Georgia (U.S. state)
Georgia is a state in the southeastern United States. It was established in 1733, the last of the original Thirteen Colonies, named after King George II of Great Britain, Georgia was the fourth state to ratify the United States Constitution, on January 2,1788. It declared its secession from the Union on January 19,1861 and it was the last state to be restored to the Union, on July 15,1870. Georgia is the 24th largest and the 8th most populous of the 50 United States, from 2007 to 2008,14 of Georgias counties ranked among the nations 100 fastest-growing, second only to Texas. Georgia is known as the Peach State and the Empire State of the South, Atlanta is the states capital, its most populous city and has been named a global city. Georgia is bordered to the south by Florida, to the east by the Atlantic Ocean and South Carolina, to the west by Alabama, the states northern part is in the Blue Ridge Mountains, part of the Appalachian Mountains system. Georgias highest point is Brasstown Bald at 4,784 feet above sea level, Georgia is the largest state entirely east of the Mississippi River in land area.
Before settlement by Europeans, Georgia was inhabited by the mound building cultures, the British colony of Georgia was founded by James Oglethorpe on February 12,1733. The colony was administered by the Trustees for the Establishment of the Colony of Georgia in America under a charter issued by King George II. The Trustees implemented a plan for the colonys settlement, known as the Oglethorpe Plan. In 1742 the colony was invaded by the Spanish during the War of Jenkins Ear, in 1752, after the government failed to renew subsidies that had helped support the colony, the Trustees turned over control to the crown. Georgia became a colony, with a governor appointed by the king. The Province of Georgia was one of the Thirteen Colonies that revolted against British rule in the American Revolution by signing the 1776 Declaration of Independence, the State of Georgias first constitution was ratified in February 1777. Georgia was the 10th state to ratify the Articles of Confederation on July 24,1778, in 1829, gold was discovered in the North Georgia mountains, which led to the Georgia Gold Rush and an established federal mint in Dahlonega, which continued its operation until 1861.
The subsequent influx of white settlers put pressure on the government to land from the Cherokee Nation. In 1830, President Andrew Jackson signed the Indian Removal Act into law, sending many eastern Native American nations to reservations in present-day Oklahoma, including all of Georgias tribes. Despite the Supreme Courts ruling in Worcester v. Georgia that ruled U. S. states were not permitted to redraw the Indian boundaries, President Jackson and the state of Georgia ignored the ruling. In 1838, his successor, Martin Van Buren, dispatched troops to gather the Cherokee
Energy policy of the United States
Energy policy may include legislation, international treaties and incentives to investment, guidelines for energy conservation and other public policy techniques. Several mandates have been proposed over the years, such as gasoline will never exceed $1, state-specific energy-efficiency incentive programs play a significant role in the overall energy policy of the United States. The United States refused to endorse the Kyoto Protocol, preferring to let the market drive CO2 reductions to mitigate global warming, thanks to new technologies such as fracking, the United States has in 2014 resumed its former role as the top oil producer in the world. In the Colonial era the energy policy of the United States was for use of standing timber for heating. In the 19th century, new emphasis was placed on access to coal and its use for transport, whales were rendered into lamp oil. Later, coal gas was fractionated for use as lighting and town gas, natural gas was first used in America for lighting in 1816.
It has grown in importance for use in homes and power plants, but natural gas production reached its U. S. peak in 1973, coal provided the bulk of the US energy needs well into the 20th century. Most urban homes had a coal bin and a coal fired furnace, over the years these were replaced with oil furnaces, not because of it being cheaper but because it was easier and safer. Coal remains far cheaper than oil, the biggest use of oil has come from the development of the automobile. By 1950, oil consumption exceeded that of coal, interstate Highways helped make cars the major means of personal transportation. As oil imports increased, US foreign policy was drawn into Middle East politics, supporting oil-producing Saudi Arabia. Hydroelectricity was the basis of Nikola Teslas introduction of the U. S. electricity grid, starting at Niagara Falls, NY in 1883. Electricity generated by major dams like the Jensen Dam, TVA Project, Grand Coulee Dam and Hoover Dam still produce some of the lowest-priced, rural electrification strung power lines to many more areas.
Utilities have their rates set to earn a revenue stream that provides them with a constant 10% – 13% rate of return based on operating costs, increases or decreases of the operating costs of electricity production are passed directly through to the consumers. The federal government provided substantially larger subsidies to fossil fuels than to renewables in the 2002–2008 period, subsidies to fossil fuels totaled approximately $72 billion over the study period, representing a direct cost to taxpayers. Subsidies for renewable fuels, totaled $29 billion over the same period, in some cases, the U. S. has used its energy policy as a means to pursue other international goals. Richard Heinberg, a professor from Santa Rosa, California argues that a declassified CIA document shows that the U. S. used oil prices as leverage against the economy of the Soviet Union. When combined with other U. S. efforts to drain Soviet resources, the United States receives approximately 84% of its energy from fossil fuels
C-SPAN, an acronym for Cable-Satellite Public Affairs Network, is an American cable and satellite television network that was created in 1979 by the cable television industry as a public service. C-SPAN televises many proceedings of the United States federal government, as well as public affairs programming. Its coverage of political and policy events is unedited, thereby providing viewers with unfiltered information about politics, non-political coverage includes historical programming, programs dedicated to non-fiction books, and interview programs with noteworthy individuals associated with public policy. The network operates independently, and neither the cable industry nor Congress has control of the content of its programming and other public affairs event and policy discussions. Lamb shared his idea with several executives, who helped him launch the network. Among them were Bob Rosencrans who provided $25,000 of initial funding in 1979 and John D. Evans who provided the wiring and access to the headend needed for the distribution of the C-SPAN signal.
C-SPAN was launched on March 19,1979, in time for the first televised session made available by the House of Representatives, upon its debut, only 3.5 million homes were wired for C-SPAN, and the network had just three employees. The second C-SPAN channel, C-SPAN2, followed on June 2,1986 when the U. S. Senate permitted itself to be televised, C-SPAN Radio began operations on October 9,1997, covering similar events as the television networks and often simulcasting their programming. The station broadcasts on WCSP in Washington, D. C. is available on XM Satellite Radio channel 120 and is streamed live at c-span. org and it was formerly available on Sirius Satellite Radio from 2002 to 2006. Lamb semi-retired in March 2012, coinciding with the channels 33rd anniversary, on January 12,2017, the online feed for C-SPAN1 was interrupted and replaced by a feed from the Russian television network RT for approximately 10 minutes. C-SPAN announced that they were troubleshooting the incident and were operating under the assumption that it was an internal routing issue, C-SPAN celebrated its 10th anniversary in 1989 with a three-hour retrospective, featuring Lamb recalling the development of the network.
Five years later, the series American Presidents, Life Portraits, in 2004, C-SPAN celebrated its 25th anniversary, by which time the flagship network was viewed in 86 million homes, C-SPAN2 was in 70 million homes and C-SPAN3 was in eight million homes. Also included in the 25th anniversary was an essay contest for viewers to write in about how C-SPAN has influenced their life regarding community service. For example, one essay contest winner wrote about how C-SPANs non-fiction book programming serves as a resource in his mission to record non-fiction audio books for people who are blind. The network had an essay contest, the winner of which was invited to host an hour of the broadcast from C-SPANs Capitol Hill studios. C-SPAN continues to expand its coverage of government proceedings, with a history of requests to government officials for greater access, in December 2009, Lamb wrote to leaders in the House and Senate, requesting that negotiations for health care reform be televised by C-SPAN.
Committee meetings on health care were broadcast subsequently by C-SPAN and may be viewed on the C-SPAN website, in November 2010, Lamb wrote to incoming House Speaker John Boehner requesting changes to restrictions on cameras in the House. In particular, C-SPAN asked to add some of its own robotically operated cameras to the existing government-controlled cameras in the House chamber, in February 2011, Boehner denied the request
Geographic Names Information System
It is a type of gazetteer. GNIS was developed by the United States Geological Survey in cooperation with the United States Board on Geographic Names to promote the standardization of feature names, the database is part of a system that includes topographic map names and bibliographic references. The names of books and historic maps that confirm the feature or place name are cited, variant names, alternatives to official federal names for a feature, are recorded. Each feature receives a permanent, unique feature record identifier, sometimes called the GNIS identifier, the database never removes an entry, except in cases of obvious duplication. The GNIS accepts proposals for new or changed names for U. S. geographical features, the general public can make proposals at the GNIS web site and can review the justifications and supporters of the proposals. The Bureau of the Census defines Census Designated Places as a subset of locations in the National Geographic Names Database, U. S. Postal Service Publication 28 gives standards for addressing mail.
In this publication, the postal service defines two-letter state abbreviations, street identifiers such as boulevard and street, department of the Interior, U. S. Geological Survey, National Mapping Division, Digital Gazeteer, Users Manual. Least Heat Moon, Blue Highways, A Journey Into America, standard was withdrawn in September 2008, See Federal Register Notice, Vol.73, No. 170, page 51276 Report, Principles and Procedures, Domestic Geographic Names, U. S. Postal Service Publication 28, November 2000. Board on Geographic Names website Geographic Names Information System Proposals from the general public Meeting minutes
Presidency of Jimmy Carter
The presidency of Jimmy Carter began on January 20,1977 at noon Eastern Standard Time, when Jimmy Carter was inaugurated as President of the United States, and ended on January 20,1981. A Democrat, he took office after defeating Republican incumbent President Gerald Ford in the 1976 presidential election, at the end of his administration, Carter had seen a substantial decrease in unemployment and a partial reduction of the deficit, but the recession ultimately continued. Carter created the United States Department of Education and United States Department of Energy, established an energy policy and pursued civil service. In foreign affairs, Carter strongly emphasized human rights throughout his career and he initiated the Camp David Accords, the Panama Canal Treaties and the second round of Strategic Arms Limitation Talks. Carters reorganization efforts separated the Department of Health and Welfare into the Department of Education and he signed into law a major Civil Service Reform, the first in over 100 years.
On January 20,1977, his first day in office, the Head Start program was expanded, with the addition of 43,000 children and families, while the percentage of nondefense dollars spent on education was doubled. The Child Nutrition Amendments Act of 1978 introduced a national standard for program eligibility based on income standards prescribed for reduced-price school lunches. The Act strengthened the nutrition education component of the WIC program by requiring the provision of education to all program participants. A Fair Debt Collection Practices Act was passed with the aim of prohibiting abusive, programs from the Occupational Safety and Health Administration and womens programs were strengthened and common sense priorities led to focus on major health problems. The National Consumer Cooperative Bank Act of 1978 sought to put aside for low-interest loans to start cooperatives. Also under Carters watch, the Airline Deregulation Act of 1978 was passed and he enacted deregulation in the trucking, rail and finance industries.
Among Presidents who served at least one term, Carter is the only one who never made an appointment to the Supreme Court. Carter was the first president to address the topic of gay rights and he opposed the Briggs Initiative, a California ballot measure that would have banned gays and supporters of gay rights from being public school teachers. His administration was the first to meet with a group of gay rights activists and he has stated that he opposes all forms of discrimination on the basis of sexual orientation and believes there should be equal protection under the law for people who differ in sexual orientation. Despite calling for a reform of the tax system in his presidential campaign, President Carter reduced the top tax rate on capital gains to 28% from as high as 98%. His Alaska National Interest Lands Conservation Act created 103 million acres of park land in Alaska. Carter successfully campaigned as a Washington outsider, critical of President Gerald Ford, as well as the Democrat-controlled U. S.
Congress, as president, Carter continued this theme. It was this refusal to play by the rules of Washington, from the start, Hamilton Jordan and Frank Moore feuded with leading Democrats like House Speaker Tip ONeill
Plains is a town in Sumter County, United States. The population was 776 at the 2010 census and it is part of the Americus Micropolitan Statistical Area. Plains is known as the birthplace and home of Jimmy Carter, originally inhabited by the Muscogee people, by the 1840s three small settlements existed nearby, Plains of Dura, Magnolia Springs, and Lebanon. As railway access expanded into the region in response to increased cotton farming, as businesses rapidly developed, local businessmen successfully petitioned the State Legislature to shorten Plains of Dura to Plains. Plains was subsequently incorporated in 1896, Plains continued to experience growth fueled by cotton cultivation well into the early twentieth century. A substantial school and the pioneering Wise Sanitarium were both built in the 1920s, despite differentiation into peanut cultivation, the Great Depression deprived the community of much of its prosperity. Plains remained a quiet Southern town until Jimmy Carter rose to prominence in the 1970s.
During the 1976 Presidential Election and for years afterwards, Plains saw a giant influx in tourism. Nearly ten thousand people would pour into the community daily, according to the United States Census Bureau, the city has a total area of 0.8 square miles, all of it land. The citys boundary is in the shape of a circle, Plains, Ga has a center longitude/latitude point which is -83.0813 /33.4553. Koinonia Farm, a non-profit multi-racial, multi-cultural Christian community where all possessions are mutually owned, is located nearby, andersonville National Historic Site and the National Prisoner of War Museum are located in the vicinity of Plains. Georgia Southwestern State University is located in the town of Americus, some students choosing to live. Westville, a re-created town depicting the history of mid-nineteenth century Georgia, is located in the nearby town of Lumpkin in adjacent Stewart County. This area climate is characterized by hot, humid summers and generally mild to cool winters, according to the Köppen Climate Classification system, Plains has a humid subtropical climate, abbreviated Cfa on climate maps.
As of the census of 2000, there were 637 people,215 households, the population density was 780.0 people per square mile. There were 244 housing units at a density of 298.8 per square mile. The racial makeup of the city was 38. 62% White,59. 81% African American,1. 26% from other races, hispanic or Latino of any race were 2. 83% of the population. 34. 9% of all households were made up of individuals and 19. 5% had someone living alone who was 65 years of age or older, the average household size was 2.50 and the average family size was 3.31
Iran hostage crisis
The Iran hostage crisis was a diplomatic standoff between Iran and the United States. S. It stands as the longest hostage crisis in recorded history, the crisis was described by the Western media as an entanglement of vengeance and mutual incomprehension. President Jimmy Carter called the victims of terrorism and anarchy and said. After his overthrow in 1979, the Shah Mohammad Reza Pahlavi was purportedly admitted to the United States for cancer treatment, Iran demanded that he be returned to stand trial for crimes he was accused of committing during his reign. Specifically, Pahlavi was accused of committing crimes against Iranian citizens with the help of his secret police, Iranians saw the decision to grant him asylum as American complicity in those atrocities. The Americans saw the hostage-taking as a violation of the principles of international law. The crisis reached a climax after diplomatic negotiations failed to win release for the hostages, six American diplomats who had evaded capture were eventually rescued by a Canadian effort on January 27,1980.
Shah Pahlavi left the United States in December 1979 and was granted asylum in Egypt. In September 1980, the Iraqi military invaded Iran, beginning the Iran–Iraq War and these events led the Iranian government to enter negotiations with the U. S. with Algeria acting as a mediator. The hostages were released into United States custody the day after the signing of the Algiers Accords, just minutes after the new American president. The crisis is considered an episode in the history of Iran–United States relations. Political analysts cite it as a factor in the downfall of Jimmy Carter’s presidency. In Iran, the crisis strengthened the prestige of Ayatollah Ruhollah Khomeini, the crisis led to the United States’ economic sanctions against Iran, further weakening ties between the two countries. In February 1979, less than a year before the crisis, for several decades before that, the United States had allied with and supported the Shah. During World War II, Allied powers Britain and the Soviet Union occupied Iran to force the abdication of first Pahlavi monarch Reza Shah Pahlavi, in favor of his eldest son, Crown Prince Mohammad.
Because of its importance in the Allied victory, Iran was subsequently called The Bridge of Victory by Winston Churchill, by the 1950s, Mohammad Reza Pahlavi was engaged in a power struggle with Iran’s prime minister, Mohammad Mosaddegh, an immediate descendant of the preceding Qajar dynasty. Mosaddegh led a strike on behalf of impoverished Iranians, demanding a share of the nation’s petroleum revenue from Britain’s Anglo-Iranian Oil Company. However, he overstepped in trying to get $50 million in damages, in 1953, the British and American spy agencies helped Iranian royalists depose Mosaddegh in a military coup détat codenamed Operation Ajax, allowing the Shah to extend his power
National Register of Historic Places
The National Register of Historic Places is the United States federal governments official list of districts, buildings and objects deemed worthy of preservation. The passage of the National Historic Preservation Act in 1966 established the National Register, of the more than one million properties on the National Register,80,000 are listed individually. The remainder are contributing resources within historic districts, each year approximately 30,000 properties are added to the National Register as part of districts or by individual listings. For most of its history the National Register has been administered by the National Park Service and its goals are to help property owners and interest groups, such as the National Trust for Historic Preservation, coordinate and protect historic sites in the United States. While National Register listings are mostly symbolic, their recognition of significance provides some financial incentive to owners of listed properties, protection of the property is not guaranteed.
During the nomination process, the property is evaluated in terms of the four criteria for inclusion on the National Register of Historic Places, the application of those criteria has been the subject of criticism by academics of history and preservation, as well as the public and politicians. Occasionally, historic sites outside the proper, but associated with the United States are listed. Properties can be nominated in a variety of forms, including individual properties, historic districts, the Register categorizes general listings into one of five types of properties, site, building, or object. National Register Historic Districts are defined geographical areas consisting of contributing and non-contributing properties, some properties are added automatically to the National Register when they become administered by the National Park Service. These include National Historic Landmarks, National Historic Sites, National Historical Parks, National Military Parks/Battlefields, National Memorials, on October 15,1966, the Historic Preservation Act created the National Register of Historic Places and the corresponding State Historic Preservation Offices.
Initially, the National Register consisted of the National Historic Landmarks designated before the Registers creation, approval of the act, which was amended in 1980 and 1992, represented the first time the United States had a broad-based historic preservation policy. To administer the newly created National Register of Historic Places, the National Park Service of the U. S. Department of the Interior, hartzog, Jr. established an administrative division named the Office of Archeology and Historic Preservation. Hartzog charged OAHP with creating the National Register program mandated by the 1966 law, ernest Connally was the Offices first director. Within OAHP new divisions were created to deal with the National Register, the first official Keeper of the Register was William J. Murtagh, an architectural historian. During the Registers earliest years in the late 1960s and early 1970s, organization was lax and SHPOs were small and underfunded. A few years in 1979, the NPS history programs affiliated with both the U. S.
National Parks system and the National Register were categorized formally into two Assistant Directorates. Established were the Assistant Directorate for Archeology and Historic Preservation and the Assistant Directorate for Park Historic Preservation, from 1978 until 1981, the main agency for the National Register was the Heritage Conservation and Recreation Service of the United States Department of the Interior. In February 1983, the two assistant directorates were merged to promote efficiency and recognize the interdependency of their programs, jerry L. Rogers was selected to direct this newly merged associate directorate
Atlanta is the capital of and the most populous city in the U. S. state of Georgia, with an estimated 2015 population of 463,878. Atlanta is the cultural and economic center of the Atlanta metropolitan area, home to 5,710,795 people, Atlanta is the county seat of Fulton County, and a small portion of the city extends eastward into DeKalb County. In 1837, Atlanta was founded at the intersection of two lines, and the city rose from the ashes of the American Civil War to become a national center of commerce. Atlantas economy is considered diverse, with dominant sectors that include logistics and business services, media operations, Atlanta has topographic features that include rolling hills and dense tree coverage. Revitalization of Atlantas neighborhoods, initially spurred by the 1996 Olympics in Atlanta, has intensified in the 21st century, altering the demographics, politics. Prior to the arrival of European settlers in north Georgia, Creek Indians inhabited the area, standing Peachtree, a Creek village located where Peachtree Creek flows into the Chattahoochee River, was the closest Indian settlement to what is now Atlanta.
As part of the removal of Native Americans from northern Georgia from 1802 to 1825, the Creek ceded the area in 1821. In 1836, the Georgia General Assembly voted to build the Western, the initial route was to run southward from Chattanooga to a terminus east of the Chattahoochee River, which would be linked to Savannah. After engineers surveyed various possible locations for the terminus, the zero milepost was driven into the ground in what is now Five Points. A year later, the area around the milepost had developed into a settlement, first known as Terminus, and as Thrasherville after a merchant who built homes. By 1842, the town had six buildings and 30 residents and was renamed Marthasville to honor the Governors daughter, later, J. Edgar Thomson, Chief Engineer of the Georgia Railroad, suggested the town be renamed Atlantica-Pacifica, which was shortened to Atlanta. The residents approved, and the town was incorporated as Atlanta on December 29,1847, by 1860, Atlantas population had grown to 9,554.
During the American Civil War, the nexus of multiple railroads in Atlanta made the city a hub for the distribution of military supplies, in 1864, the Union Army moved southward following the capture of Chattanooga and began its invasion of north Georgia. On the next day, Mayor James Calhoun surrendered Atlanta to the Union Army, on November 11,1864, Sherman prepared for the Union Armys March to the Sea by ordering Atlanta to be burned to the ground, sparing only the citys churches and hospitals. After the Civil War ended in 1865, Atlanta was gradually rebuilt, due to the citys superior rail transportation network, the state capital was moved from Milledgeville to Atlanta in 1868. In the 1880 Census, Atlanta surpassed Savannah as Georgias largest city, by 1885, the founding of the Georgia School of Technology and the citys black colleges had established Atlanta as a center for higher education. In 1895, Atlanta hosted the Cotton States and International Exposition, during the first decades of the 20th century, Atlanta experienced a period of unprecedented growth.
In three decades time, Atlantas population tripled as the city expanded to include nearby streetcar suburbs
President of the United States
The President of the United States is the head of state and head of government of the United States. The president directs the executive branch of the government and is the commander-in-chief of the United States Armed Forces. The president is considered to be one of the worlds most powerful political figures, the role includes being the commander-in-chief of the worlds most expensive military with the second largest nuclear arsenal and leading the nation with the largest economy by nominal GDP. The office of President holds significant hard and soft power both in the United States and abroad, Constitution vests the executive power of the United States in the president. The president is empowered to grant federal pardons and reprieves. The president is responsible for dictating the legislative agenda of the party to which the president is a member. The president directs the foreign and domestic policy of the United States, since the office of President was established in 1789, its power has grown substantially, as has the power of the federal government as a whole.
However, nine vice presidents have assumed the presidency without having elected to the office. The Twenty-second Amendment prohibits anyone from being elected president for a third term, in all,44 individuals have served 45 presidencies spanning 57 full four-year terms. On January 20,2017, Donald Trump was sworn in as the 45th, in 1776, the Thirteen Colonies, acting through the Second Continental Congress, declared political independence from Great Britain during the American Revolution. The new states, though independent of each other as nation states, desiring to avoid anything that remotely resembled a monarchy, Congress negotiated the Articles of Confederation to establish a weak alliance between the states. Out from under any monarchy, the states assigned some formerly royal prerogatives to Congress, only after all the states agreed to a resolution settling competing western land claims did the Articles take effect on March 1,1781, when Maryland became the final state to ratify them.
In 1783, the Treaty of Paris secured independence for each of the former colonies, with peace at hand, the states each turned toward their own internal affairs. Prospects for the convention appeared bleak until James Madison and Edmund Randolph succeeded in securing George Washingtons attendance to Philadelphia as a delegate for Virginia. It was through the negotiations at Philadelphia that the presidency framed in the U. S. The first power the Constitution confers upon the president is the veto, the Presentment Clause requires any bill passed by Congress to be presented to the president before it can become law. Once the legislation has been presented, the president has three options, Sign the legislation, the bill becomes law. Veto the legislation and return it to Congress, expressing any objections, in this instance, the president neither signs nor vetoes the legislation
You may be looking for the Jimmy Carter Library and Museum. The Carter Centers stated goal is to human rights and alleviate human suffering, including helping improve the quality of life for people in more than 80 countries. In 2007, he wrote an autobiography entitled Beyond the White House, Waging Peace, Fighting Disease, Building Hope, the Center was founded in 1982 and dedicated in 1986 with William Foege as its executive director. John Hardman was appointed director in 1993, and during the 1990s the Center received several multimillion-dollar donations to fight Guinea worm disease. The Center is governed by a board of trustees, which oversees the organization’s assets and property and promotes its objectives, a community advisory group – the Board of Councilors – includes public and private-sector leaders who support The Carter Center and its activities in their communities and organizations. Members attend quarterly presentations on the Center’s work, CEO Ambassador Mary Ann Peters oversees the Center’s day-to-day operations and staff of 175, which includes international experts in the fields of peace and health.
More than 100 student interns from universities around the world assist the staff each year, the Carter Center collaborates with other public and private organizations. The Carter Center is a pioneer of election observation, sending teams of observers to determine the legitimacy of 101 elections in 39 countries since 1989. Carter Center observers analyze election laws, assess voter education and registration processes, teams typically include 30-100 highly qualified impartial observers – regional leaders, political scientists, regional specialists, and election observation professionals. The Carter Center sends observers only when invited by a country’s electoral authorities, observers do not interfere in the electoral process and do not represent the U. S. government. The Center played a key role – with the U. N, electoral Assistance Division and the National Democratic Institute – in building consensus on a common set of international principles for election observation. It is leading the effort to develop effective methodologies for observing elections that employ new electronic voting technologies, Democratic initiatives in Latin America include support for regional access-to-information programs, creation of an inter-American support network, and reform of political campaign financing.
The Center-based Council of Presidents and Prime Ministers of the Americas plays an important role in accomplishing these objectives, the Carter Center promotes the dissemination to emerging democracies and regional organizations of models and best practices for democratic governance. The goal is to empower those in transitioning countries who are trying to build democratic institutions. The Carter Center believes all people are entitled to basic human rights and these rights include political rights, such as peace and self-governance, as well as the social rights of health care, food and economic opportunity. The Center actively supports human rights defenders around the world, in partnership with Human Rights First and the U. N. High Commissioner for Human Rights, the Center holds a human rights defenders policy forum hosted by President Carter in Atlanta. President and Mrs. Carter have intervened with heads of state on behalf of human rights defenders and they often take their human rights concerns to heads of state in personal meetings and through letters