrayed by Burt Lancaster in the 1951 film Jim Thorpe – All-American. Information about Thorpe's birth and ethnic background varies widely, he was baptized "Jacobus Franciscus Thorpe" in the Catholic Church. Thorpe was born in Indian Territory of the United States, he was considered to have been born on May 22, 1887, near the town of Prague, Oklahoma. Thorpe himself said in a note to The Shawnee News-Star in 1943 that he was born May 28, 1888, "near and south of Bellemont – Pottawatomie County – along the banks of the North Fork River... hope this will clear up the inquiries as to my birthplace." However, most biographers believe that he was born on May 22, 1887, as, what is listed on his baptismal certificate. Bellemont was a small community, now disappeared, on the line between Pottawatomie and Lincoln Counties. Thorpe referred to Shawnee as his birthplace in the 1943 note.
Thorpe's parents were both of mixed-race ancestry. His father, Hiram Thorpe, had a Sac and Fox Indian mother, his mother, Charlotte Vieux, had a French father and a Potawatomi mother, a descendant of Chief Louis Vieux. He was raised as a Sac and Fox, his native name, Wa-Tho-Huk, translated as "path lit by great flash of lightning" or, more "Bright Path"; as was the custom for Sac and Fox, he was named for something occurring around the time of his birth, in this case the light brightening the path to the cabin where he was born. Thorpe's parents were a faith which Thorpe observed throughout his adult life. Thorpe attended the Sac and Fox Indian Agency school in Stroud, with his twin brother, Charlie. Charlie helped him through school, he ran away from school several times. His father sent him to the Haskell Institute, an Indian boarding school in Lawrence, Kansas, so that he would not run away again; when his mother died of childbirth complications two years he became depressed. After several arguments with his father, he left home to work on a horse ranch.
In 1904 the sixteen-year-old Thorpe returned to his father and decided to attend Carlisle Indian Industrial School in Carlisle, Pennsylvania. There his athletic ability was recognized and he was coached by Glenn Scobey "Pop" Warner, one of the most influential coaches of early American football history; that year he became orphaned after Hiram Thorpe died from gangrene poisoning after being wounded in a hunting accident, Jim again dropped out of school. He resumed farm work for a few years and returned to Carlisle Indian Industrial School. Thorpe began his athletic career at Carlisle in 1907 when he walked past the track and beat all the school's high jumpers with an impromptu 5-ft 9-in jump still in street clothes, his earliest recorded track and field results come from 1907. He competed in football, baseball and ballroom dancing, winning the 1912 intercollegiate ballroom dancing championship. Pop Warner was hesitant to allow Thorpe, his best track and field athlete, to compete in a physical game such as football.
Thorpe, convinced Warner to let him try some rushing plays in practice against the school
Glenn Scobey Warner, most known as Pop Warner, was an American college football coach at various institutions, responsible for several key aspects of the modern game. Included among his innovations are the single and double wing formations, the three point stance and the body blocking technique. Fellow pioneer coach Amos Alonzo Stagg called Warner "one of the excellent creators", he was inducted as a coach into the College Football Hall of Fame as part of its inaugural class in 1951. He contributed to a junior football program which became known as Pop Warner Little Scholars, a popular youth American football organization. In the early 1900s, he created a premier football program at the Carlisle Indian Industrial School—a federally-funded, off-reservation Indian boarding school, he coached teams to four national championships: Pittsburgh in 1915, 1916, 1918 and Stanford in 1926. In all, he was head coach at the University of Georgia, Iowa Agricultural College and Model Farm, Cornell University, Pittsburgh and Temple University, compiling a career college football record of 319–106–32.
Predating Bear Bryant, Eddie Robinson, Joe Paterno, he once had the most wins of any coach in college football history. Warner was born April 1871 on a farm in Springville, New York, he was the son of William Warner, a cavalry officer in the American Civil War, schoolteacher Adaline Scobey. In 1878 a railroad came to Springville, four years the family moved to a house on East Main Street. Plump as a child, Warner was sometimes known as "Butter", he began playing baseball at an early age, was a skilled pitcher. Nobody in town owned a football. Warner's East Main Street house attracted a number of friends. In 1889 at 19 years old Warner graduated from Springville-Griffith Institute and joined his family in moving down to Wichita Falls, Texas, to work on their new purchased cattle and wheat ranch totaling over hundreds of acres. Aside from ranching, Warner got a job assisting a tinsmith, he was interested in art as a child — learning how to paint watercolor landscapes, as a tinsmith he learned how to use tools to make things like cups, baking pans, lanterns.
In 1892, Warner returned to Springville and began to use his cowboy experience to gamble on horse races. Although he had no interest in college, soon after coming back he was forced to attend Cornell University's law school, as he lost all of his money at the races. Warner wrote "I dare not write to my father and tell him I was broke" — he felt that the only way to get funds was to inform his father that he decided to study law, his father, who had always wanted him to be a lawyer, sent him $100. Warner became known as "Pop" because he was one of the oldest students at Cornell. At the end of 1894, Warner began working as an attorney in Buffalo, New York; this job only lasted for a few months. On Warner's train ride to Ithaca, he met Carl Johanson Cornell's football coach, impressed by Warner's weight. Johanson ordered Warner to attend practice; this happened though Warner admitted that he had never handled a real football. Despite his commitment to football, at the time Warner's true passion was baseball.
During one of his first practices at Cornell he badly injured his shoulder and never played serious baseball again. Warner participated in track and field and was the school's heavyweight boxing champion for two years. During his three years at Cornell, Warner played as a guard on the football team. Though he graduated in the spring of 1894, he returned as a post-graduate and was named captain of the 1894 team, which had a 6–4–1 record. Due to the then-tradition of alumni coming back to assist their undergraduate teams in rivalry games, Cornell's coach Marshall Newell left for several weeks to assist Harvard in its rivalry game with Yale; as a captain, Warner was put in charge during the coach's absence. It was during this time that Warner came up with his first original play: Three backs who protected the rusher would fake a run to one side, while the quarterback kept the ball and would hand it to the runner, who now had an open field to run through on the other side. During the first, in-game execution of the play, Warner carried the ball and was able to run clear for 25 yards.
However, as Warner was a guard and not a runner, he was incorrectly holding the ball, fumbled upon being tackled. In the spring of 1895, Warner was asked for a reference to fill the vacant head coaching position at Iowa Agricultural College, in Ames, Iowa. Instead of giving a reference, Warner himself applied for the job and received an offer for $25 a week. At the same time, he decided to apply to other schools and received an offer of $34 per week from the University of Georgia in Athens, Georgia; because Iowa State began its season in August—almost one and a half months prior to the beginning in Georgia, Warner was able to work out a deal. For $150, he would coach in Iowa from August until the second week of September. Not only did Warner end up coaching at Iowa State before his time at Georgia.
The decathlon is a combined event in athletics consisting of ten track and field events. The word "decathlon" was formed, in analogy to the word "pentathlon", from Greek δέκα and ἄθλος. Events are held over two consecutive days and the winners are determined by the combined performance in all. Performance is judged on a points system in each event, not by the position achieved; the decathlon is contested by male athletes, while female athletes compete in the heptathlon. Traditionally, the title of "World's Greatest Athlete" has been given to the person who wins the decathlon, thus the world's greatest athlete of all times is the recordman of decathlon; this began when King Gustav V of Sweden told Jim Thorpe, "You, are the world's greatest athlete" after Thorpe won the decathlon at the Stockholm Olympics in 1912. The official decathlon world record holder is French Kevin Mayer, who scored 9,126 points at the 2018 Décastar; the event developed from the ancient pentathlon. Pentathlon competitions were held at the ancient Greek Olympics.
Pentathlons involved five disciplines – long jump, discus throw, javelin throw, sprint and a wrestling match. Introduced in Olympia during 708 BC, the competition was popular for many centuries. By the sixth century BC, pentathlons had become part of religious games. A ten-event competition known as the "all-around" or "all-round" championship, similar to the modern decathlon, was first contested at the United States amateur championships in 1884 and reached a consistent form by 1890; the modern decathlon first appeared on the Olympic athletics program at the 1912 Games in Stockholm. The vast majority of international and top level men's decathlons are divided into a two-day competition, with the track and field events held in the order below. Traditionally, all decathletes who finish the event, rather than just the winner or medal winning athletes, do a round of honour together after the competition; the current world record holder is Kevin Mayer from France with 9126 points which he set on 16 September 2018 in Talence, France.
At major championships, the women's equivalent of the decathlon is the seven-event heptathlon. However, in 2001, the IAAF approved scoring tables for a women's decathlon. Women's disciplines differ from men's in the same way as for standalone events: the shot and javelin weigh less, the sprint hurdles uses lower hurdles over 100 m rather than 110 m; the points tables used are the same as for the heptathlon in the shared events. The schedule of events differs from the men's decathlon, with the field events switched between day one and day two; the one-hour decathlon is a special type of decathlon in which the athletes have to start the last of ten events within sixty minutes of the start of the first event. The world record holder is Czech decathlete Robert Změlík, who achieved 7,897 points at a meeting in Ostrava, Czechoslovakia, in 1992. In Masters athletics, performance scores are age graded before being applied to the standard scoring table; this way, marks that would be competitive within an age division can get rated if those marks would not appear on the scale designed for younger age groups.
Additionally, like women, the age divisions use lower hurdles. Based on this system, German Rolf Geese in the M60 division and American Robert Hewitt in the M80 divisions have set their respective world records over 8,000 points. Using the same scale, Nadine O'Connor scored 10,234 points in the W65 division, the highest decathlon score recorded; the 2001 IAAF points tables use the following formulae: Points = INT for track events Points = INT for field events A, B and C are parameters that vary by discipline, as shown in the table on the right, while P is the performance by the athlete, measured in seconds, metres, or centimetres. The decathlon tables should not be confused with the scoring tables compiled by Bojidar Spiriev, to allow comparison of the relative quality of performances by athletes in different events. On those tables, for example, a decathlon score of 9,006 points equates to 1,265 "comparison points", the same number as a triple jump of 18 m. Split evenly between the events, the following table shows the benchmark levels needed to earn 1,000, 900, 800 and 700 points in each sport.
The official decathlon world record holder is American Ashton Eaton, who scored 9,045 points at the 2015 IAAF World Championships. It was improved upon by Kevin Mayer of France, with a score of 9,126 points set during the 2018 Décastar in Talence, pending ratification by the IAAF. Previous record from Ashton Eaton: The total decathlon score for all world records in the respective events would be 12,560; the total decathlon score for all the best performances achieved during decathlons is 10,544. The Difference column shows the difference in points between the decathlon points that the individual current world record would be awarded and the points awarded to the current decathlon record for that event; the % Difference column shows the percentage difference between the time, distance or height of the individual world record and the decathlon record (other than the Total entry, which shows the percentage difference between award
Michael Curtiz was a Hungarian-born American film director, recognized as one of the most prolific directors in history. He directed classic films from the silent era and numerous others during Hollywood's Golden Age, when the studio system was prevalent. Curtiz was a well-known director in Europe when Warner Bros. invited him to Hollywood in 1926, when he was 39 years of age. He had directed 64 films in Europe, soon helped Warner Bros. become the fastest-growing movie studio. He directed 102 films during his Hollywood career at Warners, where he directed ten actors to Oscar nominations. James Cagney and Joan Crawford won their only Academy Awards under Curtiz's direction, he put Doris Day and John Garfield on screen for the first time, he made stars of Errol Flynn, Olivia de Havilland, Bette Davis. He himself was nominated five times and won twice, once for Best Short Subject for Sons of Liberty and once as Best Director for Casablanca. Curtiz introduced to Hollywood a unique visual style using artistic lighting and fluid camera movement, high crane shots, unusual camera angles.
He was versatile and could handle any kind of picture: melodrama, love story, film noir, war story, Western, or historical epic. He always paid attention to the human-interest aspect of every story, stating that the "human and fundamental problems of real people" were the basis of all good drama. Curtiz helped popularize the classic swashbuckler with films such as Captain Blood and The Adventures of Robin Hood, he directed many dramas which today are considered classics, Angels with Dirty Faces, The Sea Wolf and Mildred Pierce. He directed leading musicals, including Yankee Doodle Dandy, This Is the Army, White Christmas, he made comedies with Life With Father and We're No Angels. Curtiz was born Manó Kaminer to a Jewish family in Budapest, Austria-Hungary, in 1886, where his father was a carpenter and his mother an opera singer. In 1905, he Hungaricised his name to Mihály Kertész. Curtiz had a lower to middle-class upbringing, he recalled during an interview that his family's home was a cramped apartment, where he had to share a small room with his two brothers and a sister.
"Many times we are hungry", he added. After graduating from high school, he studied at Markoszy University, followed by the Royal Academy of Theater and Art, in Budapest, before beginning his career. Curtiz became attracted to the theater, he built a little theater in the cellar of his house when he was 8 years old, where he and five of his friends re-enacted plays. They set up the stage, with scenery and props, Curtiz directed them. After he graduated from college at age 19, he took a job as an actor with a traveling theater company, where he began working as one their traveling players. From that job, he became a pantomimist with a circus for a while, but returned to join another group of traveling players for a few more years, they played Ibsen and Shakespeare depending on in what country they were. They performed throughout Europe, including France, Hungary and Germany, he learned five languages, he had various responsibilities: We had to do everything—make bill posters, print programs, set scenery, mend wardrobe, sometimes arrange chairs in the auditoriums.
Sometimes we traveled in trains, sometimes in stage coaches, sometimes on horseback. Sometimes we played in town halls, sometimes in little restaurants with no scenery at all. Sometimes we gave shows out of doors; those strolling actors were the kindest-hearted people I have known. They would do anything for each other, he worked as Mihály Kertész at the National Hungarian Theater in 1912. That same year, he directed Hungary's first feature film, Ma és holnap, in which he had a leading role, he followed. He was on the Hungarian fencing team at the 1912 Olympic Games in Stockholm. In 1913, Curtiz began living in various cities in Europe to work on silent films, he first went to study at Nordisk studio in Denmark, which led to work as an actor and assistant director to August Blom on Denmark's first multireel feature film, Atlantis. After World War I began in 1914, he returned to Hungary, where he served in the army for a year, before he was wounded fighting on the Russian front. Curtiz wrote of that period: The intoxicating joy of life was interrupted, the world had gone mad...
We were taught to kill. I was drafted into the Emperor's Army... After that, many things happened: destruction, thousands forever silenced, crippled or sent to anonymous graves. Came the collapse. Fate had spared me, he was assigned to make fund-raising documentaries for the Red Cross in Hungary. In 1917, he was made director of production at Phoenix Films, the leading studio in Budapest, where he remained until he left Hungary. However, none of the films he directed there survived intact, most are lost. By 1918, he had become one of Hungary's most important directors, having by directed about 45 films. However, following the end of the war, in 1919, the new communist government nationalized the film industry, so he decided to return to Vienna to direct films there. Curtiz worked at UFA GmbH, a German film company, where he learned to direct large groups of costumed extras, along with using complicated plots, rapid pacing, romantic themes, his career started due to his work for Count Alexander Kolowrat, with whom he made at least 21 films for the count's film studio, Sascha Films.
Curtiz wrote that at Sas
A biographical film, or biopic, is a film that dramatizes the life of a non-fictional or historically-based person or people. Such films show the life of a historical person and the central character's real name is used, they differ from films "based on a true story" or "historical drama films" in that they attempt to comprehensively tell a single person's life story or at least the most important years of their lives. Because the figures portrayed are actual people, whose actions and characteristics are known to the public, biopic roles are considered some of the most demanding of actors and actresses. Ben Kingsley, Johnny Depp, Jim Carrey, Jamie Foxx all gained new-found respect as dramatic actors after starring in biopics: Ben Kingsley as Mahatma Gandhi in Gandhi, Depp as Ed Wood in Ed Wood, Carrey as Andy Kaufman in Man on the Moon, Foxx as Ray Charles in Ray, Eddie Redmayne as Stephen Hawking in The Theory of Everything. In rare cases, sometimes called auto biopics, the subject of the film plays himself or herself: Jackie Robinson in The Jackie Robinson Story.
Biopic scholars include George F. Custen of the College of Staten Island and Dennis P. Bingham of Indiana University – Purdue University Indianapolis. Custen, in Bio/Pics: How Hollywood Constructed Public History, regards the genre as having died with the Hollywood studio era, in particular, Darryl F. Zanuck. On the other hand, Bingham's 2010 study Whose Lives Are They Anyway? The Biopic as Contemporary Film Genre shows how it perpetuates as a codified genre using many of the same tropes used in the studio era that has followed a similar trajectory as that shown by Rick Altman in his study, Film/Genre. Bingham addresses the male biopic and the female biopic as distinct genres from each other, the former dealing with great accomplishments, the latter dealing with female victimization. Ellen Cheshire's Bio-Pics: a life in pictures examines UK/US films from the 1990s and 2000s; each chapter concludes with further viewing list. Christopher Robé has written on the gender norms that underlie the biopic in his article, "Taking Hollywood Back" in the 2009 issue of Cinema Journal.
Roger Ebert defended The Hurricane and distortions in biographical films in general, stating "those who seek the truth about a man from the film of his life might as well seek it from his loving grandmother.... The Hurricane is not a documentary but a parable." Some biopics purposely stretch the truth. Confessions of a Dangerous Mind was based on game show host Chuck Barris' debunked yet popular memoir of the same name, in which he claimed to be a CIA agent. Kafka incorporated both the surreal aspects of his fiction; the Errol Flynn film They Died with Their Boots On tells the story of Custer but is romanticized. The Oliver Stone film The Doors about Jim Morrison, was praised for the similarities between Jim Morrison and actor Val Kilmer, look-wise and singing-wise, but fans and band members did not like the way Val Kilmer portrayed Jim Morrison, a few of the scenes were completely made up. Casting can be controversial for biographical films. Casting is a balance between similarity in looks and ability to portray the characteristics of the person.
Anthony Hopkins felt that he should not have played Richard Nixon in Nixon because of a lack of resemblance between the two. The casting of John Wayne as Genghis Khan in The Conqueror was objected to because of the American Wayne being cast as the Mongol warlord. Egyptian critics criticized the casting of Louis Gossett, Jr. an African American actor, as Egyptian president Anwar Sadat in the 1982 TV miniseries Sadat. Some objected to the casting of Jennifer Lopez in Selena because she is a New York City native of Puerto Rican descent while Selena was Mexican-American; the musical biopic Bohemian Rhapsody, based on the life of Queen singer Freddie Mercury, became the highest-grossing biopic of all time in 2018. Biographical novel Biography in literature List of biographical films
1932 Summer Olympics
The 1932 Summer Olympics known as the Games of the X Olympiad, was an international multi-sport event, held from July 30 to August 14, 1932, in Los Angeles, United States. The Games were held during the worldwide Great Depression and some nations were unable to pay for the trip to Los Angeles. U. S. President Herbert Hoover failed to put in an appearance at the Games; the organizing committee did not record the finances of the Games in their report, although contemporary newspapers claimed that the Games had made a profit of US$1,000,000. The selection of the host city for the 1932 Summer Olympics was made at the 23rd IOC Session in Rome, Italy, in 1923. Remarkably, the selection process consisted of a single bid, from Los Angeles, as there were no bids from any other city, Los Angeles was selected by default to host the 1932 Games. An Olympic Village was built in Baldwin Hills, occupied by the male athletes. Female athletes were housed at the Chapman Park Hotel on Wilshire Boulevard; the victory podium was used for the first time.
The Los Angeles Memorial Coliseum was known in 1932 as Olympic Stadium. Tenth Street, a major thoroughfare in Los Angeles, was renamed Olympic Boulevard in honor of the Games of the Tenth Olympiad. Babe Didrikson won two gold medals in the hurdles event, she competed in a jump-off for a silver in the high jump. Her technique in the jump-off was ruled leaving Didrikson with second place. Paavo Nurmi was suspended from competition by the IAAF for alleged violation of amateur rules. Finns charged that the Swedish officials had used devious tricks in their campaign against Nurmi's amateur status, ceased all athletic relations with Sweden. A year earlier, controversies on the track and in the press had led Finland to withdraw from the Finland-Sweden athletics international. After Nurmi's suspension, Finland did not agree to return to the event until 1939. In field hockey, only three nations took part; the host nation still won a bronze medal. Poland's Stanisława Walasiewicz won the gold medal in the women's 100 m.
After her death in 1980, it was discovered that she was intersex and would have been ineligible to participate. Eddie Tolan won both the 100 m and 200 m sprint events. Romeo Neri won three gold medals in gymnastics. Helene Madison won three gold medals in swimming, while the Japanese upset the men's events and took all but one title. Takeichi Nishi was the gold medalist with his horse Uranus in the equestrian show jumping individual event. Nishi's gold medal is Japan's only gold medal in the equestrian event to this day. Nishi would die in 1945 as an officer stationed in the defense of the island of Iwo Jima, as such is an important character in Clint Eastwood's film, Letters from Iwo Jima. Kusuo Kitamura won the gold medal in the men's 1500 meter freestyle swimming race, he was and continues to be the youngest male swimmer to win a gold medal at the Olympic Games. Dunc Gray won Australia's first cycling gold medal; the Dunc Gray Velodrome, built for the 2000 Sydney Olympic Games, was named after him.
Due to an official's error, the 3,000 m steeplechase went for one extra lap. 117 events in 20 disciplines, comprising 14 sports, were part of the Olympic program in 1932. In one of two Equestrian jumping events no medals were awarded; the number of events in each discipline is noted in parentheses. American football Lacrosse The Art competitions at the 1932 Summer Olympics awarded medals for works inspired by sport-related themes in five categories: architecture, music and sculpture. Fifteen sports venues were used for there 1932 Summer Olympics. In order to control cost in the wake of the Great Depression, existing venues were used, they included two golf courses, two city parks, three public highways, a city road. The Swimming Stadium was the only new venue constructed for these games; the Rose Bowl, constructed in 1921, was made into a temporary velodrome for track cycling events under the auspices of the Union Cycliste Internationale. The Los Angeles Memorial Coliseum, constructed in 1923, was used as the Olympic Stadium.
The Olympic Auditorium was constructed in 1924 in preparation for Los Angeles being awarded the Games. Long Beach Marine Stadium was created in 1925 when Alamitos Bay was dredged further dredged seven years in time for the 1932 Games. Elysian Park, the oldest city park in Los Angeles, was founded in 1886, has been part of the Los Angeles Police Department training academy since 1925; the Riviera Country Club opened in 1926 as the Los Angeles Athletic Club Golf Course and was renamed Riviera by the time of the 1932 Games. The swimming stadium, constructed adjacent to the Coliseum in 1932, was intended to be a temporary structure. Riverside Drive, Los Angeles Avenue, Vineyard Avenue, the Pacific Coast Highway were common driving routes in California at the time of the 1932 Games; the Coliseum was the first home for the Dodgers Major League Baseball team when it moved from Brooklyn, New York in the 1958 season. The following year, it hosted the World Series. Once Dodger Stadium was completed in 1962, the Dodgers moved there.
The Los Angeles Rams National Football League team used the Coliseum as its host stadium from 1946 to 1980 when it moved to Anaheim, located southeast of Los Angeles. It hosted wha
Billy Gray (actor)
William Thomas Gray is an American former actor known for his role as James "Bud" Anderson, Jr. in 193 episodes of the situation comedy Father Knows Best, which aired between 1954 and 1960 on both NBC and CBS. A motorcycle aficionado, Gray maintains a large collection of the vehicles. Gray was born in Los Angeles to actress Beatrice Gray, her husband, William H. Gray, his mother was uncredited in the 1930s and 1940s, having appeared in Otto Preminger's Laura, with Gene Tierney and Dana Andrews. In 1949, Billy Gray and his mother appeared in separate scenes in the film Abbott and Costello Meet the Killer, Boris Karloff. In 1951, at age 13, he appeared in the film Jim Thorpe -- All-American, with Burt Lancaster in the lead role. Gray portrayed the Indian athlete Jim Thorpe as a child; that year, he was chosen to appear in the science fiction picture The Day the Earth Stood Still. Michael Rennie played the part of the alien. In 1952 he appeared in an uncredited role as one of the many children in Ma and Pa Kettle at the Fair.
That same year he played George Murphy's son in MGM's Talk About a Stranger, portraying a boy who saves his money to buy a dog, only to have it killed. He blames a strange reclusive new neighbor played by Kurt Kasznar for the death. Gray in 1952 was slated to play the part of Tagg Oakley in the syndicated western television series Annie Oakley, starring Gail Davis and Brad Johnson. Billy did perform as Tagg in the first of two pilots produced for that series, in the 1952 episode titled "Bull's Eye", which potential sponsors opted not to purchase and underwrite the series. Oddly, the Bull's Eye episode was aired as Season 1, Episode 21; this makes watching the series a bit confusing when Annie's appearance is somewhat different and Tagg is played by a different actor for a single mid season episode. The role of Tagg went to 12-year-old Jimmy Hawkins for the series' second pilot, "Annie Gets Her Man", for the full run of Annie Oakley after sponsors bought the series. Gray instead joined the cast of Father Knows Best, which would premiere nine months after the first broadcast of Annie Oakley in January 1954.
After Gray's brief work on the Annie Oakley series, Warner Bros. in 1953 cast Gray as Wesley Winfield in By the Light of the Silvery Moon, a sequel to On Moonlight Bay in which Gray had played the role of the same Wesley Winfield. He appeared as Alan in the 1953 episode "Shot in the Dark" of the Adventures of Superman, starring George Reeves. In that episode's plot, the character Alan takes a photograph of Superman that could expose the hero's secret identity. In 1953 Billy Gray appeared in "The Girl Next Door" as Dan Dailey's son Joe Carter. In 1953 Billy Gray appeared in "All I Desire" as Barbara Stanwyck's son Ted Murdoch. In 1955, Gray appeared in The Seven Little Foys, which starred Bob Hope as famed vaudeville entertainer Eddie Foy, in the teen role of Bryan Lincoln Foy. In 1957, while still on Father Knows Best, Gray appeared as Mike Edwards in the episode "Come Back Darling Asta" of Peter Lawford's NBC crime series The Thin Man, based on the work of Dashiell Hammett. After Father Knows Best, Gray appeared in several dozen single-appearance television roles.
In 1960, he guest-starred as Frankie Niles in the episode "Dark Return" of the ABC western series Stagecoach West, a program similar to the longer-running Wagon Train. That same year he portrayed David Ross in the episode "Ginger's Big Romance" on Bachelor Father. In 1961, he played Johnny Blatner in the episode "Two-Way Deal" of the Henry Fonda/Allen Case NBC western The Deputy, he appeared twice in 1961 on the anthology series General Electric Theater. That same year he was Perry Hatch in "The Hatbox" of CBS's Alfred Hitchcock Presents. In 1962, he appeared on CBS's The Red Skelton Show, his other roles included appearances on The Greatest Show on Earth and Combat!. He guest-starred in such series as Rawhide and Trial, Custer. In 1962, at age 24, Gray was arrested for possession of marijuana; the arrest was blamed for costing him film and television roles. He appeared in the 1971 film Dusty and Sweets McGee. Critic Leonard Maltin claimed incorrectly that Gray had been recruited for the role of "City Life" from actual addicts and narcotics dealers.
Maltin did not remove the false information from his guide for another two decades, only after Gray filed suit for libel. In 1977, Gray appeared on both Father Knows Best television movie reunion specials that aired on NBC: the Father Knows Best Family Reunion special on May 15, 1977, the Father Knows Best: Home for Christmas special on December 18, 1977. Both specials were reunions of the entire cast from the former series that had left the air 17 years earlier. In a 1983 interview, Gray spoke disparagingly of Father Knows Best:"I wish there was some way I could tell the kids not to believe it; the dialogue, the situations, the characters they were all false. The show did everyone a disservice; the girls were always trained to pretend to be helpless to attract men. The show contributed to a lot of the problems between men and women that we see today.... I think we were all well motivated, but what we did was run a hoax.'Father Knows Best' purported to be a reasonable facsimile of life. And the bad thing is.
It revolved around not wanting to tell the truth, either out of embarrassment or not wanting to hurt someone. If I could say anything to make up for all the years I lent myself to, it would be,'You Know Best." As the co-owner of a company called BigRock Engineering, Gray markets several products that h