Nanan is a county-level city of southern Fujian province, Peoples Republic of China. It is under the administration of Quanzhou City and as of 2010, had a population of 1,500,000. More than 3,000,000 overseas Chinese trace their ancestry to Nanan, Nanan is located on the southeastern coast of Fujian province. It has been the centre of the 3 Wu Kingdoms, Nanan history dates back 1700 years. Nanan has been the economic and cultural centre for Minnan people, Nanan experiences subtropical monsoonal humid climate. It has a temperature of 20.9 °C. It has 349 days which is frost free, the city covers an area of 2,036 square kilometres. Nanan is situated below Anxi County, adjacent to Jinjiang to the east, Nanan is 97 kilometres from Xiamen. It is 30 kilometres from Quanzhou and 220 kilometres from the provincial capital, Nanan is fast developing into an economic and industrial hub for Quanzhou prefecture. Its close proximity to economic centres such as Xiamen, Fuzhou, Shanghai and Shenzhen makes it an important investment location for foreign investments, Nanan has very strong rail infrastructure and road links making it a gateway for tourism as well as commerce.
Hong Chengchou Zheng Zhilong Liu Zaifu Koxinga Nanan Official Government Website
Bangkok is the capital and most populous city of Thailand. It is known in Thai as Krung Thep Maha Nakhon or simply Krung Thep. The city occupies 1,568.7 square kilometres in the Chao Phraya River delta in Central Thailand, over 14 million people live within the surrounding Bangkok Metropolitan Region, making Bangkok an extreme primate city, significantly dwarfing Thailands other urban centres in terms of importance. Bangkok was at the heart of the modernization of Siam—later renamed Thailand—during the late 19th century, the city grew rapidly during the 1960s through the 1980s and now exerts a significant impact on Thailands politics, education and modern society. The Asian investment boom in the 1980s and 1990s led many multinational corporations to locate their headquarters in Bangkok. The city is now a regional force in finance and business. It is a hub for transport and health care, and has emerged as a regional centre for the arts, fashion. The city is known for its vibrant street life and cultural landmarks.
The historic Grand Palace and Buddhist temples including Wat Arun and Wat Pho stand in contrast with other tourist attractions such as the scenes of Khaosan Road. Bangkok is among the top tourist destinations. It is named the most visited city in MasterCards Global Destination Cities Index, Bangkoks rapid growth amidst little urban planning and regulation has resulted in a haphazard cityscape and inadequate infrastructure systems. The city has turned to public transport in an attempt to solve this major problem. Five rapid transit lines are now in operation, with more systems under construction or planned by the national government and the Bangkok Metropolitan Administration. The history of Bangkok dates at least back to the early 15th century, because of its strategic location near the mouth of the river, the town gradually increased in importance. Bangkok initially served as a customs outpost with forts on both sides of the river, and became the site of a siege in 1688 in which the French were expelled from Siam.
After the fall of Ayutthaya to the Burmese Empire in 1767, the newly declared King Taksin established his capital at the town, in 1782, King Phutthayotfa Chulalok succeeded Taksin, moved the capital to the eastern banks Rattanakosin Island, thus founding the Rattanakosin Kingdom. The City Pillar was erected on 21 April, which is regarded as the date of foundation of the present city, Bangkoks economy gradually expanded through busy international trade, first with China, with Western merchants returning in the early-to-mid 19th century. As the capital, Bangkok was the centre of Siams modernization as it faced pressure from Western powers in the late 19th century, Bangkok became the centre stage for power struggles between the military and political elite as the country abolished absolute monarchy in 1932
Taiwan, officially the Republic of China, is a state in East Asia. Neighbours include China to the west, Japan to the northeast, Taiwan is the most populous state that is not a member of the United Nations, and the one with the largest economy. The island of Taiwan, known as Formosa, was inhabited by Taiwanese aborigines before the 17th century. After a brief rule by the Kingdom of Tungning, the island was annexed by the Qing dynasty, the Qing ceded Taiwan to Japan in 1895 after the Sino-Japanese War. While Taiwan was under Japanese rule, the Republic of China was established on the mainland in 1912 after the fall of the Qing dynasty, following the Japanese surrender to the Allies in 1945, the ROC took control of Taiwan. However, the resumption of the Chinese Civil War led to the ROCs loss of the mainland to the Communists, and the flight of the ROC government to Taiwan in 1949. As a founding member of the United Nations, the ROC continued to represent China at the United Nations until 1971, in the early 1960s, Taiwan entered a period of rapid economic growth and industrialization, creating a stable industrial economy.
In the 1980s and early 1990s, it changed from a one-party military dictatorship dominated by the Kuomintang to a multi-party democracy with universal suffrage, Taiwan is the 22nd-largest economy in the world, and its high-tech industry plays a key role in the global economy. It is ranked highly in terms of freedom of the press, health care, public education, economic freedom, the PRC has consistently claimed sovereignty over Taiwan and asserted the ROC is no longer in legitimate existence. Under its One-China Policy the PRC refused diplomatic relations with any country that recognizes the ROC, the PRC has threatened the use of military force in response to any formal declaration of independence by Taiwan or if PRC leaders decide that peaceful unification is no longer possible. There are various names for the island of Taiwan in use today, the former name Formosa dates from 1542, when Portuguese sailors sighted the main island of Taiwan and named it Ilha Formosa, which means beautiful island.
The name Formosa eventually replaced all others in European literature and was in use in English in the early 20th century. This name was adopted into the Chinese vernacular as the name of the sandbar. The modern word Taiwan is derived from this usage, which is seen in forms in Chinese historical records. Use of the current Chinese name was formalized as early as 1684 with the establishment of Taiwan Prefecture, through its rapid development, the entire Formosan mainland eventually became known as Taiwan. The official name of the state is the Republic of China and it was a member of the United Nations representing China until 1971, when it lost its seat to the Peoples Republic of China. Over subsequent decades, the Republic of China has become known as Taiwan. In some contexts, especially ones from the ROC government
Manichaeism was a major religious movement that was founded by the Iranian prophet Mani in the Sasanian Empire. Manichaeism taught a dualistic cosmology describing the struggle between a good, spiritual world of light, and an evil, material world of darkness. Through an ongoing process which takes place in history, light is gradually removed from the world of matter and returned to the world of light. Its beliefs were based on local Mesopotamian gnostic and religious movements, Manichaeism was quickly successful and spread far through the Aramaic-Syriac speaking regions. It thrived between the third and seventh centuries, and at its height was one of the most widespread religions in the world, Manichaean churches and scriptures existed as far east as China and as far west as the Roman Empire. It was briefly the main rival to Christianity in the competition to replace classical paganism, while most of Manichaeisms original writings have been lost, numerous translations and fragmentary texts have survived.
An adherent of Manichaeism is called, especially in older sources, Mani, an Arsacid Persian by birth, was born 216 AD in Mesopotamia, which was ruled by Persia, within the Sassanid Empire province of Asuristan. According to the Cologne Mani-Codex, Manis parents were members of the Jewish Christian Gnostic sect known as the Elcesaites, Mani composed seven writings, six of which were written in Syriac Aramaic. The seventh, the Shabuhragan, was written by Mani in Middle Persian and presented by him to the contemporary King of Sassanid Persia, Shapur I, in the Persian capital of Ctesiphon. Although there is no proof Shapur I was a Manichaean, he tolerated the spread of Manichaeism, while Manichaeism was spreading, existing religions such as Zoroastrianism were still popular and Christianity was gaining social and political influence. Although having fewer adherents, Manichaeism won the support of many high-ranking political figures, with the assistance of the Persian Empire, Mani began missionary expeditions.
The date of his death is estimated at AD 276–277, Mani believed that the teachings of Buddha and Jesus were incomplete, and that his revelations were for the entire world, calling his teachings the Religion of Light. Manichaean writings indicate that Mani received revelations when he was 12 and again when he was 24, with the discovery of the Mani-Codex, it became clear that he was raised in a Jewish-Christian baptism sect, the Elcesaites, and was influenced by their writings as well. It taught him truths which he developed into a religion and his divine Twin or true Self brought Mani to self-realization. He claimed to be the Paraclete of the Truth, as promised in the New Testament, Manichaeisms views on Jesus are described by historians, Jesus in Manichaeism possessed three separate identities, Jesus the Luminous, Jesus the Messiah and Jesus patibilis. Jesus the Messiah was a historical being who was the prophet of the Jews, the Manichaeans believed he was wholly divine. He never experienced human birth as notions of physical conception and birth filled the Manichaeans with horror, since he was the light of the world, where was this light, they asked, when he was in the womb of the Virgin.
Jesus the Messiah was truly born at his baptism as it was on occasion that the Father openly acknowledged his sonship
Sagres (Vila do Bispo)
Sagres is a civil parish in the municipality of Vila do Bispo, in the southern Algarve of Portugal. The population in 2011 was 1,909, in an area of 34.37 square kilometres and it is historically connected to the early Portuguese Age of Discovery. The name Sagres, follows from Sagrado owing to the important local religious practices, from here some of the Mediterranean peoples, venerated their divinities and which some believed, owing to the absence of a human settlement, was the gathering place for their gods. Christinas that lived in this zone, during the Muslim occupation, erected the Church of Corvo, the presence of martyrs remains lead the Portuguese to refer to the site and the peninsula as the Cape of Saint Vincent. The area has been linked to the nautical school first developed by Prince Henry the Navigator. Although born in the city of Porto, he would be connected with his life in the parish, until his death in 1460. Although there existed a settlement in this area, all the land was donated on 27 October 1443 to Infante Henry.
The prince was associated with the Military Order of Christ, Duke of Viseu, Master of Covilã, the fortified town was situated on the Ponta de Sagres, a strategic point dominated the coves of Mareta and Beliche. Henrys controlled his material interests from his villa, located on the clifftops, and when he died on 13 November 1460, Sagres was created in 1519, through the division of the municipality of Vila do Bispo. King Sebastian was known to have spent time in the parish, listening to music along the cliffs and the sea. A chronicle of the 16th century, referred to the young Kings stay at the Convent of São Vicente do Cabo, in May 1587, Francis Drake disembarked 800 men who assaulted the fortress of Sagres. After two hours of combat, fortifications adjacent to the fortress were destroyed and its artillery was pillaged. Until 1834, Sagres was an independent municipality, consisting of more than 413 inhabitants. Exposed to the Atlantic Ocean, it is influenced by Mediterranean currents, whether by coastal erosion, or the hard rock, its composition influences the relief of the area.
At 157 meters high, Torre de Aspa is a viewpoint on the side of Vila do Bispo. The church of Santa Maria, consecrated in 1519, to the invocation of Nossa Senhora da Graça was constructed at the centre of the site, during the reign of King Manuel I of Portugal. A valuable gilded altarpiece from the Chapel of Santo António, the fortification was remodeled in the 16th, 17th and 18th century, after various attacks, its current form dates to 1793. Notes Sources Câmara Municipal, ed. Freguesia de Sagres, Vila do Bispo, Portugal, Câmara Municipal de Vila do Bispo, retrieved 7 November 2013
Singapore, officially the Republic of Singapore, sometimes referred to as the Lion City or the Little Red Dot, is a sovereign city-state in Southeast Asia. It lies one degree north of the equator, at the tip of peninsular Malaysia. Singapores territory consists of one island along with 62 other islets. Since independence, extensive land reclamation has increased its size by 23%. During the Second World War, Singapore was occupied by Japan, after early years of turbulence, and despite lacking natural resources and a hinterland, the nation developed rapidly as an Asian Tiger economy, based on external trade and its workforce. Singapore is a global commerce and transport hub, the country has been identified as a tax haven. Singapore ranks 5th internationally and first in Asia on the UN Human Development Index and it is ranked highly in education, life expectancy, quality of life, personal safety, and housing, but does not fare well on the Democracy index. Although income inequality is high, 90% of homes are owner-occupied, 38% of Singapores 5.6 million residents are permanent residents and other foreign nationals.
There are four languages on the island, Mandarin, Tamil. English is its language, most Singaporeans are bilingual. Singapore is a multiparty parliamentary republic, with a Westminster system of unicameral parliamentary government. The Peoples Action Party has won every election since self-government in 1959, however, it is unlikely that lions ever lived on the island, Sang Nila Utama, the Srivijayan prince said to have founded and named the island Singapura, perhaps saw a Malayan tiger. There are however other suggestions for the origin of the name, the central island has been called Pulau Ujong as far back as the third century CE, literally island at the end in Malay. In 1299, according to the Malay Annals, the Kingdom of Singapura was founded on the island by Sang Nila Utama and these Indianized Kingdoms, a term coined by George Cœdès were characterized by surprising resilience, political integrity and administrative stability. In 1613, Portuguese raiders burned down the settlement, which by was part of the Johor Sultanate.
The wider maritime region and much trade was under Dutch control for the following period, in 1824 the entire island, as well as the Temenggong, became a British possession after a further treaty with the Sultan. In 1826, Singapore became part of the Straits Settlements, under the jurisdiction of British India, prior to Raffles arrival, there were only about a thousand people living on the island, mostly indigenous Malays along with a handful of Chinese. By 1860 the population had swelled to over 80,000, many of these early immigrants came to work on the pepper and gambier plantations
Forbes is an American business magazine. Published bi-weekly, it features articles on finance, investing. Forbes reports on related subjects such as technology, science and its headquarters is located in Jersey City, New Jersey. Primary competitors in the business magazine category include Fortune and Bloomberg Businessweek. The magazine is known for its lists and rankings, including its lists of the richest Americans. Another well-known list by the magazine is The Worlds Billionaires list, the motto of Forbes magazine is The Capitalist Tool. Its chairman and editor-in-chief is Steve Forbes, and its CEO is Mike Perlis, Forbes, a financial columnist for the Hearst papers, and his partner Walter Drey, the general manager of the Magazine of Wall Street, founded Forbes magazine on September 15,1917. Forbes provided the money and the name and Drey provided the publishing expertise, the original name of the magazine was Forbes, Devoted to Doers and Doings. Drey became vice-president of the B. C. Forbes Publishing Company, while B. C.
Forbes became editor-in-chief, B. C. Forbes was assisted in his years by his two eldest sons, Bruce Charles Forbes and Malcolm Stevenson Forbes. Bruce Forbes took over on his fathers death, and his strengths lay in streamlining operations, during his tenure, 1954–1964, the magazines circulation nearly doubled. On Malcolms death, his eldest son Malcolm Stevenson Steve Forbes Jr. became President and Chief Executive of Forbes, between 1961 and 1999 the magazine was edited by James Michaels. In 1993, under Michaels, Forbes was a finalist for the National Magazine Award. com, a 2009 New York Times report said,40 percent of the enterprise was sold. For a reported $300 million, setting the value of the enterprise at $750 million, according to Mark M. Edmiston of AdMedia Partners, Its probably not worth half of that now. The companys headquarters moved to the Newport section of downtown Jersey City. In November 2013, Forbes Media, which publishes Forbes magazine, was put up for sale and this was encouraged by Elevation Partners, of whom were minority shareholders.
Sales documents prepared by Deutsche Bank revealed that the publishers 2012 EBITDA was $15 million, Forbes reportedly sought a price of $400 million. In July 2014, Forbes sold a majority of itself to Integrated Whale Media Investments, Steve Forbes and his magazines writers offer investment advice on the weekly Fox TV show Forbes on Fox and on Forbes On Radio. Other company groups include Forbes Conference Group, Forbes Investment Advisory Group, from the 2009 Times report, Steve Forbes recently returned from opening up a Forbes magazine in India, bringing the number of foreign editions to 10
Xiamen Gaoqi International Airport
Xiamen Gaoqi International Airport is the airport serving the city of Xiamen in Fujian Province, China. It is the base of Xiamen Airlines and TAECO, an aircraft maintenance provider. The airport is located on the side of Xiamen Island. Construction of a new terminal started in October 2011 and was completed in 2014, List of airports in China List of the busiest airports in China Official site Airport information for ZSAM at World Aero Data. Data current as of October 2006
Caoan is a temple in Jinjiang, Fujian. Originally constructed by Chinese Manicheans, it was viewed by worshipers as a Buddhist temple and this Manichean temple in Buddhist disguise is seen by modern experts on Manichaeism as the only extant Manichean temple in China, or the only Manichean building which has survived intact. The temple is located on the slope of Huabio Hill near Shedian Village just west of downtown Jinjiang. Jinjiang is part of Quanzhou, which was known historically as Quanzhou Prefecture and he Qiaoyuan explained in his local history, the Book of Fujian, that Huabiao Hills name comes from the fact that it and the nearby Lingyuan Hill, look like a pair of huabiao. The temple as it today is not too different from a typical Buddhist temple of its region. It is a granite building with the worship space downstairs. Manichaeism arrived in China during the Tang dynasty, early on, the Manichaean religion was strongly associated with Sogdian merchants, later, with Uyghurs resident in the Tang state.
It was in the 10th century, after the fall of the Tang, Manichaeism in China assumed certain Chinese characteristics, assimilating to both Buddhism and Taoism. At the same time, the Taoist treatise, the Huahujing Scripture of the Conversion of the Barbarians, popular with Chinese Manichaeans, not surprisingly, such Manichaean temples as were erected in Song China usually had an official Buddhist or Taoist affiliation. There are records, for example, of a Manichaean temple in Taoist disguise at Siming, the temple is said to have been initially constructed during the reign of Emperor Gaozong of Song, the first emperor of the Southern Song, as a straw hut. It was rebuilt in a permanent way in the 5th year of the Zhiyuan era of Toghon Temür of the Yuan dynasty. Manichaeism in China became gradually extinct during the Ming and practically forgotten by the close of the Ming period, a short poem by Huang Fengxiang tells about his visit to Caoan Temple, which at the time had already been abandoned.
The poet mentions Buddhist and Taoist symbols, but shows no awareness on its authors part of the temples Manichaean origin and this text is one of the few pieces of literary evidence we have from the last centuries of Manichaeism in China. He Qiaoyuan speculated that there were still followers of the Religion of Light in Fujian in his days. After He Qiaoyuans account of the Manichaean shrine was brought to the attention of scholars in 1923, by Chen Yuan and Paul Pelliot. In 1961, the temple was entered on the Fujian provincial list of protected monuments, in 1996, it was added to Chinas National List of Historical and Cultural Sites. The most remarkable Manichaean relic in the temple is the statue of Manichaeisms founder Mani, according to an inscription, the statue was donated to the temple by a local adherent in 1339. While the statue may look like any other Buddha to a casual observer, instead of being curly-haired and clean-shaven, as most other Buddha statues, this Buddha of Light is depicted having straight hair draped over his shoulders, and sporting a beard
Provinces of China
Provinces, formally provincial-level administrative divisions or first-level administrative divisions, are the highest-level Chinese administrative divisions. There are 34 such divisions, classified as 23 provinces, four municipalities, five autonomous regions, the Peoples Republic of China claims sovereignty over the territory administered by the Republic of China, claiming most of it as its Taiwan Province. The ROC administers some offshore islands which form Fujian Province and these were part of an originally unified Fujian province, which since the stalemate of the Chinese Civil War in 1949 has been divided between the PRC and ROC. Note that every province has a Communist Party of China provincial committee, the committee secretary is in effective charge of the province, rather than the nominal governor of the provincial government. The government of each province is nominally led by a provincial committee. The committee secretary is first-in-charge of the province, second-in-command is the governor of the provincial government, the Peoples Republic of China claims the island of Taiwan and its surrounding islets, including Penghu, as Taiwan Province.
The territory is controlled by the Republic of China, a municipality or direct-controlled municipality is a higher level of city which is directly under the Chinese government, with status equal to that of the provinces. In practice, their status is higher than that of common provinces. The governor of each region is usually appointed from the respective minority ethnic group. A special administrative region is an autonomous and self-governing subnational subject of the Peoples Republic of China that is directly under the Central Peoples Government. Each SAR has an executive as head of the region. The regions government is not fully independent, as policy and military defence are the responsibility of the central government. Notes,1, as of 20102, per km23, km24, Abbreviation in the parentheses is informal 5, Since founding in 1949, the PRC has never controlled Taiwan. Taiwan currently administers Taiwan, Penghu and Matsu, the subject of whether or not Taiwan is part of China is often debated, with no clear conclusion.
The Ming Dynasty kept the system set up by the Yuan Dynasty, however. By the time of the establishment of the Qing Dynasty in 1644 there were 18 provinces, in addition, there was a zongdu, a general military inspector or governor general, for every two to three provinces. Outer regions of China were not divided into provinces, military leaders or generals oversaw Manchuria and Mongolia, while vice-dutong and civilian leaders headed the leagues, a subdivision of Mongolia. The ambans supervised the administration of Tibet, in 1884 Xinjiang became a province, in 1907 Fengtian and Heilongjiang were made provinces as well
Xiamen, formerly romanized as Amoy, is a sub-provincial city in southeastern Fujian, beside the Taiwan Strait. It is divided into six districts, Siming, Tongan, altogether, these cover an area of 1,699.39 square kilometers with a population of 3,531,347 as of 2010. The urbanized area of the city has spread from its original island to include parts of all six of its districts and this area connects to Quanzhou in the north and Zhangzhou in the west, making up a metropolis of more than five million people. The Jinmen or Kinmen Islands administered by the Republic of China lie less than 6 kilometers away, Xiamen Island was considered to possess one of the worlds great natural harbors in Yundang Bay, but Fujians international trade was long restricted to Quanzhou or to Guangzhou in Guangdong. Due to the siltification of Quanzhous harbor, the British insisted that Xiamen be opened to trade in the treaty that ended the First Opium War in 1842. The overseas Chinese continue to support Xiamens educational and cultural institutions, as part of Chinas Opening Up Policy under Deng Xiaoping, Xiamen became one of the original four special economic zones opened to foreign investment and trade in the early 1980s.
Its former harbor was enclosed using land excavated during the citys expansion, the city is known for its mild climate, Hokkien culture and colonial architecture, as well as its relatively low pollution. In 2006, Xiamen was ranked as Chinas 2nd-most suitable city for living, the area around Xiamen Bay appears as Tongan in some Han records. Xiamen Island was described as Jiahe Islet c. 976 and it received its present name from the Xiamen Castle erected on the island by Zhou Dexing in 1387 during the Ming. The name was written using the Chinese characters meaning Lower Gate. When its port prospered under the Qing, the name was considered unrefined and changed to homophonous characters meaning Mansion Gate, Xiamen is the atonal pinyin romanization of the characters pronunciation in Mandarin. It has been romanized as Hiamen, the former English name Amoy was based on the same names pronunciation in the Zhangzhou dialect of Hokkien, Ē-mûi. Xiamen was named Siming for a few years during its occupation by the loyalist Southern Ming forces of Koxinga, the Qing restored the former name upon their conquest of the area, but Koxingas name was in turn restored after the Xinhai Revolution that inaugurated the republic in 1912.
The name Xiamen was restored again but Siming continues to be used as the name of one of its districts, Xiamen is a sub-provincial city in southeastern Fujian whose urban core grew up from the port of Xiamen on southern Xiamen Island, now located within Siming District. It now includes Gulangyu Island and the rugged coast of the mainland from the northeast bank of the Jiulong River in the west to the islands of Xiangan in the east, Xiamen Island lies about one degree north of the Tropic of Cancer. It is divided between Huli District in the north and Siming District in the south and its mainland territory is divided among Haicang, Jimei and Xiangan districts. In the 19th century, Xiamens harbor on Yundang Bay was considered one of the great natural harbors. Land reclamation has since used to fill in the mouth of this inlet