United States Golf Association
The United States Golf Association is the United States' national association of golf courses and facilities and the governing body of golf for the U. S. and Mexico. Together with The R&A, the USGA interprets the rules of golf; the USGA provides a national handicap system for golfers, conducts 14 national championships, including the U. S. Open, U. S. Women's Open and U. S. Senior Open, tests golf equipment for conformity with regulations; the USGA is headquartered at Golf House in New Jersey. The USGA was formed in 1894 to resolve the question of a national amateur championship. Earlier that year, the Newport Country Club and Saint Andrew's Golf Club, New York, both declared the winners of their tournaments the "national amateur champion." That autumn, delegates from Newport, St. Andrew's, The Country Club, Chicago Golf Club, Shinnecock Hills Golf Club met in New York City to form a national governing body, which would administer the championship and the Rules of Golf for the country. On December 22, 1894, the Amateur Golf Association of the United States was formed, was shortly thereafter renamed the "United States Golf Association."
Theodore Havemeyer was the first president, the U. S. Amateur trophy is named in his honor; the first U. S. Amateur was held in 1895 at the Newport Country Club, with Charles B. Macdonald winning the championship; the first U. S. Open was held the following day as an afterthought, it was not until 1898. Today, the USGA administers 14 separate national championships, ten of which are expressly for amateurs; the USGA expanded its membership from the original five clubs. There were 267 club members in 1910, 1,138 clubs by 1932. Membership fell off during the Great Depression and World War II, but recovered by 1947. By 1980 there were over 5,000 clubs, today membership exceeds 9,700. On September 17, 1956, Ann Gregory began competing in the U. S. Women's Amateur Championship, thus becoming the first African-American woman to play in a national championship conducted by the USGA; the USGA organizes or co-organizes the following competitions: An "open" golf championship is one which both professionals and amateurs may enter.
In practice, such events are always won by professionals nowadays. The two leading opens in the U. S. are: U. S. Open – no age or gender restrictions, Handicap Index requirement of 1.4 or less. Established in 1895, it is the second-oldest of the four major championships. U. S. Women's Open – females, no age restrictions, Handicap Index requirement of 2.4 or less. Established in 1946 and administered by the USGA since 1953, it is the oldest of the five women's majors; the last win by an amateur at the U. S. Open was 86 years ago in 1933 and an amateur has won the women's event only once, 52 years ago in 1967; the USGA conducts the U. S. Senior Open for competitors 50 and over; this is one of the five majors recognized by the world's dominant tour for golfers 50 and over, PGA Tour Champions. The overwhelming majority of the competitors play on this tour. Many of the remaining players compete on the European counterpart of PGA Tour Champions, the European Senior Tour, which recognizes the U. S. Senior Open as one of its three majors.
The USGA added a women's counterpart in 2018. U. S. Senior Open – no gender restriction, players age 50 & older, handicap index requirement of 3.4 or less, established in 1980. U. S. Senior Women's Open – women's players age 50 & older, established in 2018. Professional golf in the U. S. is run by the PGA Tour, the LPGA, the PGA of America. However, the USGA is at the heart of amateur golf in the country and organizes the 10 national amateur championships; the leading events are open to all age groups, but are won by golfers in their early twenties who are working towards a career in professional tournament golf: U. S. Amateur – no age or gender restrictions, handicap index of 2.4 or less, established in 1895. U. S. Women's Amateur – no age restrictions, females with a handicap index of 5.4 or less, established in 1895. There are two championships for players under age 18: U. S. Junior Amateur – no gender restriction, handicap index of 6.4 or less, established in 1948 U. S. Girls' Junior – girls with a handicap index of 18.4 or less, established in 1949And two for senior golfers: U.
S. Senior Amateur – no gender restriction, players age 55 & older, handicap index of 7.4 or less, established in 1955 U. S. Senior Women's Amateur – women age 50 & older with a handicap index of 18.4 or less, established in 1962Because the U. S. Amateur and U. S. Women's Amateur became dominated by future tournament professionals, two national championships were added in the 1980s for "career amateurs" who were 25 years of age & older: U. S. Mid-Amateur – no gender restriction, players age 25 & older, handicap index of 3.4 or less, established in 1981 U. S. Women's Mid-Amateur – women age 25 & older with a handicap index of 9.4 or less, established in 1987 These team events were announced by the USGA in 2013 as the replacements for the discontinued Public Links championships, played for the first time in 2015. Both are contested by two-member teams in four-ball matches. Partners are not required to be from political subdivision, or country. U. S. Amateur Four-Ball – no age or gender restrictions. S.
Women's Amateur Four-Ball – no age restrictions, females with a handicap index of 14.4 or less The USGA men's and women's state team championships were first conducted in 1995 as a part of the USGA's Centennial celebration. The two championships were conducted biennially in odd-numbered years through 2009. Since 2010, the men's championship
Arizona State University
Arizona State University is a public metropolitan research university on five campuses across the Phoenix metropolitan area, four regional learning centers throughout Arizona. ASU is one of the largest public universities by enrollment in the U. S; as of fall 2018, the university had about 80,000 students attending classes across its metro campuses, including 66,000-plus undergraduates and more than 12,000 postgraduates. The university is organized into 17 colleges, featuring more than 170 cross-discipline centers and institutes. ASU offers 350 degree options for undergraduates students, as well as more than 400 graduate degree and certificate programs. ASU has nearly 600 ASU scholar-athletes across 26 varsity-level sports; the Arizona State Sun Devils compete in the Pac-12 Conference and have won 59 Pac-10/Pac-12 championships dating to 1979, have captured 24 NCAA championships dating to its first title in 1965. In addition to its athletic program, the university is home to over 1,100 registered student organizations.
ASU's charter, approved by the board of regents in 2014, is based on the "New American University" model created by ASU President Michael M. Crow upon his appointment as the institution's 16th president in 2002, it defines ASU as "a comprehensive public research university, measured not by whom it excludes, but rather by whom it includes and how they succeed. Since 2005, ASU has been ranked among the top research universities in the U. S. public and private, based on research output, development, research expenditures, number of awarded patents and awarded research grant proposals. The 2019 university ratings by U. S. News & World Report rank ASU No. 1 among the Most Innovative Schools in America for the fourth year in a row. U. S. News & World Report shows 84% of the student applications get accepted. A diverse faculty of more than 4,400 scholars includes 4 Nobel laureates, 6 Pulitzer Prize winners, 4 MacArthur Fellows Program "Genius Grant" members and 19 National Academy of Sciences members.
Additionally, among the faculty are 180 Fulbright Program American Scholars, 72 National Endowment for the Humanities fellows, 38 American Council of Learned Societies fellows, 36 members of the Guggenheim Fellowship, 21 members of the American Academy of Arts and Sciences, 9 National Academy of Engineering members and 3 National Academy of Medicine members. The National Academies has bestowed "highly prestigious" recognition on 227 ASU faculty members. Arizona State University was established as the Territorial Normal School at Tempe on March 12, 1885, when the 13th Arizona Territorial Legislature passed an act to create a normal school to train teachers for the Arizona Territory; the campus consisted of a single, four-room schoolhouse on a 20-acre plot donated by Tempe residents George and Martha Wilson. Classes began with 33 students on February 8, 1886; the curriculum evolved over the years and the name was changed several times. In 1923, the school stopped offering high school courses and added a high school diploma to the admissions requirements.
In 1925, the school became the Tempe State Teachers College and offered four-year Bachelor of Education degrees as well as two-year teaching certificates. In 1929, the 9th Arizona State Legislature authorized Bachelor of Arts in Education degrees as well, the school was renamed the Arizona State Teachers College. Under the 30-year tenure of president Arthur John Matthews, the school was given all-college student status; the first dormitories built in the state were constructed under his supervision in 1902. Of the 18 buildings constructed while Matthews was president, six are still in use. Matthews envisioned an "evergreen campus," with many shrubs brought to the campus, implemented the planting of 110 Mexican Fan Palms on what is now known as Palm Walk, a century-old landmark of the Tempe campus. During the Great Depression, Ralph Waldo Swetman was hired to succeed President Matthews, coming to Arizona State Teachers College in 1930 from Humboldt State Teachers College where he had served as president.
He served a three-year term. During his tenure, enrollment at the college doubled. Matthews conceived of a self-supported summer session at the school at Arizona State Teachers College, a first for the school. In 1933, Grady Gammage president of Arizona State Teachers College at Flagstaff, became president of Arizona State Teachers College at Tempe, beginning a tenure that would last for nearly 28 years, second only to Swetman's 30 years at the college's helm. Like President Arthur John Matthews before him, Gammage oversaw the construction of several buildings on the Tempe campus, he guided the development of the university's graduate programs. During his presidency, the school's name was changed to Arizona State College in 1945, to Arizona State University in 1958. At the time, two other names were considered: Tempe University and State University at Tempe. Among Gammage's greatest achievements in Tempe was the Frank Lloyd Wright-desig
Women's British Open
The Women's British Open is a major championship in women's professional golf. It is recognized by both the Ladies European Tour as a major; the reigning champion is Georgia Hall, who won by two shots at Royal Lytham & St Annes in 2018 to earn her first major title. Since it became an LPGA major in 2001 it has been played in late July or early August; the 2012 edition was scheduled for mid-September, due to the 2012 Summer Olympics in London, while the 2014 event was played in mid-July, the week prior to the Open Championship. In 2019 it will be known as the AIG Women's British Open. From 2007 to 2018, it was called the Ricoh Women's British Open while the previous twenty editions were sponsored by Weetabix, a breakfast cereal; the Women's British Open was established by the Ladies' Golf Union in 1976 and was intended to serve as the women's equivalent of The Open Championship. At first, it was difficult for the organisers to get the most prestigious courses to agree to host the event, with the exception of Royal Birkdale, which hosted it twice during its early days — in 1982 and 1986.
After nearly folding in 1983, the tournament was held at the best of the "second-tier" courses, including Woburn Golf and Country Club for seven straight years, 1990 through 1996, as well as in 1984 and 1999. As its prestige continued to increase, more of the links courses that are in the rotation for The Open Championship, such as Turnberry and Royal Lytham & St Annes hosted the tournament, in addition to Royal Birkdale. In 2007, the tournament took place at the Old Course at St Andrews for the first time. In the 2010s, two additional Open Championship venues became first-time hosts for the women's event: Carnoustie and Royal Liverpool; the tournament has yet to be played at four Open Championship courses: Muirfield and Royal Troon in Scotland, Royal St. George's in southeastern England, Royal Portrush in Northern Ireland. Unlike its male counterpart, the Women's British Open has not adopted a links-only policy; this increases the number of potential venues the number close to the major population centres of England.
Through 1993, the tournament was an official stop only on the Ladies European Tour, with the exception of the 1984 edition, co-sanctioned by the LPGA Tour. Starting in 1994, it became a permanent LPGA Tour event, which increased both the quality of the field and the event's prestige, it has been an official LPGA major since 2001. In 2005, the starting field size was increased to 150, but only the low 65 survive the cut after the second round. In both 2007 and 2008 the prize fund was £1.05 million. Starting in 2009, the prize fund changed from being fixed in pounds to U. S. dollars, is now $3.25 million. Tied for most victories in the Women's British Open with three each are Karrie Webb of Australia and Sherri Steinhauer of the United States. Both won the tournament twice. Yani Tseng of Taiwan and Jiyai Shin of South Korea are the multiple winners as a major championship; the other multiple winner is Debbie Massey of the U. S. with consecutive wins well. Winners of the championship as an LPGA major: Winners as a co-sanctioned LPGA tournament, but not an LPGA major: Winners before the tournament became an LPGA tournament: In 1992 the second day was washed-out and the event reduced to 54 holes.
In 1990 Alfredsson won with a par at the fourth extra hole. In 1988 Dibnah won with a birdie at the second extra hole; the 1984 tournament was co-sanctioned by the LPGA Tour. Prize money for this event was in US dollars; the 1977 event was decided on "countback". Saunders won the title. Denotes amateur This table lists the total number of titles won by golfers of each nationality as an LPGA major. Source: The Smyth Salver is awarded to the leading amateur, provided that the player completes all 72 holes, for one year; the winner receives a silver medal. The salver was donated by a past president of the Ladies' Golf Union. Official website Coverage on the LPGA official site Coverage on the Ladies European Tour official site
Seattle is a seaport city on the West Coast of the United States. It is the seat of Washington. With an estimated 730,000 residents as of 2018, Seattle is the largest city in both the state of Washington and the Pacific Northwest region of North America. According to U. S. Census data released in 2018, the Seattle metropolitan area’s population stands at 3.87 million, ranks as the 15th largest in the United States. In July 2013, it was the fastest-growing major city in the United States and remained in the Top 5 in May 2015 with an annual growth rate of 2.1%. In July 2016, Seattle was again the fastest-growing major U. S. city, with a 3.1% annual growth rate. Seattle is the northernmost large city in the United States; the city is situated on an isthmus between Puget Sound and Lake Washington, about 100 miles south of the Canada–United States border. A major gateway for trade with Asia, Seattle is the fourth-largest port in North America in terms of container handling as of 2015; the Seattle area was inhabited by Native Americans for at least 4,000 years before the first permanent European settlers.
Arthur A. Denny and his group of travelers, subsequently known as the Denny Party, arrived from Illinois via Portland, Oregon, on the schooner Exact at Alki Point on November 13, 1851; the settlement was moved to the eastern shore of Elliott Bay and named "Seattle" in 1852, in honor of Chief Si'ahl of the local Duwamish and Suquamish tribes. Today, Seattle has high populations of Native, Scandinavian and Asian Americans, as well as a thriving LGBT community that ranks 6th in the United States for population. Logging was Seattle's first major industry, but by the late 19th century, the city had become a commercial and shipbuilding center as a gateway to Alaska during the Klondike Gold Rush. Growth after World War II was due to the local Boeing company, which established Seattle as a center for aircraft manufacturing; the Seattle area developed into a technology center from the 1980s onwards with companies like Microsoft becoming established in the region. Internet retailer Amazon was founded in Seattle in 1994, major airline Alaska Airlines is based in SeaTac, serving Seattle's international airport, Seattle–Tacoma International Airport.
The stream of new software and Internet companies led to an economic revival, which increased the city's population by 50,000 between 1990 and 2000. Owing to its increasing population in the 21st century and the state of Washington have some of the highest minimum wages in the country, at $15 per hour for smaller businesses and $16 for the city's largest employers. Seattle has a noteworthy musical history. From 1918 to 1951, nearly two dozen jazz nightclubs existed along Jackson Street, from the current Chinatown/International District to the Central District; the jazz scene nurtured the early careers of Ray Charles, Quincy Jones, Ernestine Anderson, others. Seattle is the birthplace of rock musician Jimi Hendrix, as well as the origin of the bands Nirvana, Pearl Jam, Alice in Chains, Foo Fighters and the alternative rock movement grunge. Archaeological excavations suggest that Native Americans have inhabited the Seattle area for at least 4,000 years. By the time the first European settlers arrived, the people occupied at least seventeen villages in the areas around Elliott Bay.
The first European to visit the Seattle area was George Vancouver, in May 1792 during his 1791–95 expedition to chart the Pacific Northwest. In 1851, a large party led by Luther Collins made a location on land at the mouth of the Duwamish River. Thirteen days members of the Collins Party on the way to their claim passed three scouts of the Denny Party. Members of the Denny Party claimed land on Alki Point on September 28, 1851; the rest of the Denny Party set sail from Portland and landed on Alki point during a rainstorm on November 13, 1851. After a difficult winter, most of the Denny Party relocated across Elliott Bay and claimed land a second time at the site of present-day Pioneer Square, naming this new settlement Duwamps. Charles Terry and John Low remained at the original landing location and reestablished their old land claim and called it "New York", but renamed "New York Alki" in April 1853, from a Chinook word meaning "by and by" or "someday". For the next few years, New York Alki and Duwamps competed for dominance, but in time Alki was abandoned and its residents moved across the bay to join the rest of the settlers.
David Swinson "Doc" Maynard, one of the founders of Duwamps, was the primary advocate to name the settlement after Chief Seattle of the Duwamish and Suquamish tribes. The name "Seattle" appears on official Washington Territory papers dated May 23, 1853, when the first plats for the village were filed. In 1855, nominal land settlements were established. On January 14, 1865, the Legislature of Territorial Washington incorporated the Town of Seattle with a board of trustees managing the city; the Town of Seattle was disincorporated on January 18, 1867, remained a mere precinct of King County until late 1869, when a new petition was filed and the city was re-incorporated December 2, 1869, with a mayor–council government. The corporate seal of the City of Seattle carries the date "1869" and a likeness of Chief Sealth in left profile. Seattle has a history of boom-and-bust cycles, like many other cities near areas of extensive natural and mineral resources. Seattle has risen several times economically gone into precipitous decline, but it has used those periods to rebuild solid infrastructure
The Ladies Professional Golf Association is an American organization for female professional golfers. The organization is headquartered at the LPGA International in Daytona Beach, is best known for running the LPGA Tour, a series of weekly golf tournaments for elite female golfers from around the world. Other "LPGAs" exist in other countries, each with a geographical designation in its name, but the U. S. organization is the first and best known. The LPGA is an organization for female club and teaching professionals; this is different from the PGA Tour, which runs the main professional tours in the U. S. and, since 1968, has been independent of the club and teaching professionals' organization, the PGA of America. The LPGA administers an annual qualifying school similar to that conducted by the PGA Tour. Depending on a golfer's finish in the final qualifying tournament, she may receive full or partial playing privileges on the LPGA Tour. In addition to the main LPGA Tour, the LPGA owns and operates the Symetra Tour the Futures Tour, the official developmental tour of the LPGA.
Top finishers at the end of each season on that tour receive playing privileges on the main LPGA Tour for the following year. In its 70th season in 2019, the LPGA is the oldest continuing women's professional sports organization in the United States, it was founded in 1950 by a group of 13 golfers: Alice Bauer, Patty Berg, Bettye Danoff, Helen Dettweiler, Marlene Bauer Hagge, Helen Hicks, Opal Hill, Betty Jameson, Sally Sessions, Marilynn Smith, Shirley Spork, Louise Suggs, Babe Zaharias. The LPGA succeeded the WPGA, founded in 1944 but stopped its limited tour after the 1948 season and ceased operations in December 1949. In 2001, Jane Blalock's JBC Marketing established the Women's Senior Golf Tour, now called the Legends Tour, for women professionals aged 45 and older; this is affiliated with the LPGA, but is not owned by the LPGA. Michael Whan became the eighth commissioner of the LPGA in October 2009, succeeding the ousted Carolyn Bivens. Whan is a former marketing executive in the sporting goods industry.
After a lawsuit filed by golfer Lana Lawless, the rules were changed in 2010 to allow transgender competitors. In 2013, trans woman Bobbi Lancaster faced local scorn for attempting playing in Arizona's Cactus Tour and attempting to qualify in the LPGA Qualifying Tournament. In 2010, total official prize money on the LPGA Tour was $41.4 million, a decrease of over $6 million from 2009. In 2010 there were 24 official tournaments, down from 28 in 2009 and 34 in 2008. Despite the loss in total tournaments, the number of tournaments hosted outside of the United States in 2010 stayed the same, as all four lost tournaments had been hosted in the United States. By 2016, the number of tournaments had risen to 33 with a record-high total prize money in excess of $63 million. In its first four decades, the LPGA Tour was dominated by American players. Sandra Post of Canada became the first player living outside the United States to gain an LPGA tour card in 1968; the non-U. S. Contingent is now large; the last time an American player topped the money list was in 1993, the last time an American led the tour in tournaments won was in 1996, from 2000 through 2009, non-Americans won 31 of 40 major championships.
One of the notable trends seen in the early 21st century in the LPGA is the rise and dominance of Korean golfers. Se Ri Pak's early success in the LPGA sparked the boom in Korean women golfers on the LPGA Tour. In 2009, there were 122 non-Americans from 27 countries on the tour, including 47 from South Korea, 14 from Sweden, 10 from Australia, eight from the United Kingdom, seven from Canada, five from Taiwan, four from Japan. Of the 33 events in 2006, a total of 11 were won by Koreans and only seven were won by Americans. In 2007, Americans saw a relative resurgence. For the first time since 2000, two Americans won majors In 2008, Americans grew in dominance, winning 9 of 34 events, tied with Koreans, but no majors, one of, won by a Mexican player, one by Taiwanese player, the other two by teenage Korean players In 2009, Americans won 5 of 28 official events, including one major, the Kraft Nabisco Championship while Koreans won 11 events Most of the LPGA Tour's events are held in the United States.
In 2010, two tournaments were played in Mexico and one each in Singapore, France, Malaysia, South Korea and Japan. Unofficial events were held in Brazil and Jamaica. In 2011, the unofficial Jamaica event was dropped and a tournament in Mexico was canceled months in advance over security concerns; the Women's British Open rotated from England to Scotland and all other countries retained their tournaments. In addition, events were added in China and Taiwan, while the biennial USA–Europe team competition, the Solheim Cup was played in Ireland. Five of the tournaments held outside North America are co-sanctioned with other professional tours; the Ladies European Tour co-sanctions the Women's British Open, The Evian Championship in France, the Women's Australian Open. The other two co-sanctioned events—the LPGA Hana Bank Championship and Mizuno Classic —are held during the tour's autumn swing to Asia; the LPGA's annual major championships are: ANA Inspiration U. S. Women's Open Women's PGA Ch
New Zealand is a sovereign island country in the southwestern Pacific Ocean. The country geographically comprises two main landmasses—the North Island, the South Island —and around 600 smaller islands. New Zealand is situated some 2,000 kilometres east of Australia across the Tasman Sea and 1,000 kilometres south of the Pacific island areas of New Caledonia and Tonga; because of its remoteness, it was one of the last lands to be settled by humans. During its long period of isolation, New Zealand developed a distinct biodiversity of animal and plant life; the country's varied topography and its sharp mountain peaks, such as the Southern Alps, owe much to the tectonic uplift of land and volcanic eruptions. New Zealand's capital city is Wellington. Sometime between 1250 and 1300, Polynesians settled in the islands that were named New Zealand and developed a distinctive Māori culture. In 1642, Dutch explorer Abel Tasman became the first European to sight New Zealand. In 1840, representatives of the United Kingdom and Māori chiefs signed the Treaty of Waitangi, which declared British sovereignty over the islands.
In 1841, New Zealand became a colony within the British Empire and in 1907 it became a dominion. Today, the majority of New Zealand's population of 4.9 million is of European descent. Reflecting this, New Zealand's culture is derived from Māori and early British settlers, with recent broadening arising from increased immigration; the official languages are English, Māori, NZ Sign Language, with English being dominant. A developed country, New Zealand ranks in international comparisons of national performance, such as quality of life, education, protection of civil liberties, economic freedom. New Zealand underwent major economic changes during the 1980s, which transformed it from a protectionist to a liberalised free-trade economy; the service sector dominates the national economy, followed by the industrial sector, agriculture. Nationally, legislative authority is vested in an elected, unicameral Parliament, while executive political power is exercised by the Cabinet, led by the prime minister Jacinda Ardern.
Queen Elizabeth II is the country's monarch and is represented by a governor-general Dame Patsy Reddy. In addition, New Zealand is organised into 11 regional councils and 67 territorial authorities for local government purposes; the Realm of New Zealand includes Tokelau. New Zealand is a member of the United Nations, Commonwealth of Nations, ANZUS, Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development, ASEAN Plus Six, Asia-Pacific Economic Cooperation, the Pacific Community and the Pacific Islands Forum. Dutch explorer Abel Tasman sighted New Zealand in 1642 and named it Staten Land "in honour of the States General", he wrote, "it is possible that this land joins to the Staten Land but it is uncertain", referring to a landmass of the same name at the southern tip of South America, discovered by Jacob Le Maire in 1616. In 1645, Dutch cartographers renamed the land Nova Zeelandia after the Dutch province of Zeeland. British explorer James Cook subsequently anglicised the name to New Zealand. Aotearoa is the current Māori name for New Zealand.
It is unknown whether Māori had a name for the whole country before the arrival of Europeans, with Aotearoa referring to just the North Island. Māori had several traditional names for the two main islands, including Te Ika-a-Māui for the North Island and Te Waipounamu or Te Waka o Aoraki for the South Island. Early European maps labelled the islands North and South. In 1830, maps began to use North and South to distinguish the two largest islands and by 1907 this was the accepted norm; the New Zealand Geographic Board discovered in 2009 that the names of the North Island and South Island had never been formalised, names and alternative names were formalised in 2013. This set the names as North Island or Te Ika-a-Māui, South Island or Te Waipounamu. For each island, either its English or Māori name can be used. New Zealand was one of the last major landmasses settled by humans. Radiocarbon dating, evidence of deforestation and mitochondrial DNA variability within Māori populations suggest New Zealand was first settled by Eastern Polynesians between 1250 and 1300, concluding a long series of voyages through the southern Pacific islands.
Over the centuries that followed, these settlers developed a distinct culture now known as Māori. The population was divided into iwi and hapū who would sometimes cooperate, sometimes compete and sometimes fight against each other. At some point a group of Māori migrated to Rēkohu, now known as the Chatham Islands, where they developed their distinct Moriori culture; the Moriori population was all but wiped out between 1835 and 1862 because of Taranaki Māori invasion and enslavement in the 1830s, although European diseases contributed. In 1862 only 101 survived, the last known full-blooded Moriori died in 1933; the first Europeans known to have reached New Zeala
Kirkland is a city in King County, United States. A suburb east of Seattle, its population was 88,630 in a 2017 census estimate, which made it the sixth largest city in the county and the twelfth largest in the state; the city's downtown waterfront has restaurants, art galleries, a performing arts center, public parks, a collection of public art bronze sculptures. Kirkland was the original home of the Seattle Seahawks. Warehouse chain Costco had its headquarters in Kirkland. While Costco is now headquartered in Issaquah, the city is the namesake of its "Kirkland Signature" store brand; the land around Lake Washington to the east of Seattle was first settled by Native Americans. English settlers arrived in the late 1860s, when the McGregor and Popham families built homesteads in what is now the Houghton neighborhood. Four miles to the north people settled near what is now called Juanita Bay, a favored campsite of the Natives because a wild potato, "wapatos", thrived there; the Curtis family arrived in the area in the 1870s, followed by the French family in 1872.
The Forbes family homesteaded what is now Juanita Beach Park in 1876, settled on Rose Hill in 1877. Additional people settled in the area, by the end of the 1880s, a small number of logging and boat-building communities were established. In 1886, Peter Kirk, a British-born enterprising businessman seeking to expand the family's Moss Bay steel production company, moved to Washington after hearing that iron deposits had been discovered in the Cascade mountain range. Other necessary components such as limestone, needed in steel smelting, were available in the area. Further yet, a small number of coalmines had been established nearby in Newcastle and train lines were under construction. Plans were underway to build the Lake Washington Ship Canal. Kirk realized that if a town were built near the water it would be a virtual freshwater port to the sea, as well as help support any prospective mill. At the time, Kirk was not a U. S. could not purchase any land. Leigh S. J. Hunt owner of the Seattle Post-Intelligencer, offered to partner with Kirk and buy the necessary real estate.
Under their new venture, the Kirkland Land and Development Company and Hunt purchased thousands of acres of land in what is now Kirkland's downtown in July 1888. Kirk and his associates started the construction of a new steel mill soon after, named Moss Bay Iron and Steel Company of America. After founding the city of Kirkland in 1888 one of the earliest on the Eastside at the time, Kirk's vision of a "Pittsburgh of the West" was beginning to take form. Construction soon commenced on several substantial brick homes and business blocks that would house and serve the steel mill employees. However, the Seattle, Lake Shore and Eastern Railway, purchased by Tacoma-based Northern Pacific, had now refused to construct a rail line to the lake; this would, after all, have a negative impact on Tacoma, furiously competing with Seattle as the dominant Puget Sound seaport. The ensuing financial issues and numerous obstacles took a toll on Kirk, running out of investors. Hunt was in debt from the purchase of land.
The plans continued and the steel mill was completed in late 1892 on Rose Hill. Financial issues arose and due to the Panic of 1893 the mill subsequently closed without producing any steel. In spite of everything, Kirk was determined not to give up on his namesake town, Kirkland was incorporated in 1905 with a population of 532. A final attempt at a steel mill in Kirkland was planned by James A. Moore in 1906, his company, the Northwestern Iron & Steel Company paid $250,000 in cash for a 1,500-acre site but the mill never materialized. This came at the heels of the Pacific Steel Company, incorporated earlier in 1906 by J. F. Duthie, William Calvert and L. S. Cragin; this company soon amounted to nothing. In 1900 the Curtis family made a living operating a ferry-construction business on Lake Washington. Along with Captain John Anderson, the Curtises were among the first to run ferries in the area. Leschi, first operated on December 27, 1913, was the original wooden ferry to transport automobiles and people between the Eastside and Madison Park until her retirement in 1950.
The ferry operations ran nearly continuously for 18 hours each day. The construction of the first Lake Washington floating bridge in 1940, made ferry service unprofitable and led to its cancellation. Subsequent years saw wool warship building become the major industries; the first woolen mill in the state of Washington was built in Kirkland in 1892. The mill was the primary supplier of wool products for the Alaska Gold Rush prospectors and for the U. S. military during World War I. By 1917, after the completion of the Lake Washington Ship Canal, the construction of ocean-going vessels had become a major business. By 1940, the thriving Lake Washington Shipyard had constructed more than 25 warships during World War II for the U. S. Navy, on what is now Carillon Point. Since the incorporation of Kirkland in 1905, the city has grown to 12 times its original geographic boundaries, nearly doubling in size during the 1940s and 1960s; the Kirkland Historical Annexation Areas Map provides a history of Kirkland's expansion by Annexation.
Kirkland consolidated with the neighboring town of H