Ferdinand Magellan was a Portuguese explorer who organised the Spanish expedition to the East Indies from 1519 to 1522, resulting in the first circumnavigation of the Earth, completed by Juan Sebastián Elcano. Born into a family of the Portuguese nobility in around 1480, Magellan became a skilled sailor and naval officer and was selected by King Charles I of Spain to search for a westward route to the Maluku Islands. Commanding a fleet of five vessels, he headed south through the Atlantic Ocean to Patagonia, passing through the Strait of Magellan into a body of water he named the "peaceful sea". Despite a series of storms and mutinies, the expedition reached the Spice Islands in 1521 and returned home via the Indian Ocean to complete the first circuit of the globe. Magellan did not complete the entire voyage, as he was killed during the Battle of Mactan in the Philippines in 1521, his gift, the Santo Niño de Cebú image, remains one of his legacies during his arrival. Magellan had reached the Malay Archipelago in Southeast Asia on previous voyages traveling east.
By visiting this area again but now travelling west, Magellan achieved a nearly complete personal circumnavigation of the globe for the first time in history. The Magellanic penguin is named after him. Magellan's navigational skills have been acknowledged in the naming of objects associated with the stars, including the Magellanic Clouds, now known to be two nearby dwarf galaxies. Magellan was born in northern Portugal in around 1480, either at Vila Nova de Gaia, near Porto, in Douro Litoral Province, or at Sabrosa, near Vila Real, in Trás-os-Montes e Alto Douro Province, he was the son of Rodrigo de Magalhães, Alcaide-Mor of Aveiro and wife Alda de Mesquita and brother of Leonor or Genebra de Magalhães, wife with issue of João Fernandes Barbosa. In March 1505 at the age of 25, Magellan enlisted in the fleet of 22 ships sent to host D. Francisco de Almeida as the first viceroy of Portuguese India. Although his name does not appear in the chronicles, it is known that he remained there eight years, in Goa and Quilon.
He participated including the battle of Cannanore in 1506, where he was wounded. In 1509 he fought in the battle of Diu, he sailed under Diogo Lopes de Sequeira in the first Portuguese embassy to Malacca, with Francisco Serrão, his friend and cousin. In September, after arriving at Malacca, the expedition fell victim to a conspiracy ending in retreat. Magellan had a crucial role, saving Francisco Serrão, who had landed. In 1511, under the new governor Afonso de Albuquerque and Serrão participated in the conquest of Malacca. After the conquest their ways parted: Magellan was promoted, with a rich plunder and, in the company of a Malay he had indentured and baptized, Enrique of Malacca, he returned to Portugal in 1512. Serrão departed in the first expedition sent to find the "Spice Islands" in the Moluccas, where he remained, he married a woman from Amboina and became a military advisor to the Sultan of Ternate, Bayan Sirrullah. His letters to Magellan would prove decisive, giving information about the spice-producing territories.
After taking a leave without permission, Magellan fell out of favour. Serving in Morocco, he was wounded, he was accused of trading illegally with the Moors. The accusations were proved false, but he received no further offers of employment after 15 May 1514. On in 1515, he got an employment offer as a crew member on a Portuguese ship, but rejected this. In 1517 after a quarrel with King Manuel I, who denied his persistent demands to lead an expedition to reach the spice islands from the east, he left for Spain. In Seville he befriended his countryman Diogo Barbosa and soon married the daughter of Diogo's second wife, María Caldera Beatriz Barbosa, they had two children: Rodrigo de Magalhães and Carlos de Magalhães, both of whom died at a young age. His wife died in Seville around 1521. Meanwhile, Magellan devoted himself to studying the most recent charts, investigating, in partnership with cosmographer Rui Faleiro, a gateway from the Atlantic to the South Pacific and the possibility of the Moluccas being Spanish according to the demarcation of the Treaty of Tordesillas.
Christopher Columbus's voyages to the West had the goal of reaching the Indies and to establish direct commercial relations between Spain and the Asian kingdoms. The Spanish soon realized that the lands of the Americas were not a part of Asia, but a new continent; the 1494 Treaty of Tordesillas reserved for Portugal the eastern routes that went around Africa, Vasco da Gama and the Portuguese arrived in India in 1498. Castile urgently needed to find a new commercial route to Asia. After the Junta de Toro conference of 1505, the Spanish Crown commissioned expeditions to discover a route to the west. Spanish explorer Vasco Núñez de Balboa reached the Pacific Ocean in 1513 after crossing the Isthmus of Panama, Juan Díaz de Solís died in Río de la Plata in 1516 while exploring South America in the service of Spain. In October 1517 in Seville, Magellan contacted Juan de Factor of the Casa de Contratación. Following the arrival of his partner Rui Faleiro, with the support of Aranda, they presented their project to the Spanish king, Charles I, f
Age of Discovery
The Age of Discovery, or the Age of Exploration, is an informal and loosely defined term for the period in European history in which extensive overseas exploration emerged as a powerful factor in European culture and, the beginning of globalization. It marks the rise of the period of widespread adoption in Europe of colonialism and mercantilism as national policies. Many lands unknown to Europeans were discovered by them during this period, though most were inhabited. From the perspective of many non-Europeans, the Age of Discovery marked the arrival of invaders from unknown continents. Global exploration started with the Portuguese discoveries of the Atlantic archipelagos of Madeira and the Azores in 1419 and 1427, the coast of Africa after 1434 and the sea route to India in 1498; these discoveries led to numerous naval expeditions across the Atlantic and Pacific oceans, land expeditions in the Americas, Asia and Australia that continued into the late 19th century, ended with the exploration of the polar regions in the 20th century.
European overseas exploration led to the rise of global trade and the European colonial empires, with the contact between the Old World and the New World producing the Columbian Exchange, a wide transfer of plants, food, human populations, communicable diseases and culture between the Eastern and Western Hemispheres. This represented one of the most significant global events concerning ecology and culture in history; the Age of Discovery and European exploration allowed the global mapping of the world, resulting in a new worldview and distant civilizations coming into contact, but led to the propagation of diseases that decimated populations not in contact with Eurasia and Africa and to the enslavement, military conquest and economic dominance by Europe and its colonies over native populations. It allowed for the expansion of Christianity throughout the world: with the spread of missionary activity, it became the world's largest religion; the Portuguese began systematically exploring the Atlantic coast of Africa from 1418, under the sponsorship of Prince Henry.
Under the direction of Henry the Navigator, the Portuguese developed a new, much lighter ship, the caravel, which could sail further and faster, above all, was manoeuvrable and could sail much nearer the wind, or into the wind. In 1488 Bartolomeu Dias reached the Indian Ocean by this route. In 1492 the Catholic Monarchs of Castile and Aragon funded Christopher Columbus's plan to sail west to reach the Indies by crossing the Atlantic, he seen as a new world, the Americas. To prevent conflict between Portugal and Castile, the Treaty of Tordesillas was signed dividing the world into two regions of exploration, where each had exclusive rights to claim newly discovered lands. In 1498, a Portuguese expedition commanded by Vasco da Gama reached India by sailing around Africa, opening up direct trade with Asia. While other exploratory fleets were sent from Portugal to northern North America, in the following years Portuguese India Armadas extended this Eastern oceanic route, touching sometimes South America and by this way opening a circuit from the New World to Asia, explored islands in the South Atlantic and Southern Indian Oceans.
Soon, the Portuguese sailed further eastward, to the valuable Spice Islands in 1512, landing in China one year later. In 1513, Spanish Vasco Núñez de Balboa crossed the Isthmus of Panama and reached the "other sea" from the New World. Thus, Europe first received news of the eastern and western Pacific within a one-year span around 1512. East and west exploration overlapped in 1522, when a Castilian expedition, led by Portuguese navigator Ferdinand Magellan and by Spanish Basque navigator Juan Sebastián Elcano, sailing westward, completed the first circumnavigation of the world, while Spanish conquistadors explored the interior of the Americas, some of the South Pacific islands. Since 1495, the French and English and, much the Dutch entered the race of exploration after learning of these exploits, defying the Iberian monopoly on maritime trade by searching for new routes, first to the western coasts of North and South America, through the first English and French expeditions, into the Pacific Ocean around South America, but by following the Portuguese around Africa into the Indian Ocean.
Meanwhile, from the 1580s to the 1640s, Russians explored and conquered the whole of Siberia, Alaska in the 1730s. Between the 12th and 15th centuries the European economy was transformed by the interconnecting of river and sea trade routes, causing Europe to become one of the world's most prosperous trading networks. Before the 12th century the main obstacle to trade east of the Strait of Gibraltar was lack of commercial incentive rather than inadequate ship design. Economic growth of Spain followed the reconquest of the siege of Lisbon; the decline of Fatimid Caliphate naval strength that started
Francisco Adolfo de Varnhagen, Viscount of Porto Seguro
Francisco Adolfo de Varnhagen, Viscount of Porto Seguro, was a Brazilian diplomat and historian. He is the patron of the 39th chair of the Brazilian Academy of Letters, he is considered "the father of modern Brazilian historical scholarship." Varnhagen was born in the city of Iperó, Brazil. He was the son of Maria Flávia de Sá Magalhães and Friedrich Ludwig Wilhelm Varnhagen, a German-born military engineer, in service to the Portuguese crown and in Brazil to inspect iron foundries, he received his primary education in Rio de Janeiro. At an early age, he went with his family to Lisbon, where he studied at the Real Colégio Militar da Luz. In the civil war in Portugal, he served those supporting Dom Pedro I, he returned to his studies, where he learned paleography and studied political economy and languages. His first History work would be Notícia do Brasil, written between 1835 and 1838, his research would lead him to find Pedro Álvares Cabral's long-lost grave at the Igreja da Graça, in Santarém.
He was admitted at the Sciences Academy of Lisbon and graduated in military engineering at the Academia Real de Fortificação, Artilharia e Desenho. He returned to Brazil in 1840, entering at the Brazilian Historic and Geographic Institute in 1841. In 1844 he obtained Brazilian citizenship, could apply to a diplomatic career, he served in Portugal and Spain, where he was able to utilize the archives in Seville and Simancas for his history of Brazil. He served in Paraguay, where he found the current regime of Carlos Antonio López odious, but he gathered further materials for his history of Brazil on the Tupí Indians, he served in Venezuela, the Republic of New Granada, Chile and the Netherlands. He published the first volume of his masterpiece, História Geral do Brasil, in 1854, its second volume was published in 1857. In 1872, Emperor Pedro II would give him the title of Baron of Porto Seguro, being elevated to Viscount two years later, his final diplomatic service was in Vienna, where he was serving as a minister when he died in 1878.
His remains were transported to Santiago, but would be years removed to a monument erected in honor of him at the city of Sorocaba. Part of his library was acquired by bibliophile José Mindlin. Varnhagen's work was recognized at the time as a major contribution to historical writing on Brazil, with Alexander von Humboldt, the great Prussia scientist and intellectual, saying that "I will be glad to have in its entirety and to see it reposing in our library." Varnhagen participated in political debate about the importance of Brazil's Indians in the formation of Brazil. He rejected the Indianist school that saw Brazil's Indians as "noble savages" and "a basis for brasilidade. In volume two of his História Geral do Brazil, Varnhagen added an appendix that dealt with this issue. "The Indians is the name Brazilian applicable to them as savages. Nor could they be civilized without the presence of force, not abused as much as stated, and they can in no way be taken as our guides in the present or past in sentiments of patriotism or in the representation of nationality."
In general, Varnhagen was pro-monarchy, since it gave Brazil a strong central government and took the part of Portuguese colonists in debates about the colonial era. He had a mixed assessment of the Jesuits in Brazil. For the thirty-year Dutch occupation of Brazil's northeast, he viewed the episode as lamentable on one hand, but beneficial to Brazil on the other, viewing the Dutch as "a nation more active and industrious" than Brazil at the time. Notícia do Brasil. Full title, Reflexões críticas sobre o escripto do século XVI impresso com o título de Noticia do Brasil no Tomo 3 da Collecção de Not. Ultr. Acompanhadas de interssantes notícias bibliográficas e importantes investigações históricas por francisco aldolfo de Varnhagen..... Chelmicki, José Carlos Conrado de. Corografia caboverdiana ou descrição geográfico-histórica da província das Ilhas de Cabo Verde e Guiné. Lisbon: Typ. de L. C. da Cunha. Épicos Brasileiros Amador Bueno Trovas e Cantares de um Códice do Século XVI Florilégio da Poesia Brasileira História Geral do Brasil Sumé Varnhagen's biography at the official site of the Brazilian Academy of Letters "Varnhagen, Francisco Adolphe de".
Encyclopedia Americana. 1920. "Varnhagen, Francisco Adolpho de". Appletons' Cyclopædia of American Biography. 1889. Stuart B. Schwartz, Francisco Adolfo de Varnhagen: Diplomat, Historian, The Hispanic American Historical Review, Vol. 47, No. 2, pp. 185–202
The Indian Ocean is the third largest of the world's oceanic divisions, covering 70,560,000 km2. It is bounded by Asia on the north, on the west by Africa, on the east by Australia, on the south by the Southern Ocean or, depending on definition, by Antarctica; the Indian Ocean is named after India. Called the Sindhu Mahasagara or the great sea of the Sindhu by the Ancient Indians, this ocean has been variously called Hindu Ocean, Indic Ocean, etc. in various languages. The Indian Ocean was known earlier as the Eastern Ocean; the term was still in use during the mid-18th century. The borders of the Indian Ocean, as delineated by the International Hydrographic Organization in 1953 included the Southern Ocean but not the marginal seas along the northern rim, but in 2000 the IHO delimited the Southern Ocean separately, which removed waters south of 60°S from the Indian Ocean, but included the northern marginal seas. Meridionally, the Indian Ocean is delimited from the Atlantic Ocean by the 20° east meridian, running south from Cape Agulhas, from the Pacific Ocean by the meridian of 146°49'E, running south from the southernmost point of Tasmania.
The northernmost extent of the Indian Ocean is 30° north in the Persian Gulf. The Indian Ocean covers 70,560,000 km2, including the Red Sea and the Persian Gulf but excluding the Southern Ocean, or 19.5% of the world's oceans. The ocean's continental shelves are narrow. An exception is found off Australia's western coast; the average depth of the ocean is 3,890 m. Its deepest point is Sunda Trench at a depth of 7,450 m. North of 50° south latitude, 86% of the main basin is covered by pelagic sediments, of which more than half is globigerina ooze; the remaining 14% is layered with terrigenous sediments. Glacial outwash dominates the extreme southern latitudes; the major choke points include Bab el Mandeb, Strait of Hormuz, the Lombok Strait, the Strait of Malacca and the Palk Strait. Seas include the Gulf of Aden, Andaman Sea, Arabian Sea, Bay of Bengal, Great Australian Bight, Laccadive Sea, Gulf of Mannar, Mozambique Channel, Gulf of Oman, Persian Gulf, Red Sea and other tributary water bodies.
The Indian Ocean is artificially connected to the Mediterranean Sea through the Suez Canal, accessible via the Red Sea. All of the Indian Ocean is in the Eastern Hemisphere and the centre of the Eastern Hemisphere, the 90th meridian east, passes through the Ninety East Ridge. Marginal seas, gulfs and straits of the Indian Ocean include: Several features make the Indian Ocean unique, it constitutes the core of the large-scale Tropical Warm Pool which, when interacting with the atmosphere, affects the climate both regionally and globally. Asia prevents the ventilation of the Indian Ocean thermocline; that continent drives the Indian Ocean monsoon, the strongest on Earth, which causes large-scale seasonal variations in ocean currents, including the reversal of the Somali Current and Indian Monsoon Current. Because of the Indian Ocean Walker circulation there is no continuous equatorial easterlies. Upwelling occurs near the Horn of Africa and the Arabian Peninsula in the Northern Hemisphere and north of the trade winds in the Southern Hemisphere.
The Indonesian Throughflow is a unique Equatorial connection to the Pacific. The climate north of the equator is affected by a monsoon climate. Strong north-east winds blow from October until April. In the Arabian Sea the violent Monsoon brings rain to the Indian subcontinent. In the southern hemisphere, the winds are milder, but summer storms near Mauritius can be severe; when the monsoon winds change, cyclones sometimes strike the shores of the Arabian Sea and the Bay of Bengal. The Indian Ocean is the warmest ocean in the world. Long-term ocean temperature records show a rapid, continuous warming in the Indian Ocean, at about 0.7–1.2 °C during 1901–2012. Indian Ocean warming is the largest among the tropical oceans, about 3 times faster than the warming observed in the Pacific. Research indicates that human induced greenhouse warming, changes in the frequency and magnitude of El Niño events are a trigger to this strong warming in the Indian Ocean. South of the Equator the Indian Ocean is gaining heat from June to October, during the austral winter, while it is losing heat from November to March, during the austral summer.
Among the few large rivers flowing into the Indian Ocean are the Zambezi and Jubba in Africa. The ocean's currents are controlled by the monsoon. Two large gyres, one in the northern hemisphere flowing clockwise and one south of the equator moving anticlockwise, constitute the dominant flow pattern. During the winter monsoon, circulation is reversed north of 30°S and winds are weakened during winter and the transitional periods between the monsoons. Deep water circulation is controlled by inflows from the Atlantic Ocean, the Red Sea, Antarctic currents. North of 20 ° south latitude the minimum surface temperature is 22 °C. Southward of 40° south latitude, temperatures
Torre do Tombo National Archive
The National Archive of Torre do Tombo is the Portuguese national archive located in the civil parish of Alvalade, in the municipality of central-northern Lisbon. Established in 1378, it was renamed the Instituto dos Arquivos Nacionais in 2009; the archive is one of the oldest institutions in Portugal, since its installation in one of the towers of the castle in Lisbon, occurring during the reign of Ferdinand I, in 1378. The archive served as the King's and nobilities' reference, with documents supporting the administration of the kingdom and overseas territories, documenting the relationships between the State and foreign kingdoms. Following the events of the 1755 Lisbon earthquake, the High-Guardian of the archives, Manuel da Maia, was responsible for saving the contents of the Torre do Tombo. At 75 years old, Maia led the safe-guarding team to São Jorge Castle, where the archives were located, saved nearly 90,000 pieces, accumulated between 1161 and 1696, he ordered the construction of provisional barracks to store the contents of the archives and made a request to Sebastião José de Carvalho e Melo, King Joseph I’s prime-minister, for a new permanent home for the archives, which would be granted to him in the form of the Convent of São Bento.
In 1982, a public tender was issued for the construction of the new Torre do Tombo archive building, was won by the Ateliers Associados, represented by Arsénio Raposo Cordeiro, with M. Sheppard Cruz and A. N. de Almeida. The cornerstone was laid in an official ceremony; the sculptor José Aurélio was invited to sculpt the gargoyles in 1987, which completed between 1988-1990 (in conjunction with mason José Rodrigues and builder Júlio Mesão. The actual building was projected by architect Arsénio Cordeiro, in collaboration with architect António Barreiros Ferreira, it was inaugurated in 1990, purposely built to receive the National Archive, whose vast collection had been archived since 1757 in the Monastery of São Bento da Saúde (today the Palace de São Bento. The new archive inherited the name of the former Moorish tower of the Castle of São Jorge where documents from the kingdom were warehoused since 1378. Before its inauguration on 21 December 1990, the archive that remained at the former-monastery was transferred to the new building.
On 22 December 2010, the DRCLVTejo proposed classifying the building as a municipal property of interest, supported by the director of the IGESPAR. On 17 May 2011, an announcement was published regarding the process to classify the building, by August, a formal request to make the building a municipal property of interest was formalized by DRCLVTejo; the National Council for Culture decided on 10 October 2011, that a classification was warranted, provided their support. On 30 November 2011, a decision on the classification of this building was approved, a Special Protection Zone was established; the imposing structure consists of two large units unified by a central body, forming an immense "H" plan. The two wings is supported by large bases that create a fortress-like structure, evocative of the large historic monuments that were constructed to last for an eternity, to act as a symbols of preservation and guardianship of a collective memory; the building occupies an area of 11,265 square metres distributed over seven floors, with three floors used by technical rooms, reading rooms, an auditorium and exposition halls.
The upper floors are used to shelter the 140 kilometres shelves for documents, with austere cement walls, with small, square fenestrations, that characterizes a safe-box. Erected in the centre of each facade is a vertical body that acts as buttress, in the form of a "T" that reproduces the archives initials for "Torre do Tombo"; the principal and rear facades are surmounted by eight gargoyles, sculpted by José Aurélio, representing fundamentals elements from human history or important in the particular mission of the national archive. These include gargoyles that figure as the Guarda do Abecedário, the Guarda das Ondas Hertzianas, O Velho and o Novo, the a Morte and O Bem and O Mal; the Torre do Tombo safeguards two centuries of historical Portuguese guards, including documents that pre-date the Kingdom of Portugal, others like the bull Manifestis Probatum, considered an important of UNESCO World Heritage. In addition, records include 36,000 documents recovered during the era of the Inquisition, many documents inscribed by the Nationlist police force ( and the accord admitted Portugal into the European Economic Community.
Among the other significant collections at the archive are items relating to the Portuguese explorations and discoveries in Africa and Latin America. The Corpo Cronológico, a collection of manuscripts on the Portuguese discoveries, was inscribed on UNESCO's Memory of the World Register in 2007 in recognition of its historical value "for acquiring knowledge of the political, military and religious history of numerous countries at the time of the Portuguese Discoveries." Another item relating to the Portuguese discoveries, the Carta de Pêro Vaz de Caminha, was inscribed on the Memory of the World Register in 2005. This let
Tristão da Cunha
Tristão da Cunha was a Portuguese explorer and naval commander. In 1514, he served as ambassador from king Manuel I of Portugal to Pope Leo X, leading a luxurious embassy presenting in Rome the new conquests of Portugal, he became a member of the Portuguese privy council. Da Cunha was born in c. 1460. He was nominated as first viceroy of Portuguese India in 1504, but could not take up this post owing to temporary blindness. In 1506 he was appointed commander of a fleet of 15 ships sent to the east coast of Africa and off India, his cousin, Afonso de Albuquerque, was in charge of a squadron of five vessels in this fleet that subsequently detached. Their mission was to conquer Socotra Island and build a fortress there, hoping to close the trade in the Red Sea, they sailed together. In the Mozambique Channel they found his friend captain João da Nova stranded while returning from India, they rescued the ship Frol de la mar, both joining the fleet. After a series of successful attacks on Arab cities on the east coast of Africa, they headed to Socotra.
On this voyage Tristão da Cunha discovered a group of remote islands in the south Atlantic Ocean, 2,816 km from South Africa. Although rough seas prevented a landing he named the main island after himself, Ilha de Tristão da Cunha, anglicized to Tristan da Cunha, he set his eyes on Ajuran Empire territory, where the Battle of Barawa was fought. After a long period of engagement, the Portuguese soldiers looted it. However, fierce resistance by the local population and soldiers resulted in the failure of the Portuguese to permanently occupy the city and the Portuguese would be decisively defeated by the Somalis from Ajuran Empire, the inhabitants who had fled to the interior would return and rebuild the city. Tristão da Cunha was severely wounded and sought refuge in Socotra islands after losing his men and ships. After losing the war with the Ajuran Empire over the fail attempt to capture Barawa, he decided to re-group his men in Socotra islands and Tristão would set sail for Mogadishu, the richest city in Africa.
But word had spread of what had happened in Barawa, a large troop mobilization had taken place. Many horsemen and battleships in defense positions were now guarding the city. Tristão still opted to storm and attempt to conquer the city, although every officer and soldier in his army opposed this, fearing certain defeat if they were to engage their opponents in battle, he decided to leave the Somalis in peace after he realized that they were difficult to subdue and that it would require a larger mobilization thus leaving Ajuran Empire independent. After a while, he distinguished himself in India in various actions, such as the Siege of Cannanore: the Portuguese garrison was on the verge of being overwhelmed, when on 27 August the fleet of 11 ships under Tristão da Cunha coming from Socotra appeared and relieved them with 300 men. After returning to Europe, Tristão da Cunha was sent as ambassador from king Manuel I to Pope Leo X in 1514 to present the new conquests of the Portuguese Empire, having Garcia de Resende as his secretary.
The huge, luxurious embassy of one hundred and forty persons made its way through Alicante and Majorca, arriving at Rome outskirts in February. They walked the streets of Rome on March 12, 1514 in an extravagant procession of exotic wildlife and wealth of the Indies, with many dressed in "Indian style"; the procession featured an elephant named Hanno, as a gift to the pope, forty-two other beasts, including two leopards, a panther, some parrots and rare Indian horses. Hanno carried a platform of silver on its back, shaped as a castle containing a safe with royal gifts, including vests embroidered with pearls and gems, coins of gold minted for the occasion; the pope received the procession in the Castel Sant'Angelo. The elephant knelt down thrice in reverence and following a wave of his Indian mahout, used its trunk to suck water from a bucket and sprayed it over the crowd and the Cardinals. By 29 April 1514, the Portuguese had depleted their funds, but they sought a bull signed by the pope, who sent back rich gifts to king Manuel.
The king responded with a ship full of spices and an indian rhinoceros sent to him from the sultan Muzaffar Shah II of Gujarat. The boat that transported it was wrecked off Genoa on early February 1516, the Rhinoceros was portrayed by Albrecht Dürer in his famous Rhinoceros woodcuts in 1515. Although Tristão da Cunha had never assumed the post of Viceroy of India, his son Nuno da Cunha was the 9th Governor of Portuguese India in 1529; the tomb of Tristão da Cunha is located at the Church of Sra. da Encarnação in Olhalvo. Rua do Cunha Tristan da Cunha island article in Italian