Bear Dance is a Native American ceremonial dance that occurs in the spring. It is a ten-day event to strengthen social ties within the community, encourage courtship, mark the end of puberty for girls. For the Utes, it is a ten-day event of dancing, games, horse racing, gambling, it is one of the oldest Ute ceremonies. The bear symbolizes leadership and wisdom. A group of men have played musical rasps for the dance
Porcupine hair roaches are a traditional male headdress of a number of Native American tribes in what is now New England, the Great Lakes and Missouri River regions, including the Potawatomi who lived where Chicago now stands. They were and still are most worn by dancers at pow wows as regalia; the porcupine hair roach is made of guard hair of the porcupine, the tail hair of the white-tail deer, moose hair, or artificial stiff hair. Some roaches from the southern plains are made with black turkey beards; the term roach applies to the traditional Mohawk hairstyle worn by some warriors of some southern plains tribes such as the Pawnee and some Algonquin tribes, such as the Mohegan and Lenape. This is where their hair is shorn like a horse’s mane, considered stylish in the 19th century. All their hair would be cut, save a strip down the middle of their head. Present day, most roaches have evolved into separate headdresses, they are made from porcupine guard hair and deer-tail hair. Depending on where a tribe is from can determine what their headdress will look like.
Central and southern plains style their roaches with the front hairs standing straight up with only a gradual outward flare and are smaller in size. The northern plains style hair roach headdress have the hairs in front form horizontally outward and tend to be larger in size. Men would add bits of animal hair to the headdresses. Brief history of the roach About headdresses Porky Roach construction
Indigenous music of North America
Indigenous music of North America, which includes American Indian music or Native American music, is the music, used, created or performed by Indigenous peoples of North America, including Native Americans in the United States and Aboriginal peoples in Canada, Indigenous peoples of Mexico, other North American countries—especially traditional tribal music, such as Pueblo music and Inuit music. In addition to the traditional music of the Native American groups, there now exist pan-tribal and intertribal genres as well as distinct Native American subgenres of popular music including: rock, hip hop, film music, reggae, as well as unique popular styles like chicken scratch and New Mexico music. Singing and percussion are the most important aspects of traditional Native American music. Vocalization takes many forms, ranging from solo and choral song to responsorial and multipart singing. Percussion drums and rattles, are common accompaniment to keep the rhythm steady for the singers, who use their native language or non-lexical vocables.
Traditional music begins with slow and steady beats that grow faster and more emphatic, while various flourishes like drum and rattle tremolos and accented patterns add variety and signal changes in performance for singers and dancers. Native American song texts include both public pieces and secret songs, said to be "ancient and unchanging", which are used for only sacred and ceremonial purposes. There are public sacred songs, as well as ritual speeches that are sometimes perceived as musical because of their use of rhythm and melody; these ritual speeches directly describe the events of a ceremony, the reasons and ramifications of the night. Vocables, or lexically meaningless syllables, are a common part of many kinds of Native American songs, they mark the beginning and end of phrases, sections or songs themselves. Songs make frequent use of vocables and other untranslatable elements. Songs that are translatable include historical songs, like the Navajo "Shi' naasha', which celebrates the end of Navajo internment in Fort Sumner, New Mexico in 1868.
Tribal flag songs and national anthems are a major part of the Native American musical corpus, are a frequent starter to public ceremonies powwows. Native American music includes a range of courtship songs, dancing songs and popular American or Canadian tunes like "Amazing Grace, "Dixie", "Jambalaya" and "Sugar Time". Many songs celebrate planting season or other important times of year. Native American music plays a vital role in history and education, with ceremonies and stories orally passing on ancestral customs to new generations. Native American ceremonial music is traditionally said to originate from deities or spirits, or from respected individuals. Rituals are shaped by every aspect of song and costuming, each aspect informs about the "makers and symbols important to the nation, village, family, or individual". Native Americans perform stories through song and dance, the historical facts thus propagated are an integral part of Native American beliefs. Epic legends and stories about culture heroes are a part of tribal music traditions, these tales are an iconic part of local culture.
They can vary from year to year, with leaders recombining and introducing slight variations. The Pueblo compose a number of new songs each year in a committee which uses visions; the styles and purposes of music vary between and among each Native American tribe. However, a common concept amongst many indigenous groups is a conflation of power. For example, the Pima people feel many of their songs were given in the beginning and sung by the Creator, it was believed that some people have more of an inclination to musical talent than others because of an individual's peculiar power. Within various Native American communities, gender plays an important role in music. Men and women play sex-specific roles in many musical activities. Instruments and dances are peculiar to one or the other sex, many musical settings are controlled by sex. In modern powwows, women play a vital role as backup dancers; the Cherokee people, for example, hold dances before stickball games. At these pre-game events and women perform separate dances and follow separate regulations.
Men will dance in a circle around a fire. Men sing their own songs. Whereas the men's songs invoke power, the women's songs draw power away from the opposing stickball team. In some societies, there are customs. For the Southern Plains Indians, it is believed that the first drum was given to a woman by the Great Spirit, who instructed her to share it with all women of native nations. However, there exist prohibitions against women sitting at the Beg Drum. Many tribal music cultures have a relative paucity of traditional women's songs and dances in the Northeast and Southeast regions; the Southeast is, home to a prominent women's musical tradition in the use of leg rattles for ceremonial stomp and friendship dances, the women's singing during Horse and Ball Game contests. The West Coast tribes of North America tend to more prominence in women's music, with special women's love songs, medicine songs and handgame songs. Women play a vital ceremonial role in the Sun Dance of the Great Plains and Great Basin, sing during social dances.
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The sun dance is a ceremony practiced by some Indigenous people of United States of America and Canada those of the Plains cultures. It involves the community gathering together to pray for healing. Individuals make personal sacrifices on behalf of the community. After European colonization of the Americas, with the formation of the Canadian and United States governments, both countries passed laws intended to suppress Indigenous cultures and encourage assimilation to majority-European culture, they banned Indigenous ceremonies and, in many schools and other areas, prohibited Indigenous people from speaking their native languages. In some cases they were not allowed to visit sacred sites when these had been excluded from the territory of community; the sun dance was one of the prohibited ceremonies, as was the potlatch of the Pacific Northwest peoples. Canada lifted its prohibition against the practice of the full ceremony in 1951, but in the United States, Indigenous peoples were not allowed to practice the sun dance or other sacred ceremonies until the late 1970s, after they gained renewed sovereignty and civil rights following a period of high activism, including legal challenges to the government.
Congress passed the American Indian Religious Freedom Act in 1978, enacted to protect basic civil liberties, to protect and preserve the traditional religious rights and cultural practices of American Indians, Eskimos and Native Hawaiians. Several features are common to the ceremonies held by sun dance cultures; these include dances and songs passed down through many generations, the use of a traditional drum, a sacred fire, praying with a ceremonial pipe, fasting from food and water before participating in the dance, and, in some cases, the ceremonial piercing of skin and a trial of physical endurance. Certain plants are prepared for use during the ceremony; the sun dance is a grueling ordeal for the dancers, a physical and spiritual test that they offer in sacrifice for their people. According to the Oklahoma Historical Society, young men dance around a pole to which they are fastened by "rawhide thongs pegged through the skin of their chests."While not all sun dance ceremonies include piercing, the object of the sun dance is to offer personal sacrifice for the benefit of one's family and community.
The dancers fast for many days, in the open whatever weather occurs. At most ceremonies, family members and friends stay in the surrounding camp and pray in support of the dancers. Much time and energy by the entire community are needed to conduct the sun dance gatherings and ceremonies. Communities organize for at least a year to prepare for the ceremony. One leader or a small group of leaders are in charge of the ceremony, but many elders help out and advise. A group of helpers do many of the tasks required to prepare for the ceremony; as this is a sacred ceremony, people are reluctant to discuss it in any great detail. Given a long history of cultural misappropriation, Indigenous people are suspicious that non-Indigenous people may abuse or misuse the traditional ways. Elders and medicine men are concerned that the ceremony should only be passed along in the right ways; the words used at a sun dance are in the native language and are not translated for outsiders. Not talking about this ceremony is part of the respect the people display for it.
In addition, the detailed way in which a respected elder speaks and explains a sun dance to younger members of the community is unique and not quoted, nor is it intended for publication. In 1993, responding to what they believed was a frequent desecration of the sun dance and other Lakota sacred ceremonies, US and Canadian Lakota and Nakota nations held "the Lakota Summit V", it was an international gathering of about 500 representatives from 40 different peoples and bands of the Lakota. They unanimously passed the following'Declaration of War Against Exploiters of Lakota Spirituality': "Whereas sacrilegious "sundances" for non-Indians are being conducted by charlatans and cult leaders who promote abominable and obscene imitations of our sacred Lakota sundance rites. We hereby and henceforth declare war against all persons who persist in exploiting and misrepresenting the sacred traditions and spiritual practices of the Lakota and Nakota people." - Mesteth, Wilmer, et al In 2003, the 19th-Generation Keeper of the Sacred White Buffalo Calf Pipe of the Lakota asked non-Indigenous people to stop attending the sun dance.
This statement was supported by keepers of sacred bundles and traditional spiritual leaders from the Cheyenne, Dakota and Nakota nations, who issued a proclamation that non-Indigenous people would be banned from sacred altars and the Seven Sacred Rites and the sun dance, effective March 9, 2003 onward: The Wi-wanyang-wa-c'i-pi: The only participants allowed in the centre will be Native People. The non-Native people need to respect our decision. If there have been any unfinished commitments to the sundance and non-Natives have concern for this decision. Our purpose for the sundance is for the survival of the future generations to come and foremost. If the non-Natives understand this purpose, they will understand this decision and know that by their departure from this Ho-c'o-ka is their sincere contribution to the survival of our future generations. Though only some nations' sun dances include the body piercings, the Canadian government outla
White Earth Indian Reservation
The White Earth Indian Reservation is the home to the White Earth Band, located in northwestern Minnesota. It is the largest Indian reservation in that state by land area; the reservation includes all of Mahnomen County, plus parts of Becker and Clearwater counties in the northwest part of the state, along the Wild Rice and White Earth rivers. It is about 225 miles from Minneapolis-St. Paul and 65 miles from Fargo-Moorhead. Community members prefer to identify as Anishinaabe or Ojibwe rather than Chippewa, a corruption of Ojibwe that came to be used by European settlers to refer to them; the reservation's land area is 1,093 sq mi, its population was 9,192 as of the 2000 census. The White Earth Indian Reservation is one of six bands that make up the Minnesota Chippewa Tribe, their governing body for major administrative needs; the Band issues its own reservation license plates to vehicles. The White Earth Reservation was created on March 19, 1867, during a treaty signing in Washington, DC. Ten Ojibwe Indian chiefs met with President Andrew Johnson at the White House to negotiate the treaty.
The chiefs Wabanquot, a Gull Lake Mississippi Chippewa, Fine Day, of the Removable Mille Lacs Indians, were among the first to move with their followers to White Earth in 1868. The reservation covered 1,300 square miles. Much of the community's land was improperly sold or seized by outside interests, including the U. S. federal government, in the late 19th century and early 20th century. According to the Dawes Act of 1887, the communal land was to be allotted to individual households recorded in tribal rolls, for cultivation in subsistence farming. Under the act, the remainder was available for sale to non-Native Americans; the Nelson Act of 1889 was a corollary law that enabled the land to be divided and sold to non-Natives. In the latter half of the 20th century, the federal government arranged for the transfer of state and county land to the reservation in compensation for other property, lost. In 1989, Winona LaDuke formed the White Earth Land Recovery Project, acquiring land held to add back to the value of the non-profit 501c3 to be used for collateral.
At that time, less than 10% of the land within the reservation boundaries was owned by tribal members. The White Earth Band government operates the Shooting Star Casino and Event center in Mahnomen, Minnesota; the entertainment and gambling complex employs over 1000 tribal and non-tribal staff, with a new location in Bagley, Minnesota. The United States wanted to relocate all Anishinaabe people from Michigan and Minnesota to the White Earth Reservation in the western part of Minnesota, it planned to open the land of the vacated reservations to sale and settlement by European Americans. The US government proposed relocating the Dakota people to the White Earth Reservation, although the two peoples had been traditional enemies since the Anishinaabe had invaded their land in the late 18th century; the US continued to promote this policy until 1898. Before the Nelson Act of 1889 took effect, groups of Anishinaabe and Dakota peoples began to relocate to the White Earth Reservation from other Minnesota Chippewa and Dakota reservations.
The 1920 census details provide data on the origins of the Anishinabe people living on the White Earth Reservation, as they indicated their original bands. There were 4,856 from the Mississippi Band of Chippewa. On July 8, 1889, the United States broke treaty promises, it told them the Chippewa from the other Reservations would be relocated to White Earth Reservation. Instead of dealing with the Chippewa of Minnesota on a nation-to-nation level, the United States put decisions about communal land use to a vote of tribal members, it said that the decision to accept land allotments under the Dawes Act would be settled by a vote of individual adult Chippewa males, rather than allowing the tribe to make a decision according to their own traditions of council. Included in the decision to allow allotment was that lands classified as surplus, after all households received allotments, would be declared'surplus' and could be sold to non-Chippewa, the European Americans. Chippewa leaders were outraged.
They knew. But, included in the voting were many Dakota men, who were not part of their tribe; the Chippewa mistrusted administration of the vote. Red Lake leaders warned the United States about reprisals; the White Earth and Mille Lacs reservations overwhelmingly voted to accept land allotments and allow surplus land sold to the whites. The Leech Lake Reservation's men overwhelmingly voted to accept land allotments and have the Reservation surplus land sold to the whites; the events of October 1898 indicate otherwise. At the time, the White Earth Reservation covered 1,093 sq. mi. After the votes were counted, the whites claimed that voting men had overwhelmingly voted to accept land allotments and have the Reservations surplus land sold to the whites. After this process, only a small portion of the White Earth Reservation remained. I