Booligal /ˈbuːlɪɡəl/ is a village in the Riverina area of western New South Wales, Australia. It is located on the Cobb Highway, on the Lachlan River north of Hay, Booligal is a part of Hay Shire local government area. The name of the village is an Anglicised corruption of an Aboriginal word meaning either place, or large swamp. Booligal is situated on the boundary of the Muthi Muthi. The site where Booligal township developed was originally a crossing-place on the Lachlan River on the Boolegal pastoral run, the township developed on the opposite side of the river to Boolegal station. The builder Edward Roset and his family were living at the locality by about 1856, Edward Roset constructed a hotel at Booligal, which probably operated initially as a sly-grog shop. In 1859 Robert Whiteus was operating a punt at the locality, the township of Booligal was laid out by Surveyor Edward Twynam and gazetted as a township in July 1860. In December 1860 it was reported that a store and two public-houses were being erected in the new township, licences for the two hotels were initially refused by the Bench of Magistrates at Hay on account of there being no police belonging to the locality.
On appeal however the applications for licences at Booligal were granted, neil McColl became the licensee of the Drovers Arms Hotel and John Ledwidge was granted a licence for the Booligal Hotel. On 31 January 1861 – the first red letter day at this new township on the Lower Lachlan – both hotels were opened to the public, in March 1861 the Adelaide firm of Randell and Scott opened at store at Booligal. The manager, Thomas Hitchcox, was briefly postmaster, Booligal Post Office opened on 7 March 1861. In August 1862 it was reported that both hotels at Booligal were closed and the two publicans were insolvent, hitchcock resigned as storekeeper to take over the licence of the Booligal Hotel. Another Adelaide firm and Pollard, opened a store at Booligal by 1863, managed by Henry N. Smith. During 1871-2 Edward Roset had a bridge built over the Lachlan River at Booligal, the bridge, which still remains at the lower end of Lachlan Street, was built above flood level and flanked by extensive banked-up approaches.
The school-house and parsonage were new buildings, still incomplete, at that stage the population of Booligal was over 100 persons. In 1878 the telegraph line was extended to Booligal, booligal’s position on the direct transport route linking the Murrumbidgee and Darling rivers ensured its importance in the district during the latter half of the 19th century. Drays hauling wool from stations north of the Lachlan passed through the township in large numbers, Booligal was a major stopping-place for the mail and passenger coach travelling between Hay and Wilcannia on the Darling River. In 1890 Booligal had a population of about 500 people, a new public bridge was built at Booligal in 1912
Royal Society of New South Wales
The Royal Society of New South Wales is a learned society based in Sydney, Australia. It is the oldest such society in Australia and in the Southern Hemisphere, the Governor of New South Wales is the vice-regal patron of the Society. The Society was established as the Philosophical Society of Australasia on 27 June 1821, in 1850, after a period of informal activity, the Society was revived and its name became the Australian Philosophical Society and, in 1856, the Philosophical Society of New South Wales. The Society was granted Royal Assent on 12 December 1866 and at time was renamed the Royal Society of New South Wales. Membership is open to any person interested in the promotion of studies in Science, Literature, the Society is based in Sydney and has an active branches in Mittagong in the Southern Highlands of NSW. Regular monthly meetings and public lectures are attended by both members and visitors. The Society publishes a journal, the Journal and Proceedings of The Royal Society of New South Wales.
The Society was formed with a view to enquiring into the branches of physical science of this vast continent. On his arrival in Sydney late in 1821, the newly appointed Governor, following a period of informal activity, the Society was revitalised and renamed the Australian Philosophical Society on 19 January 1850. The society was renamed the Philosophical Society of New South Wales in 1856, on 12 December 1866, Queen Victoria granted Royal Assent to change its name to The Royal Society of New South Wales. The Society was incorporated by Act of the New South Wales Parliament in 1881, the rules of the Society provided that the Governor of New South Wales should be President ex officio. After the establishment of the Commonwealth of Australia in 1901, the Governor-General became Patron of the Society, from 1938 to 2014, the Society was under the joint patronage of the Governor-General of Australia and the Governor of NSW. The Society now has a single Vice-Regal Patron, the Governor of NSW, the Societys journal, the Journal and Proceedings of The Royal Society of New South Wales is one of the oldest peer-reviewed publications in the Southern Hemisphere.
Much innovative research of the 19th and early 20th centuries was first brought to the attention of the world through the Journal. The Journal and Proceedings are exchanged with hundreds of institutions worldwide, issues are published June and December each year. The Society welcomes scholarly work to be considered for publication in the Journal, preference is given to work done in Australia which has relevance to New South Wales. Intending authors must read the style guide, available via the Society’s web site, the Society recognises outstanding contributions to science, literature or philosophy with the position of Distinguished Fellow. Distinguished Fellows of the Society are entitled to use the postnominal Dist FRSN, there can be up to 25 Distinguished Fellows at any one time
Norman Barnett Tindale AO was an Australian anthropologist, archaeologist and ethnologist. The family returned to Perth, and in 1917 moved to Adelaide where Tindale took up a position as a cadet at the Adelaide Public Library. Shortly after this, Tindale lost the sight in one eye in a gas explosion which occurred while assisting his father with photographic processing. In January 1919 he secured a position at the South Australian Museum as Entomologists Assistant to Arthur Mills Lea and he had already published thirty-one papers on entomological and anthropological subjects before receiving his Bachelor of Science degree at the University of Adelaide in March 1933. Tindale is best remembered for his work mapping the various groupings of Indigenous Australians. This interest began with a trip to Groote Eylandt where an Anindilyakwa man gave Tindale very detailed descriptions of which land was his. This led Tindale to question the orthodoxy of the time which was that Aboriginal people were purely nomadic and had no connection to any specific region.
While Tindales methodology and his notion of the tribe have been superseded. Quite a number of now-important record films were made by Tindale, in 1942 Tindale joined the Royal Australian Air Force and was assigned the rank of Wing Commander. He had previously tried to enlist in the Australian army at the outbreak of WWII but was rejected due to his damaged eyesight, in 1967, at the age of sixty-six, he received an honorary doctorate from the University of Colorado. He was eventually honoured with a doctorate by the Australian National University in 1980, during 1993 Tindale received unofficial confirmation of his appointment as an Officer of the Order of Australia, this was presented posthumously, to his widow Muriel. Also in 1993, the South Australian Museum Boards named a public gallery in his honour, Tindale published extensively, both as sole author and collaborator. Note that the archives contain 2,804 items related to Dr Tindale
New South Wales
New South Wales is a state on the east coast of Australia. It borders Queensland to the north, Victoria to the south and it has a coast line with the Tasman Sea on its east side. The Australian Capital Territory is an enclave within the state, New South Wales state capital is Sydney, which is Australias most populous city. In March 2014, the population of New South Wales was 7.5 million. Just under two-thirds of the population,4.67 million. Inhabitants of New South Wales are referred to as New South Welshmen, the Colony of New South Wales was founded as a penal colony in 1788. It originally comprised a more than half of the Australian mainland with its western boundary set at 129th meridian east in 1825, in addition, the colony included the island territories of New Zealand, Van Diemens Land, Lord Howe Island, and Norfolk Island. During the 19th century, most of the area was detached to form separate British colonies that eventually became New Zealand. However, the Swan River Colony has never administered as part of New South Wales.
Lord Howe Island remains part of New South Wales, while Norfolk Island has become a federal Territory, as have the now known as the Australian Capital Territory. The prior inhabitants of New South Wales were the Aboriginal tribes who arrived in Australia about 40,000 to 60,000 years ago, before European settlement there were an estimated 250,000 Aboriginal people in the region. The Wodi Wodi people are the custodians of the Illawarra region of South Sydney. The Bundjalung people are the custodians of parts of the northern coastal areas. The European discovery of New South Wales was made by Captain James Cook during his 1770 survey along the eastern coast of the Dutch-named continent of New Holland. In his original journal covering the survey, in triplicate to satisfy Admiralty Orders, Cook first named the land New Wales, however, in the copy held by the Admiralty, he revised the wording to New South Wales. After years of chaos and anarchy after the overthrow of Governor William Bligh, macquaries legacy is still evident today.
During the 19th century, large areas were separated to form the British colonies of Tasmania, South Australia, Victoria. Responsible government was granted to the New South Wales colony in 1855, following the Treaty of Waitangi, William Hobson declared British sovereignty over New Zealand in 1840
The indigenous people identify themselves as Guringai. Their taurai is known to extend north to the Macleay River, Fraser came up with the name Kuringgai being a conjunction of the native words Koori/Guri to mean black man and Ngai, meaning black woman, or belonging to. According to Fraser, the Kuringgai were bordered by the Wachigari and the Paikalyung to the north, the Kamalarai to the northwest, the Wiradhari to the west and the Murrinjari to the south. However, Norman Tindale would say in 1974 that the Awabakal are the one of a series of tribes to which the arbitrary term Kuringgai has been applied by Fraser. He divided the area Fraser labelled Kuringgai into several tribes, including the Tharawal, Dharuk, Awabakal, Birpai, the clan groups are the Garigal, Borregegal, Walkeloa with hundreds more. They were hunters and gatherers within their land, the Guringai lives were dictated by the seasons and the seasonal travels throughout their lands, with great ceremony. The Guringai still live in their traditional homelands, the Aborigines of New South Wales.
Sauchie House, West Maitland, University of Newcastle, bibliography of Ku-ring-gai people and language resources, at the Australian Institute of Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander Studies
Indigenous Australians are the Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander people of Australia, descended from groups that existed in Australia and surrounding islands prior to European colonisation. In present-day Australia these groups are divided into local communities. At the time of initial European settlement, over 250 languages were spoken, it is estimated that 120 to 145 of these remain in use. Aboriginal people today mostly speak English, with Aboriginal phrases and words being added to create Australian Aboriginal English, a population collapse following European settlement, and a smallpox epidemic spreading three years after the arrival of Europeans may have caused a massive and early depopulation. Since 1995, the Australian Aboriginal Flag and the Torres Strait Islander Flag have been among the flags of Australia. The word aboriginal has been in the English language since at least the 16th century, to mean, first or earliest known and it comes from the Latin word aborigines, derived from ab and origo.
The word was used in Australia to describe its indigenous peoples as early as 1789 and it soon became capitalised and employed as the common name to refer to all Indigenous Australians. Strictly speaking, Aborigine is the noun and Aboriginal the adjectival form, use of either Aborigine or Aboriginal to refer to individuals has acquired negative connotations in some sectors of the community, and it is generally regarded as insensitive and even offensive. The more acceptable and correct expression is Aboriginal Australians or Aboriginal people, the term Indigenous Australians, which includes Torres Strait Islander peoples, has found increasing acceptance, particularly since the 1980s. The broad term Aboriginal Australians includes many groups that often identify under names from local Indigenous languages. Anindilyakwa on Groote Eylandt off Arnhem Land, Palawah in Tasmania and these larger groups may be further subdivided, for example, Anangu recognises localised subdivisions such as Pitjantjatjara, Ngaanyatjarra and Antikirinya.
It is estimated that prior to the arrival of British settlers, the Torres Strait Islanders possess a heritage and cultural history distinct from Aboriginal traditions. The eastern Torres Strait Islanders in particular are related to the Papuan peoples of New Guinea, they are not generally included under the designation Aboriginal Australians. This has been another factor in the promotion of the inclusive term Indigenous Australians. Six percent of Indigenous Australians identify themselves fully as Torres Strait Islanders, a further 4% of Indigenous Australians identify themselves as having both Torres Strait Islander and Aboriginal heritage. The Torres Strait Islands comprise over 100 islands which were annexed by Queensland in 1879, eddie Mabo was from Mer or Murray Island in the Torres Strait, which the famous Mabo decision of 1992 involved. The term blacks has been used to refer to Indigenous Australians since European settlement, while originally related to skin colour, the term is used today to indicate Aboriginal heritage or culture in general and refers to people of any skin pigmentation.
In the 1970s, many Aboriginal activists, such as Gary Foley, proudly embraced the term black, the book included interviews with several members of the Aboriginal community including Robert Jabanungga reflecting on contemporary Aboriginal culture
The Koori People are Indigenous Australians of New South Wales and Victoria. This is their preferred term, expressing pride in their heritage, the word Koori is from Awabakal language gurri, It is an Indigenous Australian language that was spoken in the area of what is today Newcastle. A Koori Court is a division of the Magistrates court in Victoria, Koori Radio is a community radio station based in Redfern broadcasting to Sydney on a city-wide licence. It is part of the Gadigal Information Service and is the radio station in Sydney providing full-time broadcasting to the Aboriginal. Koori Mail is a national Indigenous newspaper based in Lismore, New South Wales, the NSW Koori Rugby League Knockout is one of the largest gatherings of Indigenous people in Australia. A modern-day corroboree for the Koori people of NSW, it has been held annually over the October long weekend since 1971
The Kamilaroi is one of the four largest indigenous nations in Australia. The Kamilaroi language is classified in the Pama–Nyungan family of Australian languages, the Kamilaroi Highway, Sydney Ferries Limiteds vehicular ferry Kamilaroi, and a cultivar of Durum wheat have all been named after the Kamilaroi people. The language is no longer spoken, though parts have bneen reconstructed by late field work. Robert M. W. Dixon and his student Peter Austin recorded some around Moree, while Corinne Williams wrote a thesis on the Yuwaaliyaay dialect spoken at Walgett, the Gamilaroi were hunters and gatherers with a band-level social organization. Important vegetable foods were yams and other roots, as well as a sterculia grain, insect larvae and eggs of several different animals were gathered. Various birds, emus, possums, dingo pups were regarded as a delicacy. Fish were consumed, as were crayfish, men typically hunted and prepared the game for cooking. Women did the cooking, in addition to fishing and gathering.
Individual Kamilaroi did not eat animals that were their totems, the Gamilaroi or Gomilaroi from the word Kamil or Gamil meaning no, are a large nation of Aborigines consisting of many tribes. The Gamilaroi are the second largest Aboriginal nation on the side of Australia. The nation was made up of smaller family groups who had their own parcels of land to sustain them. One of the great Kings of this tribe was Red Chief, the last link with tribal law and custom in Mungindi would be the forebear of the present Cubby family, who was the last known Respected Elder in the tribe. The Kamilaroi were regarded as fierce warriors and there is evidence of intertribal warfare. The Northern Gamilaroi people have a cultural connection with the Bigambul people. Kamilaroi tradition includes Baiame, the ancestor or patron god, the Baiame story tells how Baiame came down from the sky to the land, and created rivers and forests. He gave the people their laws of life, songs and he created the first initiation site.
This is known as a bora, a place where boys were initiated into manhood, when he had finished, he returned to the sky, and people called him the Sky Hero or All Father or Sky Father. He is said to be married to Birrahgnooloo, who is identified as an emu