Cheng Pei-pei is a Chinese actress best known for her performance in the 1966 King Hu wuxia film Come Drink with Me. She is more known for her portrayal of Jade Fox in the award-winning 2000 wuxia film, Crouching Tiger, Hidden Dragon. Cheng first appeared in the 1964 Taiwanese drama film Lovers' Rock. Cheng is best known for starring in the 1966 Hong Kong wuxia film Come Drink with Me, directed by King Hu. Set during the Ming Dynasty, it stars Cheng as Golden Swallow, a skilled swordswoman on a mission to rescue her brother. Cheng continued to play expert swordswomen in a number of films throughout the 1960s. In 2000, she returned to international attention with her role as Jade Fox in Ang Lee's Crouching Tiger, Hidden Dragon, she followed this up with her portrayal of Long Po in the 2004 television miniseries Watery Moon, Hollow Sky, shown on Asian-American television as Paradise. She continues to work for Zhouyi Media in mainland China. Cheng Pei-pei on IMDb Cheng Pei-pei at the Hong Kong Movie DataBase Cheng Pei-pei at AllMovie Cheng Pei-pei at Rotten Tomatoes Cheng Pei-pei entry at Lovehkfilm.com
Hanyu Pinyin abbreviated to pinyin, is the official romanization system for Standard Chinese in mainland China and to some extent in Taiwan. It is used to teach Standard Mandarin Chinese, written using Chinese characters; the system includes four diacritics denoting tones. Pinyin without tone marks is used to spell Chinese names and words in languages written with the Latin alphabet, in certain computer input methods to enter Chinese characters; the pinyin system was developed in the 1950s by many linguists, including Zhou Youguang, based on earlier forms of romanizations of Chinese. It was published by revised several times; the International Organization for Standardization adopted pinyin as an international standard in 1982, was followed by the United Nations in 1986. The system was adopted as the official standard in Taiwan in 2009, where it is used for international events rather than for educational or computer-input purposes, but "some cities and organizations, notably in the south of Taiwan, did not accept this", so it remains one of several rival romanization systems in use.
The word Hànyǔ means'the spoken language of the Han people', while Pīnyīn means'spelled sounds'. In 1605, the Jesuit missionary Matteo Ricci published Xizi Qiji in Beijing; this was the first book to use the Roman alphabet to write the Chinese language. Twenty years another Jesuit in China, Nicolas Trigault, issued his Xi Ru Ermu Zi at Hangzhou. Neither book had much immediate impact on the way in which Chinese thought about their writing system, the romanizations they described were intended more for Westerners than for the Chinese. One of the earliest Chinese thinkers to relate Western alphabets to Chinese was late Ming to early Qing dynasty scholar-official, Fang Yizhi; the first late Qing reformer to propose that China adopt a system of spelling was Song Shu. A student of the great scholars Yu Yue and Zhang Taiyan, Song had been to Japan and observed the stunning effect of the kana syllabaries and Western learning there; this galvanized him into activity on a number of fronts, one of the most important being reform of the script.
While Song did not himself create a system for spelling Sinitic languages, his discussion proved fertile and led to a proliferation of schemes for phonetic scripts. The Wade–Giles system was produced by Thomas Wade in 1859, further improved by Herbert Giles in the Chinese–English Dictionary of 1892, it was popular and used in English-language publications outside China until 1979. In the early 1930s, Communist Party of China leaders trained in Moscow introduced a phonetic alphabet using Roman letters, developed in the Soviet Oriental Institute of Leningrad and was intended to improve literacy in the Russian Far East; this Sin Wenz or "New Writing" was much more linguistically sophisticated than earlier alphabets, but with the major exception that it did not indicate tones of Chinese. In 1940, several thousand members attended a Border Region Sin Wenz Society convention. Mao Zedong and Zhu De, head of the army, both contributed their calligraphy for the masthead of the Sin Wenz Society's new journal.
Outside the CCP, other prominent supporters included Sun Fo. Over thirty journals soon appeared written in Sin Wenz, plus large numbers of translations, some contemporary Chinese literature, a spectrum of textbooks. In 1940, the movement reached an apex when Mao's Border Region Government declared that the Sin Wenz had the same legal status as traditional characters in government and public documents. Many educators and political leaders looked forward to the day when they would be universally accepted and replace Chinese characters. Opposition arose, because the system was less well adapted to writing regional languages, therefore would require learning Mandarin. Sin Wenz fell into relative disuse during the following years. In 1943, the U. S. military engaged Yale University to develop a romanization of Mandarin Chinese for its pilots flying over China. The resulting system is close to pinyin, but does not use English letters in unfamiliar ways. Medial semivowels are written with y and w, apical vowels with r or z.
Accent marks are used to indicate tone. Pinyin was created by Chinese linguists, including Zhou Youguang, as part of a Chinese government project in the 1950s. Zhou is called "the father of pinyin," Zhou worked as a banker in New York when he decided to return to China to help rebuild the country after the establishment of the People's Republic of China in 1949, he became an economics professor in Shanghai, in 1955, when China's Ministry of Education created a Committee for the Reform of the Chinese Written Language, Premier Zhou Enlai assigned Zhou Youguang the task of developing a new romanization system, despite the fact that he was not a professional linguist. Hanyu Pinyin was based on several existing systems: Gwoyeu Romatzyh of 1928, Latinxua Sin Wenz of 1931, the diacritic markings from zhuyin. "I'm not the father of pinyin," Zhou said years later. It's a lo
One-Armed Swordsman is a 1967 Hong Kong wuxia film produced by the Shaw Brothers Studio. Directed by Chang Cheh, it was the first of the new style of wuxia films emphasizing male anti-heroes, violent swordplay and heavy bloodletting, it was the first Hong Kong film to make HK$1 million at the local box office, propelling its star Jimmy Wang to super stardom. This film becomes the first in the One-Armed Swordsman trilogy. A sequel was released in 1969 called Return of the One-Armed Swordsman, followed by The New One-Armed Swordsman in 1971, all directed by Chang Cheh, it has since achieved classic status in Hong Kong cinema. In the Hong Kong Film Award's 2005 poll, One-Armed Swordsman was voted as the 15th best Chinese language film; the Golden Sword school is attacked by bandits. The servant Fang Cheng sacrifices his life to protect his master Qi Ru Feng. In gratitude, Qi accepts Fang Kang, as his student. Years Fang Kang is scorned by his snobbish fellow students because of his poor background.
Deciding that he will only cause trouble for his master Fang Kang leaves the school only to run into his classmates and his master's spoiled daughter, Pei Er. In the ensuing fight Fang's right arm is cut off by Pei Er, angry at his indifference towards her. Stumbling away, Fang falls off a bridge into the passing boat of a peasant girl Xiao Man. Xiao Man nurses him back to the two fall in love. Fang Kang is depressed as he is unable to practice his swordsmanship. Reluctantly, Xiao Man gives him a half-burnt kung-fu manual which she had inherited from her now dead parents. With its help, Fang Kang is able to master a new one-armed style of swordplay, making him stronger than before. Meanwhile, master Qi Ru Feng is preparing for his 55th birthday and has invited all of his students to the celebration to choose a successor from amongst them so that he can retire from the martial arts world. However, his old enemies the Long-armed Devil and the Smiling Tiger Cheng are taking the opportunity to destroy Qi Ru Feng.
Using a specially designed "sword-lock", they ambush and kill Qi's students travelling to the celebration. Fang Kang inadvertently learns of the plot and, breaking his promise to Xiao Man not to involve himself in the martial arts world, rushes to save his master, he is delayed en route by the Long Armed Devil's accomplices and when he arrives the Long Armed Devil has killed most of the students and wounded Qi Ru Feng. In a vicious battle, Fang Kang manages to kill the Long Armed Devil, but chooses to return to Xiao Man and become a farmer, instead of taking his master's place at the school. Jimmy Wang as Fang Kang Lisa Chiao Chiao as Xiao Man Tien Feng as Qi Ru Feng Angela Pan as Qi Pei Er Yeung Chi-hing as Long Armed Devil Tang Ti as Smiling Tiger Cheng Tian Shou Fan Mei-sheng as Guo Sheng / Brother Hua Wong Sai-git as Qin Da Chuan Cheung Pooi-saan as Sun Hao Fan Dan as Feng's rich disciple Ku Feng as Fang Chang Chen Yen-yen as Feng's wife Wong Chung-shun as Wei Xuan Cheng Lui as Deng Chong Chieh Yuan as Lu Zhen Wang Kuang-yu as Pei Xun Tong Gai as Ding Peng Lau Kar-leung as Ba Shuang Hao Li-jen as Grandpa Wang Chiu Hung as Ah Shun Chai No as Brigand Chief Ma Chow Siu-loi as Brigand Chief Xu Hung Lau as Feng's disciple Cliff Lok as Feng's disciple Lau Gong as Feng's disciple Siu Lam-wun as Feng's disciple Hui Gam as Feng's disciple Kong Lung as Feng's disciple Yen Shi-kwan as Feng's disciple Yuen Cheung-yan as Feng's disciple Yuen Woo-ping as Feng's disciple Chan Chuen as Feng's disciple Lee Ho as Feng's disciple Hsu Hsia as Feng's disciple Chan Siu-pang as Feng's disciple Lau Kar-wing as Feng's disciple Tam Bo as Feng's disciple Law Kei as Feng's disciple Man Sau as Xiao Man's mother Chui Chung-hok as one of 4 Law Brothers Lee Siu-wa as one of 4 Law Brothers Chui Hing-chun as one of 4 Law Brothers Tung Choi-bo as bandit who delivers letter to Feng Tsang Choh-lam as waiter Yau Lung as servant Ting Tung as servant Chin Chun as street gambler Mars as street kid with mask Yeung Jan-sing Gam Tin-chue Yeung Pak-chan Chan Siu-gai Wong Mei Return of the One-Armed Swordsman The New One-Armed Swordsman One-Armed Swordsman on IMDb One-Armed Swordsman at AllMovie One-Armed Swordsman at the Hong Kong Movie DataBase One-Armed Swordsman at Rotten Tomatoes Review at Kung Fu Cinema
David Chiang Da-wei is a Hong Kong actor and producer. This 70's martial arts superstar signed by the Shaw Brothers Studio, has appeared in over 130 films and 30 television series. Chiang was born in Shanghai, China on 29 June,1947. Chiang's mother Hung Wei（红薇）, father Yan Fa (严化） were popular Chinese movie stars who arrived in Hong Kong in the late 1940s during the Chinese Civil War. Chiang has a half-brother Derek Yee after they finish high school. Chiang began his acting career at a young age, appearing in black and white films when he was only four years old. In 1966, while working as a stuntman and fight instructor for the Shaw Brothers Studio, Chiang was spotted by director Chang Cheh, who saw his potential and screen presence, became his mentor. Chang gave him the stage name David Chiang though his real English name was John. With Wang Yu's sudden departure in 1969, Run Run Shaw and his senior executives were looking for a new leading man and made Chiang an offer. In 1970, under Chang Cheh's guidance, Chiang won the Best Actor award at the 16th Asian Film Festival for his role in Vengeance.
In 1972, at the 18th Asian Film Festival, he won the Best Actor Golden Horse Award for his role in Blood Brothers. In 1973, at the 19th Asian Film Festival, he won the Most Contemporary award for his role in The Generation Gap. In 1973 Chiang left Hong Kong with his mentor Chang Cheh and set up an independent production company called Chang's Scope Company. With the help and encouragement of Run Run Shaw, their films continued to be distributed through Shaw's channels. At Chang's Scope Company, Chiang was able to try his hand at directing and script writing; as the 1970s came to an end and the 1980s approached, Chiang continued acting, working with directors Lee Han Chiang, Hsueh Li Pao, Ho Meng-hua and Chia-Liang Liu. In 1980 he debuted in his first television series, The Green Dragon Conspiracy, followed by Princess Chang Ping and Dynasty. In the mid-1980s, Chiang got the opportunity to work with his brothers, Paul Chun and Derek Yee, directing and acting in the comedy Legend of the Owl. Chiang acted in several other comedy movies The Challenger and The Loot, directed by Eric Tseng.
In late 1980s into early 1990s Chiang directed the movies Heaven Can Help, Silent Love, The Wrong Couples, Mr. Handsome, Double Fattiness, My Dear Son, Will of Iron and Mother of a Different Kind. Since 2000 he has continued to work in movies and TV series, including Election, Revolving Doors Of Vengeance, Lethal Weapons of Love and Passion, Land of Wealth, The Family Link and the 2007 television series The Gem of Life, he was nominated for Best Supporting Actor in 2006 for his role in the TVB series Revolving Doors of Vengeance. In 2004, Chiang was inducted into The Avenue of Stars, which honours celebrities of the Hong Kong film industry, it is located along the Victoria Harbour waterfront in Tsim Sha Tsui, Hong Kong and modeled on the Hollywood Walk of Fame. On January 20, 1974, Chiang married an actress. Chiang and his wife have three children, Elaine Chiang, Eve Chiang, John Chiang, Jr.. The Drug Addict A Mad World of Fools The One-Armed Swordsmen The Condemned Whirlwind Kick The Legend of the Owl Heaven Can Help Silent Love Mr. Handsome The Wrong Couples Double Fattiness My Dear Son When East Meets West Will of Iron Mother of a Different Kind David Chiang on IMDb David Chiang Da-Wei at the Hong Kong Movie DataBase David Chiang Fan Site - DCFS John Chiang Vietnam Fan Club
Shanghai is one of the four municipalities under the direct administration of the central government of the People's Republic of China, the largest city in China by population, the second most populous city proper in the world, with a population of 24.18 million as of 2017. It is a transport hub, with the world's busiest container port. Located in the Yangtze River Delta, it sits on the south edge of the estuary of the Yangtze in the middle portion of the East China coast; the municipality borders the provinces of Jiangsu and Zhejiang to the north and west, is bounded to the east by the East China Sea. As a major administrative and trading city, Shanghai grew in importance in the 19th century due to trade and recognition of its favourable port location and economic potential; the city was one of five treaty ports forced open to foreign trade following the British victory over China in the First Opium War. The subsequent 1842 Treaty of Nanking and 1844 Treaty of Whampoa allowed the establishment of the Shanghai International Settlement and the French Concession.
The city flourished as a centre of commerce between China and other parts of the world, became the primary financial hub of the Asia-Pacific region in the 1930s. During the World War II, the city was the site of the major Battle of Shanghai. After the war, with the Communist Party takeover of the mainland in 1949, trade was limited to other socialist countries, the city's global influence declined. In the 1990s, the economic reforms introduced by Deng Xiaoping resulted in an intense re-development of the city, aiding the return of finance and foreign investment to the city, it has since re-emerged as a hub for international finance. Shanghai has been described as the "showpiece" of the booming economy of mainland China; the two Chinese characters in the city's name are 上 and 海, together meaning "Upon-the-Sea". The earliest occurrence of this name dates from the 11th-century Song dynasty, at which time there was a river confluence and a town with this name in the area. There are disputes as to how the name should be understood, but Chinese historians have concluded that during the Tang dynasty Shanghai was on the sea.
Shanghai is abbreviated 沪 in Chinese, a contraction of 沪渎, a 4th- or 5th-century Jin name for the mouth of Suzhou Creek when it was the main conduit into the ocean. This character appears on all motor vehicle license plates issued in the municipality today. Another alternative name for Shanghai is Shēn or Shēnchéng, from Lord Chunshen, a 3rd-century BC nobleman and prime minister of the state of Chu, whose fief included modern Shanghai. Sports teams and newspapers in Shanghai use Shen in their names, such as Shanghai Shenhua F. C. and Shen Bao. Huating was another early name for Shanghai. In AD 751, during the mid-Tang dynasty, Huating County was established by the Governor of Wu Commandery Zhao Juzhen at modern-day Songjiang, the first county-level administration within modern-day Shanghai. Today, Huating appears as the name of a four-star hotel in the city; the city has various nicknames in English, including "Pearl of the Orient" and "Paris of the East". During the Spring and Autumn period, the Shanghai area belonged to the Kingdom of Wu, conquered by the Kingdom of Yue, which in turn was conquered by the Kingdom of Chu.
During the Warring States period, Shanghai was part of the fief of Lord Chunshen of Chu, one of the Four Lords of the Warring States. He ordered the excavation of the Huangpu River, its former or poetic name, the Chunshen River, gave Shanghai its nickname of "Shēn". Fishermen living in the Shanghai area created a fish tool called the hù, which lent its name to the outlet of Suzhou Creek north of the Old City and became a common nickname and abbreviation for the city. During the Tang and Song dynasties, Qinglong Town in modern Qingpu District was a major trading port. Established in 746, it developed into what contemporary sources called a "giant town of the Southeast", with thirteen temples and seven pagodas; the famous Song scholar and artist Mi Fu served as its mayor. The port had a thriving trade with provinces along the Yangtze River and the Chinese coast, as well as foreign countries such as Japan and Silla. By the end of the Song dynasty, the center of trading had moved downstream of the Wusong River to Shanghai, upgraded in status from a village to a market town in 1074, in 1172 a second sea wall was built to stabilize the ocean coastline, supplementing an earlier dike.
From the Yuan dynasty in 1292 until Shanghai became a municipality in 1927, central Shanghai was administered as a county under Songjiang Prefecture, whose seat was at the present-day Songjiang District. Two important events helped promote Shanghai's development in the Ming dynasty. A city wall was built for the first time in 1554 to protect the town from raids by Japanese pirates, it measured 10 metres high and 5 kilometres in circumference. During the Wanli reign, Shanghai received an important psychological boost from the erection of a City God Temple in 1602; this honour was reserved for prefectural capitals and not given to a mere county seat such as Shang
Master of the Flying Guillotine
Master of the Flying Guillotine is a 1976 Taiwanese wuxia film starring Jimmy Wang Yu, who wrote and directed the film. It is a sequel to Wang's 1971 film One Armed Boxer, thus the film is known as One-Armed Boxer 2 and The One Armed Boxer vs. the Flying Guillotine. The film concerns Wang's one-armed martial arts master being stalked by an imperial assassin, the master of two fighters who were killed in the previous film; the title refers to the assassin's weapon, the "flying guillotine", which resembles a hat with a bladed rim attached to a long chain. Upon enveloping one's head, the blades cleanly decapitate the victim with a quick pull of the chain; the Boxer's adversary is the assassin Fung Sheng Wu Chi, blind, knows the Flying Guillotine, relies on others to identify the one-armed man, he kills any that he meets. When the One-Armed Boxer is invited to attend a martial arts tournament, his efforts to lie low are unsuccessful, the assassin soon tracks him down with the help of his three subordinates competing in the tournament: a Thai boxer, a yoga master, a kobojutsu user.
The One-Armed Boxer leaves the tournament and, using a series of traps, defeats the assassin's subordinates. Unable to directly confront the deadly assassin himself, the One-armed Boxer devises a plan that uses misdirection. Taking advantage of the assassin's blindness by using bamboo poles as a lure, each time the blind assassin throws his weapon, it becomes snagged on one of the bamboo poles removing the inner blades of the assassin's deadly weapon; the One-armed Boxer proceeds to convert a coffin-maker's shop into an elaborate trap. Once the weapon is destroyed, the One-armed Boxer engages the assassin in a duel and defeats him. Jimmy Wang Yu as the One-armed Boxer Kam Kong as Fung Sheng Wu Chi Doris Lung as Wu's daughter Sham Chin-bo as Nai Men, the Thai boxer Lung Fei as Yakuma Wong Wing-sang as Indian fighter Sit Hon as tournament referee Lau Kar-wing as fighter with a three-section staff Wong Fei-lung as One-armed boxer's student Yu Chung-chiu as Wu Chang Sang Shan Mao as bamboo cutter Wang Tai-lang as Ma Wu Kung, Monkey stylist Shih Ting-ken as One-armed boxer's student Lung Sai-ga as Wang Jiang Philip Kwok as Chang Chia Yu Lung Fong as Tiger Fists / nose-picking fight Sun Jung-chi as Daredevil Lee San Wong Lik as Tornado Knives Lei Kung Rotten Tomatoes, a review aggregator, reports that 90% of 20 surveyed critics gave the film a positive review.
Metacritic rated the film 57/100 based on eleven reviews. Elvis Mitchell of The New York Times called it "near-great" and "a venerable example of the kung fu genre". Kevin Thomas of the Los Angeles Times wrote, "Master of the Flying Guillotine has been called the Holy Grail of the Hong Kong martial arts movies of the'70s, now that it has been lovingly restored and given a regular theatrical release, it's easy to see why." Joey O'Bryan of The Austin Chronicle rated it 2/5 stars and called it "a mess" that fails to live up to the epic brawl promised by the alternate title. Nathan Rabin of The A. V. Club called it "a delirious kung-fu saga", "wild by the genre's lenient standards". Rabin concludes, "Goofy Z-movie fun of the highest order, Master Of The Flying Guillotine needs to be seen to be believed, then defies belief." Phil Hall of Film Threat rated it 1.5/5 stars and wrote, "his silly production stands as a dinky reminder of why martial arts film fell out of favor during the mid-1970s". J. Doyle Wallis of DVD Talk rated it 4/5 stars and called it "a complete guilty pleasure that leaves you feeling high off its empty b-movie fun".
Mike Pinsky of DVD Verdict wrote that the film toys with and subverts many martial arts film cliches, which makes it surprising and entertaining. Most of the music in the film is taken from Krautrock bands, includes: "Super" and "Super 16" from Neu!'s second studio album, Neu! 2. The soundtrack has been referenced and sampled extensively, including the use of "Super 16" in Tarantino's Kill Bill. Quentin Tarantino has cited the film as "one of my favorite movies of all time." The character Dhalsim from the Street Fighter video game series has been compared to the Indian assassin in the film. In The Boondocks episode Stinkmeaner 3: The Hateocracy, the Hateocracy member, Lord Rufus Crabmiser, used a flying guillotine disguised as a lobster trap to attack the Freeman family and kill Bushido Brown. In 1977, a prequel called. Master of the Flying Guillotine on IMDb Master of the Flying Guillotine at AllMovie Master of the Flying Guillotine at the Hong Kong Movie DataBase Master of the Flying Guillotine at Metacritic
Wuxia, which means "martial heroes", is a genre of Chinese fiction concerning the adventures of martial artists in ancient China. Although wuxia is traditionally a form of fantasy literature, its popularity has caused it to spread to diverse art forms such as Chinese opera, mànhuà, television series and video games, it forms part of popular culture in many Chinese-speaking communities around the world. The word "wǔxiá" is a compound composed of the elements wǔ and xiá. A martial artist who follows the code of xia is referred to as a xiákè or yóuxiá. In some translations, the martial artist is referred to as a "swordsman" or "swordswoman" though he or she may not wield a sword; the heroes in wuxia fiction do not serve a lord, wield military power, or belong to the aristocratic class. They originate from the lower social classes of ancient Chinese society. A code of chivalry requires wuxia heroes to right and redress wrongs, fight for righteousness, remove oppressors, bring retribution for past misdeeds.
Chinese xia traditions can be compared to martial codes from other cultures such as the Japanese samurai's bushidō tradition. Though the term "wuxia" as the name of a genre is a recent coinage, stories about xia date back more than 2,000 years. Wuxia stories have their roots in some early youxia tales from 300–200 BCE; the Legalist philosopher Han Fei spoke disparagingly of youxias in his book Han Feizi in the chapter On Five'Maggot' Classes about five social classes in the Spring and Autumn period. Some well-known stories include Zhuan Zhu's assassination of King Liao of Wu, most notably, Jing Ke's attempt on the life of the King of Qin. In Volume 86 of the Records of the Grand Historian, Sima Qian mentioned five notable assassins – Cao Mo, Zhuan Zhu, Yu Rang, Nie Zheng and Jing Ke – in the Warring States period who undertook tasks of conducting political assassinations of aristocrats and nobles; these assassins were known as cike. They rendered their loyalties and services to feudal lords and nobles in return for rewards such as riches and women.
In Volume 124 of the Shi Ji, Sima Qian detailed several embryonic features of xia culture from his period. These popular phenomena were documented in other historical records such as the Book of Han and the Book of the Later Han. Xiake stories returned in the form of chuanqi. Stories from that era, such as Nie Yinniang, The Kunlun Slave, Thirteenth Madame Jing, Red String and The Bearded Warrior, served as prototypes for modern wuxia stories, they featured fantasies and isolated protagonists – loners – who performed daring heroic deeds. During the Song dynasty, similar stories circulated in the huaben, short works that were once thought to have served as prompt-books for shuochang; the genre of the martial or military romance developed during the Tang dynasty. In the Ming dynasty, Luo Guanzhong and Shi Nai'an wrote Romance of the Three Kingdoms and Water Margin which are among the Four Great Classical Novels of Chinese literature; the former is a romanticised historical retelling of the events in the late Eastern Han dynasty and the Three Kingdoms period, while the latter criticises the deplorable socio-economic status of the late Northern Song dynasty.
Water Margin is seen as the first full-length wuxia novel: the portrayal of the 108 heroes, their code of honour and willingness to become outlaws rather than serve a corrupt government, played an influential role in the development of jianghu culture in centuries. Romance of the Three Kingdoms is seen as a possible early antecedent and contains classic close-combat descriptions that were borrowed by wuxia writers in their worksIn the Qing dynasty, further developments were the gong'an and related detective novels, where xia and other heroes, in collaboration with a judge or magistrate, solved crimes and battled injustice; the Justice Bao stories from Sanxia Wuyi and Xiaowuyi, incorporated much of social justice themes of wuxia stories. Xiayi stories of chivalrous romance, which featured female heroes and supernatural fighting abilities surfaced during the Qing dynasty. Novels such as Shi Gong'an Qiwen and Ernü Yingxiong Zhuan have been cited as the clearest nascent wuxia novels; the term "wuxia" as a genre label itself first appeared at the end of the Qing dynasty, a calque of the Japanese "bukyō", a genre of oft-militaristic and bushido-influenced adventure fiction.
The term was brought to China by writers and students who hoped that China would modernise its military and place emphasis on martial virtues, it became entrenched as the term used to refer to xiayi and other predecessors of wuxia proper. In Japan, the term "bukyō" faded into obscurity. Many wuxia works produced during the Ming and Qing dynasties were lost due to the governments' crackdown on and banning of such works. Wuxia works were deemed responsible for brewing anti-government sentiments, which led to rebellions in those eras; the departure from mainstream literature meant that patronage of this genre was limited to the masses and not to the literati, which led to the stifling of the development of the wuxia genre. Nonetheless, the wuxia genre remained enormously popular with the common people; the modern wuxia genre rose to prominence in the early 20th ce