Association of Shinto Shrines
The Association of Shinto Shrines is a religious administrative organisation that oversees about 80,000 Shinto shrines in Japan. These shrines take the Ise Grand Shrine as the foundation of their belief; the association has five major activities, in addition to numerous others: Publication and dissemination of information on Shrine Shinto The performance of rituals. It has an administrative structure including a main office and branches, its headquarters in Yoyogi, Tokyo, adjacent to Meiji Shrine. Its leadership includes the head priestess of the Ise Shrine, presently Sayako Kuroda; the tōri is Kuniaki Kuni, the post of sōchō or Secretary-General is held by Masami Yatabe, the chief priest of the Mishima Shrine. The association maintains regional offices in every prefecture, they handle financial and personnel matters for member shrines. The association was established following the Surrender of Japan at the end of World War II. On 15 December 1945, the Supreme Commander for the Allied Powers issued the Shinto Directive, ordering the Disestablishment of Shinto as a state religion.
On February 2, 1946, to comply with the SCAP order, three organizations – the Kōten Kōkyūjo, Dainippon Jingikai, Jingū Hōsaikai – established the nongovernmental Association, assuming the functions of the Jingi-in, a branch of the Home Ministry. The association is a successful lobbyist. Shinto This article incorporates material in 神社本庁 in the Japanese Wikipedia, retrieved on January 27, 2008. Official website
The Twenty-Two Shrines of Japan is one ranking system for Shinto shrines. The system was established during the Heian period and formed part of the government's systematization of Shinto during the emergence of a general anti-Chinese sentiment and the suppression of the Taoist religion, it involved the establishment of the shrines as important centers of public life in Japan. It played a role in official imperial ceremonies such as the Practice of Chinkon. An extensive body of literature emerged containing information about each shrine, including the shrine's origin, priestly dress, divine treatises, the system of shrine removal, subordinate shrines, annual cycle of rituals, among others. By the year 806, 4,870 households were assigned to Shinto shrines while the government provided a national endowment for their upkeep; these shrines received special offerings from the Imperial Court. As time progressed, this offering to the shrines was amended so that Imperial envoys were only sent to the powerful shrines in Kyoto, the capital of Japan at the time.
This amendment identified fourteen shrines but it was increased to twenty-two in 1081. There are historians who explained that the majority in list involved those with central lineages supporting the imperial house, sites of cults that gained popular significance, shrines in locations with the presence of Buddhist institutions. Under the Ritsuryō law system, the shrines that the Imperial Court would present offerings to for rites such as the kinensai, a service to pray for a good harvest, were decided by the Engishiki Jinmyōchō, but once the Ritsuryō system began to deteriorate, the offerings were only given to a select few shrines. In 965, Emperor Murakami ordered that Imperial messengers were sent to report important events to the guardian kami of Japan; these heihaku were presented to 16 shrines: 1. Ise. Iwashimizu. Kamo. Matsunoo. Hirano. Inari. Kasuga. Oharano. Miwa. Ōyamato. Hirose. Tatsuta. Sumiyoshi. Nibu and 16. Kibune. In 991, Emperor Ichijō added three more shrines to Murakami's list—17. Yoshida.
Hirota. Kitano. Umenomiya. Gion. In 1039, Emperor Go-Suzaku ordered that one more shrine be added to this list, 22. Hie, this unique number of Imperial-designated shrines has not been altered since that time. Near the end of the Heian period, there was a movement to add Itsukushima Shrine to the list, but it did not happen. However, until the end of the Muromachi period, the Imperial Court made offerings to it, in the Edo period, offerings were again made after disasters occurred; when the Nijūni-sha are considered as a grouped set, they are conventionally presented in order of rank, not in terms of the chronological sequence in which they were designated. The three rank ranked groupings derived from a complex array of Heian geopolitical relationships. Note: At the time when the Nijunisha were chosen, the current Niukawakami Nakasha was the only Niukawakami Shrine, it became the middle shrine only after the shrine in Kawakami were united with it. List of Shinto shrines List of Jingū Ichinomiya Breen and Mark Teeuwen..
Shinto in History: Ways of the Kami. Honolulu: University of Hawaii Press. ISBN 978-0-8248-2363-4 Ponsonby-Fane, Richard.. Studies in Shinto and Shrines. Kyoto: Ponsonby Memorial Society. OCLC 399449
Misogi is a Japanese Shinto practice of ritual purification by washing the entire body. Misogi is related to another Shinto purification ritual called Harae – thus both being collectively referred to as Misogiharae. In Kyoto, people douse themselves under Kiyomizu Temple's Otowa no taki waterfall, although the majority of visitors drink from the waters rather than plunging into them; every year, many groups take pilgrimages to sacred waterfalls and rivers, either alone or in small groups, to perform misogi. Mount Ontake, the Kii mountain range and Mount Yoshino are but a few examples of ancient and well known areas for Misogi in Japan. In the United States misogi is performed at the Tsubaki Grand Shrine of America at the Konryu Myojin no Taki waterfall each morning. Before encountering misogi, members undergo some sort of preliminary purification; such things as prayers, fasting, or some sort of physical activity is common. Women put on a special white kimono and a headband and men put on a fundoshi and head band.
They begin furitama or "spirit shaking" by clenching their hands in front of the stomach and shaking them up and down, vibrating the upper torso. The purpose of this is to become aware of/unified with the spirit's presence within. Following this is a "warm-up" or calisthenics; these two aforementioned practices are sometimes accompanied by special incantations. After, the leader begins to speak out invocations/prayers; the followers speak along with them, thus affirming the potential for realizing one's own spirit, thus unifying them with the kami around them. The above exercises are done so participants raise their metabolism and some groups accompany this with deep breathing, they may be sprinkled with purifying salt and may be given sake to spit into the waterfall in three mouthfuls. Sometimes the participants are given salt to throw into the waterfall. In some groups, the leader counts to nine and cuts the air while shouting the word "yei!" to dispel this impurity. The participants enter the waterfall while continuously chanting the phrase harai tamae kiyome tamae rokkon shōjō.
This phrase asks the kami to wash away the impurity from the six elements that make up the human being, the five senses and the mind. The practice of this varies from group to group, each having their own methods. Misogi is used in some forms of martial arts aikido, to prepare the mind for training and to learn how to develop one's Dantian, or centre; the founder of aikido, Morihei Ueshiba used this form of meditation to complement his training and search for perfection. The Sen Shin tei Misogi Well at Ki Society Headquarters in Japan is a well-known place for people performing misogi with cold water before sunrise. Baptism Ghusl Mikveh Temizuya, a pavilion for ritual purification at the entrance to Shinto shrines Fisher, Mary Pat. Living Religions, 5th ed. Prentice Hall
Tokugawa Mitsukuni or Mito Kōmon was a prominent daimyō, known for his influence in the politics of the early Edo period. He was the third son of Tokugawa Yorifusa and succeeded him, becoming the second daimyō of the Mito Domain, he was responsible for assembling the Mitogaku scholars to compile a huge Japanese history, Dai Nihonshi. In it, Japan was depicted as a nation under the Emperor, analogous to that in Chinese dynasties; this helped the rise of nationalism in the Mito Domain later. His childhood name was Chomaru become Chiyomatsu this name was granted by his cousin and the shōgun, Tokugawa Iemitsu. In 1661, at age 34, he became the daimyō of the Mito han, he anticipated the forcible division of kami and Buddhas of 1868 ordering there the destruction of a thousand Buddhist temples and the construction of at least one shrine per village (one village, one shrine policy. At age 63, he was awarded provisional middle counsellor. In 1691, he retired to his villa, Seizan-sō, he directed at Zuisen-ji the creation of the first guide to Kamakura, the Shinpen Kamakurashi.
The book would have a profound influence on the city in the following centuries, an influence which continues to this day in names for parts of the city like Kamakura's Seven Mouths, Kamakura's Ten Bridges, other such popular monikers he coined. In 1657 at the age of 27, he married a daughter of the kampaku Konoe Nobuhiro, he was known as a gourmet of the Edo period. He is claimed to be one of the first Japanese to eat ramen as well as enjoying such exotic food as wine and yogurt. Mitsukuni had one son. Additionally, Mitsukuni adopted the son of an elder brother, he died at his villa in 1701. He posthumously received the court rank of first rank, he is now considered to be a kami. Father: Tokugawa Yorifusa Mother: Hisa Kyushoin Wife: Hiroko daughter of Konoe Nobuhiro Concubine: Tamai-Dono Son: Matsudaira Yoritsune of Takamatsu Domain by Tamai During the latter half of the Edo period and the Meiji period, a kōdan named "Mito Mitsukuni Man'yūki" fictionalized the travels of Tokugawa Mitsukuni; this tradition of dramatizing his life continued with a novel and, in 1951, the first television series to portray him as a wanderer, masquerading as a commoner, who castigated the evil powers in every corner of the nation.
From 1969 to 2011, the TBS ran the series Mito Kōmon, which continues to attract audiences in reruns. Episodes were re-broadcast in the early 1990s by WNYE-TV under the title The Elder Lord of Mito; each summer, the city of Mito hosts the Mito Komon festival, which prominently features the Tokugawa seal, as well as actors representing Tokugawa Mitsukuni and his assistants. Brownlee, John S. Japanese Historians and the National Myths, 1600–1945: The Age of the Gods and Emperor Jimmu. Vancouver: University of British Columbia Press. ISBN 0-7748-0644-3 Tokyo: University of Tokyo Press. ISBN 4-13-027031-1 Brownlee, John S.. Political Thought in Japanese Historical Writing: From Kojiki to Tokushi Yoron. Waterloo, Ontario: Wilfrid Laurier University Press. ISBN 0-88920-997-9 Iwao, Teizō Iyanaga, Susumu Ishii, Shōichirō Yoshida et al.. Dictionnaire historique du Japon. Paris: Maisonneuve & Larose. ISBN 978-2-7068-1632-1. Sovereign and Subject. Kyoto: Ponsonby Memorial Society. OCLC 1014075
Samurai were the military nobility and officer caste of medieval and early-modern Japan. In Japanese, they are referred to as bushi or buke. According to translator William Scott Wilson: "In Chinese, the character 侍 was a verb meaning'to wait upon','accompany persons' in the upper ranks of society, this is true of the original term in Japanese, saburau. In both countries the terms were nominalized to mean'those who serve in close attendance to the nobility', the Japanese term saburai being the nominal form of the verb." According to Wilson, an early reference to the word samurai appears in the Kokin Wakashū, the first imperial anthology of poems, completed in the first part of the 10th century. By the end of the 12th century, samurai became entirely synonymous with bushi, the word was associated with the middle and upper echelons of the warrior class; the samurai were associated with a clan and their lord, were trained as officers in military tactics and grand strategy. While the samurai numbered less than 10% of Japan's population, their teachings can still be found today in both everyday life and in modern Japanese martial arts.
Following the Battle of Hakusukinoe against Tang China and Silla in 663 AD which led to a retreat from Korean affairs, Japan underwent widespread reform. One of the most important was that of the Taika Reform, issued by Prince Naka-no-Ōe in 646 AD; this edict allowed the Japanese aristocracy to adopt the Tang dynasty political structure, culture and philosophy. As part of the Taihō Code of 702 AD, the Yōrō Code, the population was required to report for the census, a precursor for national conscription. With an understanding of how the population was distributed, Emperor Monmu introduced a law whereby 1 in 3–4 adult males were drafted into the national military; these soldiers were required to supply their own weapons, in return were exempted from duties and taxes. This was one of the first attempts by the Imperial government to form an organized army modeled after the Chinese system, it was called "Gundan-Sei" by historians and is believed to have been short-lived. The Taihō Code classified most of the Imperial bureaucrats into 12 ranks, each divided into two sub-ranks, 1st rank being the highest adviser to the Emperor.
Those of 6th rank and below were dealt with day-to-day affairs. Although these "samurai" were civilian public servants, the modern word is believed to have derived from this term. Military men, would not be referred to as "samurai" for many more centuries. In the early Heian period, during the late 8th and early 9th centuries, Emperor Kanmu sought to consolidate and expand his rule in northern Honshū, sent military campaigns against the Emishi, who resisted the governance of the Kyoto-based imperial court. Emperor Kanmu introduced the title of sei'i-taishōgun, or shōgun, began to rely on the powerful regional clans to conquer the Emishi. Skilled in mounted combat and archery, these clan warriors became the Emperor's preferred tool for putting down rebellions. Though this is the first known use of the title shōgun, it was a temporary title and was not imbued with political power until the 13th century. At this time, the Imperial Court officials considered them to be a military section under the control of the Imperial Court.
Emperor Kanmu disbanded his army. From this time, the emperor's power declined. While the emperor was still the ruler, powerful clans around Kyoto assumed positions as ministers, their relatives bought positions as magistrates. To amass wealth and repay their debts, magistrates imposed heavy taxes, resulting in many farmers becoming landless. Through protective agreements and political marriages, the aristocrats accumulated political power surpassing the traditional aristocracy; some clans were formed by farmers who had taken up arms to protect themselves from the Imperial magistrates sent to govern their lands and collect taxes. These clans formed alliances to protect themselves against more powerful clans, by the mid-Heian period, they had adopted characteristic Japanese armor and weapons; the Emperor and non-warrior nobility employed these warrior nobles. In time they amassed enough manpower and political backing, in the form of alliances with one another, to establish the first samurai-dominated government.
As the power of these regional clans grew, their chief was a distant relative of the Emperor and a lesser member of either the Fujiwara, Minamoto, or Taira clans. Though sent to provincial areas for fixed four-year terms as magistrates, the toryo declined to return to the capital when their terms ended, their sons inherited their positions and continued to lead the clans in putting down rebellions throughout Japan during the middle- and later-Heian period; because of their rising military and economic power, the warriors became a new force in the politics of the Imperial court. Their involvement in the Hōgen Rebellion in the late Heian period consolidated their power, which pitted the rivalry of Minamoto and Taira clans against each other in the Heiji Rebellion of 1160; the victor, Taira no Kiyomori, became an imperial advisor and was the first warrior to attain such a position. He seized control of the central government, establishing the first samurai-dominated government and relegating the Emperor to figurehead status.
However, the Taira clan was still conservative when compared to its eventual successor, the Minamoto, instead of expanding or stre
Tsukuba is a city located in Ibaraki Prefecture, Japan. As of September 2015, the city had an estimated population of 223,151, a population density of 787 persons per km², its total area is 283.72 square kilometres. It is known as the location of the Tsukuba Science City, a planned science park developed in the 1960s. Located in southern Ibaraki Prefecture, Tsukuba is located to the south of Mount Tsukuba, from which it takes its name. Ibaraki Prefecture Tsukubamirai Jōsō Shimotsuma Chikusei Sakuragawa Ishioka Tsuchiura Ushiku Ryūgasaki Mount Tsukuba has been a place of pilgrimage since at least the Heian period. During the Edo period, parts of what became the city of Tsukuba were administered by a junior branch of the Hosokawa clan at Yatabe Domain, one of the feudal domains of the Tokugawa shogunate. With the creation of the municipalities system after the Meiji Restoration on April 1, 1889, the town Yatabe was established within Tsukuba District, Ibaraki). On November 30, 1987 the town of Yatabe merged with the neighboring towns of Ōho and Toyosato and the village of Sakura to create the city of Tsukuba.
The neighboring town of Tsukuba merged with the city of Tsukuba on January 1, 1988, followed by the town of Kukizaki on November 1, 2002. In 1985, Tuskuba hosted. On April 1, 2007 Tsukuba was designated a Special city with increased autonomy. Following the Fukushima I nuclear accidents in 2011, evacuees from the accident zone reported that municipal officials in Tsukuba refused to allow them access to shelters in the city unless they presented certificates from the Fukushima government declaring that the evacuees were "radiation free". On May 6, 2012, Tsukuba was struck by a tornado that caused heavy damage to numerous structures and left 20,000 residents without electricity; the storm injured 45 people. The tornado was rated an F-3 by the Japan Meteorological Agency, making it the most powerful tornado to hit Japan; some spots had F-4 damage. Intel Japan Cyberdyne Inc. SoftEther Corporation TonQ Corporation University of Tsukuba, Tsukuba Campus National University Corporation Tsukuba University of Technology Graduate University for Advanced Studies, Tsukuba Campus Tsukuba Gakuin University Tsukuba has 37 elementary schools, 15 middle schools, two combined middle school/high schools and six high schools, along with one special education school.
In addition, it has an international school, Tsukuba International School, a Brazilian school, the Instituto Educare. Metropolitan Intercity Railway Company – Tsukuba Express Midorino - Bampaku-kinenkōen - Kenkyū-gakuen - Tsukuba Mount Tsukuba Cable Car Mount Tsukuba Ropeway Jōban Expressway – Yatabe IC, Tsukuba JCT, Yatabe-Higashi PA, Sakura-Tsuchiura IC Ken-Ō Expressway – Tsukuba-Chuo IC, Tsukuba JCT, Tsukuba-Ushiku IC Japan National Route 6 Japan National Route 125 Japan National Route 354 Japan National Route 408 Japan National Route 468 Tsukuba Community Broadcast Inc. – Radio Tsukuba Academic Newtown Community Cable Service Beginning in the 1960s, the area was designated for development. Construction of the city centre, the University of Tsukuba and 46 public basic scientific research laboratories began in the 1970s. Tsukuba Science City became operational in the 1980s; the Expo'85 world's fair was held in the area of Tsukuba Science City, which at the time was still divided administratively between several small towns and villages.
Attractions at the event included the 85-metre Technocosmos, which at that time was the world's tallest Ferris wheel. By 2000, the city's 60 national research institutes and two national universities had been grouped into five zones: higher education and training, construction research, physical science and engineering research and agricultural research, common facilities; these zones were surrounded by more than 240 private research facilities. Among the most prominent institutions are the University of Tsukuba; the city has an international flair, with about 7,500 foreign students and researchers from as many as 133 countries living in Tsukuba at any one time. Over the past several decades, nearly half of Japan's public research and development budget has been spent in Tsukuba. Important scientific breakthroughs by its researchers include the identification and specification of the molecular structure of superconducting materials, the development of organic optical films that alter their electrical conductivity in response to changing light, the creation of extreme low-pressure vacuum chambers.
Tsukuba has become one of the world's key sites for government-industry collaborations in basic research. Earthquake safety, environmental degradation, studies of roadways, fermentation science and plant genetics are some of the broad research topics having close public-private partnerships. Tsukuba Science City is a center for research and education in the city of Tsukuba, located northeast of Tokyo; the idea of constructing the science city was by the late Ichiro Kono, former minister of construction, Kniomi Umezawa, former vice minister of the science and technology agency. Another key figure for the development of the Science City is Leo Esaki. What sets Tsukuba apart from other town developments in Japan is the large scale and fast pace of its development into a place with high quality of scientific innovation. In September 1963, the national government of Japan, led by Ichiro Kono and Kniomi Umezawa, ord