BIBSYS is an administrative agency set up and organized by the Ministry of Education and Research in Norway. They are a service provider, focusing on the exchange and retrieval of data pertaining to research and learning – metadata related to library resources. BIBSYS are collaborating with all Norwegian universities and university colleges as well as research institutions and the National Library of Norway. Bibsys is formally organized as a unit at the Norwegian University of Science and Technology, located in Trondheim, Norway; the board of directors is appointed by Norwegian Ministry of Research. BIBSYS offer researchers and others an easy access to library resources by providing the unified search service Oria.no and other library services. They deliver integrated products for the internal operation for research and special libraries as well as open educational resources; as a DataCite member BIBSYS act as a national DataCite representative in Norway and thereby allow all of Norway's higher education and research institutions to use DOI on their research data.
All their products and services are developed in cooperation with their member institutions. BIBSYS began in 1972 as a collaborative project between the Royal Norwegian Society of Sciences and Letters Library, the Norwegian Institute of Technology Library and the Computer Centre at the Norwegian Institute of Technology; the purpose of the project was to automate internal library routines. Since 1972 Bibsys has evolved from a library system supplier for two libraries in Trondheim, to developing and operating a national library system for Norwegian research and special libraries; the target group has expanded to include the customers of research and special libraries, by providing them easy access to library resources. BIBSYS is a public administrative agency answerable to the Ministry of Education and Research, administratively organised as a unit at NTNU. In addition to BIBSYS Library System, the product portfolio consists of BISBYS Ask, BIBSYS Brage, BIBSYS Galleri and BIBSYS Tyr. All operation of applications and databases is performed centrally by BIBSYS.
BIBSYS offer a range of services, both in connection with their products and separate services independent of the products they supply. Open access in Norway Om Bibsys
Virtual International Authority File
The Virtual International Authority File is an international authority file. It is a joint project of several national libraries and operated by the Online Computer Library Center. Discussion about having a common international authority started in the late 1990s. After a series of failed attempts to come up with a unique common authority file, the new idea was to link existing national authorities; this would present all the benefits of a common file without requiring a large investment of time and expense in the process. The project was initiated by the US Library of Congress, the German National Library and the OCLC on August 6, 2003; the Bibliothèque nationale de France joined the project on October 5, 2007. The project transitioned to being a service of the OCLC on April 4, 2012; the aim is to link the national authority files to a single virtual authority file. In this file, identical records from the different data sets are linked together. A VIAF record receives a standard data number, contains the primary "see" and "see also" records from the original records, refers to the original authority records.
The data are available for research and data exchange and sharing. Reciprocal updating uses the Open Archives Initiative Protocol for Metadata Harvesting protocol; the file numbers are being added to Wikipedia biographical articles and are incorporated into Wikidata. VIAF's clustering algorithm is run every month; as more data are added from participating libraries, clusters of authority records may coalesce or split, leading to some fluctuation in the VIAF identifier of certain authority records. Authority control Faceted Application of Subject Terminology Integrated Authority File International Standard Authority Data Number International Standard Name Identifier Wikipedia's authority control template for articles Official website VIAF at OCLC
The Threepenny Opera
The Threepenny Opera is a "play with music" by Bertolt Brecht, adapted from a translation by Elisabeth Hauptmann of John Gay's 18th-century English ballad opera, The Beggar's Opera, four ballads by François Villon, with music by Kurt Weill. Although there is debate as to how much, if any, Hauptmann might have contributed to the text, Brecht is listed as sole author; the work offers a socialist critique of the capitalist world. It opened on 31 August 1928 at Berlin's Theater am Schiffbauerdamm. Songs from The Threepenny Opera have been covered and become standards, most notably "Die Moritat von Mackie Messer" and "Seeräuberjenny". In the winter of 1927/28, Elizabeth Hauptmann, Brecht's lover at the time, received a copy of Gay's play from friends in England and, fascinated by the female characters and its critique of the condition of the London poor, began translating it into German. Brecht at first took little interest in her project, but in April 1928 he attempted to interest the impresario Ernst Josef Aufricht in a play he was writing called Fleischhacker, which he had, in fact promised to another producer.
Aufricht was seeking a production to launch his new theatre company at the Theater am Schiffbauerdamm in Berlin, but was not impressed by the sound of Fleischhacker. Brecht proposed a translation of The Beggar's Opera instead, claiming that he himself had been translating it, he delivered Hauptmann's translation to Aufricht, who signed a contract for it. Brecht's major addition to Hauptmann's text was the addition of four songs by the French poet François Villon. Rather than translate the French himself, he used the translations by K. L. Ammer, the same source he had been using since his earliest plays; the score by Weill uses only one of the melodies which Johann Pepusch wrote for the original Beggar's Opera. The title Die Dreigroschenoper was determined only a week before the opening. Writing in 1929, Weill made the political and artistic intents of the work clear:With the Dreigroschenoper we reach a public which either did not know us at all or thought us incapable of captivating listeners Opera was founded as an aristocratic form of art If the framework of opera is unable to withstand the impact of the age this framework must be destroyed....
In the Dreigroschenoper, reconstruction was possible insofar as here we had a chance of starting from scratch. Weill claimed at the time that "music cannot further the action of the play or create its background", but achieves its proper value when it interrupts the action at the right moments." Weill's score shows German dance-music of the time. The orchestration involves a small ensemble with a good deal of doubling-up on instruments; the Threepenny Opera was first performed at the Theater am Schiffbauerdamm in 1928 on a set designed by Caspar Neher. Despite an poor reception, it became a great success, playing 400 times in the next two years; the performance was a springboard for one of the best known interpreters of Brecht and Weill's work, Lotte Lenya, married to Weill. The production became a great favourite of Berlin's "smart set" – Count Harry Kessler recorded in his diary meeting at the performance an ambassador and a director of the Dresdner Bank, concluded "One has to have been there."Critics did not fail to notice that Brecht had included the four Villon songs translated by Ammer.
Brecht responded by saying that he had "a fundamental laxity in questions of literary property."By 1933, when Weill and Brecht were forced to leave Germany by the Nazi seizure of power, the play had been translated into 18 languages and performed more than 10,000 times on European stages. In the United Kingdom, the first staged performance was given on 9 February 1956, under Berthold Goldschmidt, although there had been a concert performance in 1933, a semi-staged performance on 28 July 1938. In between, on 8 February 1935 Edward Clark conducted the first British broadcast of the work, it received scathing reviews from other critics. But the most savage criticism came from Weill himself, who described it as "... the worst performance imaginable … the whole thing was misunderstood". But his criticisms seem to have been for the concept of the piece as a Germanised version of The Beggar's Opera, rather than for Clark's conducting of it, of which Weill made no mention. America was introduced to the work by the film version of G. W. Pabst, which opened in New York in 1931.
The first American production, adapted into English by Gifford Cochran and Jerrold Krimsky and staged by Francesco von Mendelssohn, featured Robert Chisholm as Macheath. It opened on Broadway at the Empire Theatre, on April 13, 1933, closed after 12 performances. Mixed reviews praised the music but slammed the production, with the critic Gilbert Gabriel calling it "a dreary enigma". A French version produced by Gaston Baty and written by Ninon Steinhof and André Mauprey was presented in October 1930 at the Théâtre Montparnasse in Paris, it was rendered. In 1930 the work was premiered in Moscow at the Kamerny Theatre, directed by Alexander Tairov, it was the only one of Brecht's works to be performed in Russia during his lifetime. Izvestia disapproved: "It is high time that our
The St. Louis Municipal Opera Theatre is an amphitheatre located in St. Louis, Missouri; the theatre seats 11,000 people with 1,500 free seats in the last nine rows that are available on a first come, first served basis. The Muny seasons run every year from mid-June to mid-August, it is run by a nonprofit organization. The current president and chief executive is Dennis M. Reagan; the current artistic director & executive producer is Mike Isaacson. In 1914, Luther Ely Smith began staging pageant-masques on Art Hill in Forest Park. In 1916, a grassy area between two oak trees on the present site of The Muny was chosen for a production of As You Like It produced by Margaret Anglin and starring Sydney Greenstreet with a local cast of "1,000 St. Louis folk dancers and folk singers" in connection with the tercentenary of Shakespeare's death; the audience sat in portable chairs on a gravel floor. Soon after, the Convention Board of the St. Louis Advertising Club was looking for an entertainment feature for its thirteenth annual convention, to take place June 3, 1917.
Mayor Henry Kiel, attorney Guy Golterman, Parks Commissioner Nelson Cunliff stepped in and, in forty-nine days, created the first municipally owned outdoor theatre in the United States. On June 5, 1917, the opera Aida was presented on. In 1919, the new theatre received a name: St. Louis Municipal Opera Theatre, or "The Muny" for short; the first show under the Muny banner was Robin Hood, which opened on June 16, 1919, featured Mayor Kiel as King Richard. Concerts were performed here prior to the opening of Riverport Amphitheatre in 1991. By the beginning of the 1921 season, the facility had a new permanent stage, its base was concrete to prevent damage from floods, such as one that damaged the theater's equipment on opening night in 1919. Improvements for 1922 included a new pergola, 750 permanent opera chairs, 500 parking spaces for automobiles, the addition of "comfort stations". Additions for 1923 included 1,800 permanent seats, an extra stage for rehearsals, a sound amplifier to enable people in the back of the audience to hear as well as those in the front On January 4, 1923, the Municipal Theater Association opened a free school for people who aspired to sing in the chorus for that summer's productions.
Of 420 applicants, 239 had been accepted as of the class's beginning, with 45 remaining to be examined. Classes met two nights a week until May 1. Keil stepped down from being president of the Muncipal Theater Association in 1924, saying that the enterprise should be headed by businessmen, Cunliff left his position as chairman of the group's Executive Productions Committee. H. J. Pettengill, chairman of Southwest Bell Telephone Company's board of directors, was elected the new president. Reserved seats for all paid admissions were instituted in 1925, after 2,400 numbered chairs were installed in the unreserved 25-cent section. In 1930, the stage was equipped with a turntable for performance purposes, it was reconstructed in 1997 due to dilapidation. In 1994, The Muny's Board of Directors founded the Muny Kids, a select group of performers between the ages of 7 to 13 who traveled around St. Louis performing, in the summer gave preview shows prior to the production. In 1998, the Muny Teens group was formed for the same purpose, featuring teen performers between the ages of 14 to 18.
The Chairman of the Board of the Muny in 2005-2006 was William H. T. Bush; the current Chairman of the Board is Stephen C. Jones. Jesus Christ Superstar, June 12 – 18 Disney's The Little Mermaid, June 20 – 29 A Funny Thing Happened on the Way to the Forum, July 5 – 11 All Shook Up, July 13 – 19 The Unsinkable Molly Brown, July 21 – 27 A Chorus Line, July 29 – August 4 Newsies, August 7 – 13 Jerome Robbins Broadway, June 11 – 27 The Wiz, June 19 – 25 Singin' in the Rain, June 27 – July 3 Jersey Boys, July 9 – 16 Annie, July 18 – 25 Gypsy, July 27 – August 2 Meet me in St. Louis, August 4 – 12 For a complete listing of all productions since the first season in 1919, see List of The Muny repertory; the Muny operates only in the summer. During the winter, a full-time staff of fewer than twenty people prepare for the next summer season. During the season itself, the summer staff expands to include more than 500 people in various positions. All shows are rehearsed within the course of eleven days, with two technical rehearsals being held in the two to three days before the show's opening.
Shows run from Monday to Sunday, although there have been exceptions to this in recent years, when each season has had at least one production with an extended run. The Muny website claims it is the "nation's oldest and largest outdoor musical theatre." There are numerous amphitheatres/outdoor theatres. There is no lawn seating inside The Muny. In addition, The Muny is the largest to host only Broadway-style musical theatre; the next largest seat capacity theatre in the United States is the San Manuel Amphitheater in California, housing 10,900 seats. For a list of other amphitheatres see: List of contemporary amphitheatres. Since its beginning, The Muny has featured hundreds of big names in theatre and film on its stage, drawing huge crowds. A history of the celebrities who have performed at The Muny, including a cast listing, can be found on The Muny's website. During one of the last productions each summer season, survey forms are handed out to audience members. On this survey, audience members are asked to select thei
Wicked Witch of the West
The Wicked Witch of the West is a fictional character created by American author L. Frank Baum as the antagonist in his classic children's novel The Wonderful Wizard of Oz. In Baum's subsequent Oz novels, it is the Nome King, the principal villain; the witch's most popular depiction was in the classic 1939 film based on Baum's novel, where she was portrayed by Margaret Hamilton. Hamilton's characterization introduced green skin and this has been continued in literary and dramatic representations, including Gregory Maguire's revisionist Oz novel Wicked: The Life and Times of the Wicked Witch of the West and its musical stage adaptation Wicked, the 2013 film Oz the Great and Powerful, the television series Once Upon a Time and Emerald City; the Wicked Witch of the West is the malevolent ruler of the Winkie Country. Her castle is described as beautiful instead of being the sinister fortress shown in the movie. In all versions, she is aquaphobic; the Wicked Witch of the West was not related to the Wicked Witch of the East, but leagued together with her, the Wicked Witch of the South and Mombi to conquer the Land of Oz and divide it among themselves, as recounted in L. Frank Baum's Dorothy and the Wizard in Oz.
She shows no interest in the death of the Eastern Witch, all she cares about is obtaining the Silver Shoes which will increase her power. W. W. Denslow's illustrations for The Wonderful Wizard of Oz depict her as a paunched old hag with three pigtails and an eye-patch. L. Frank Baum himself specified that she only had one eye, but that it "was as powerful as a telescope", enabling the witch to see what was happening in her kingdom from her castle windows. Other illustrators, such as Paul Granger, placed her eye in the center of her forehead, as a cyclops, she is shown wearing an eye patch, however some illustrations show her with two eyes. Most of her power resides in the creatures, she has a pack of wolves, a swarm of bees, a flock of crows, an army of Winkies. She possesses the enchanted Golden Cap, which compels the winged monkeys to obey her on three occasions. First, the witch commanded the creatures to help her enslave the Winkies and to seize control of the western part of the Land of Oz.
Second, she made the winged monkeys drive Oz out of the Winkie Country, when he attempted to overthrow her. When Dorothy Gale and her companions were sent by the Wizard to destroy her, the Witch attacked them with a pack of 40 great wolves, a flock of 40 crows, a swarm of black bees, a group of Winkie slaves; each of these attempts were thwarted, but the protagonists are subdued by the Witch's third and final permitted use of the Winged Monkeys. The old witch cannot kill Dorothy because the girl is protected by the Good Witch of the North's kiss, she therefore settles for enslaving Dorothy, tries to force the Cowardly Lion into submission by starving him, though Dorothy sneaks him food. Upon seeing the Silver Shoes on the girl's feet, the Wicked Witch decides to steal them, thereby acquire more power; when she succeeds in acquiring one silver shoe by making Dorothy trip over an invisible bar, the little girl angrily throws a bucket of water onto the Wicked Witch. This causes the old witch to melt away.
The Wicked Witch's dryness was enumerated in some clues before this. Furthermore, when Toto had bitten her, she had not bled. L. Frank Baum did not explain why water had this effect on her, nor did he imply that all evil witches could be destroyed. However, the wicked witch Mombi is disposed of in The Lost King of Oz and the wicked witch Singra is afraid of the same fate in the early chapters of The Wicked Witch of Oz; the most explanation of Baum making water the Achilles' heel of these witches is the long-held belief amongst major religions that water is effective for purifying the soul and combating evil. The Witch did not carry a broom in the novel, but rather an umbrella, which she uses on one occasion to strike Dorothy's dog Toto, her nature is a yet somewhat cowardly one. Despite her immense power, she avoids face-to-face contact with her enemies, is frightened of Dorothy at first when she sees the girl wearing the Silver Shoes, she is afraid of the dark in Baum's original story for reasons unknown.
For that reason, the Witch never tried to steal the Silver Shoes. Despite her fear of water and the dark, the Wicked Witch of the West was one of the most powerful witches in all of Oz. In ensuing Oz books, her power is described as having been so great that Glinda the Good Witch of the South feared her. In Alexander Melentyevich Volkov's 1939 novel The Wizard of the Emerald City, her given name is Bastinda. March Laumer uses this name for the witch in his novel Aunt Uncle Henry in Oz. Like in the 1939 movie, she is the sister of the Wicked Witch of the East. Sherwood Smith uses this name for a new Wicked Witch of the West in her 2005 book The Emerald Wand of Oz. Gregory Maguire's September 1996 revisionist novel Wicked: The Life and Times of the Wicked Witch of the West takes the familiar Oz story and inverts it, with the Wicked Witch as the novel's protagonist and Dorothy as a hapless child; the name is retained in the musical Wicked. In the novel The Unknown Witches of Oz, the Wicked Witch of the West is named Old Snarl-Spats.
In the comic book series Grimm Fairy Tales presents Oz, the Wicked Witch of the West is named Lynessa. The 1910 silent film The Wonderful Wizard of Oz features a character similar to the Wicked Witch of the West, identified in intertitles as
Integrated Authority File
The Integrated Authority File or GND is an international authority file for the organisation of personal names, subject headings and corporate bodies from catalogues. It is used for documentation in libraries and also by archives and museums; the GND is managed by the German National Library in cooperation with various regional library networks in German-speaking Europe and other partners. The GND falls under the Creative Commons Zero licence; the GND specification provides a hierarchy of high-level entities and sub-classes, useful in library classification, an approach to unambiguous identification of single elements. It comprises an ontology intended for knowledge representation in the semantic web, available in the RDF format; the Integrated Authority File became operational in April 2012 and integrates the content of the following authority files, which have since been discontinued: Name Authority File Corporate Bodies Authority File Subject Headings Authority File Uniform Title File of the Deutsches Musikarchiv At the time of its introduction on 5 April 2012, the GND held 9,493,860 files, including 2,650,000 personalised names.
There are seven main types of GND entities: LIBRIS Virtual International Authority File Information pages about the GND from the German National Library Search via OGND Bereitstellung des ersten GND-Grundbestandes DNB, 19 April 2012 From Authority Control to Linked Authority Data Presentation given by Reinhold Heuvelmann to the ALA MARC Formats Interest Group, June 2012
New York City
The City of New York called either New York City or New York, is the most populous city in the United States. With an estimated 2017 population of 8,622,698 distributed over a land area of about 302.6 square miles, New York is the most densely populated major city in the United States. Located at the southern tip of the state of New York, the city is the center of the New York metropolitan area, the largest metropolitan area in the world by urban landmass and one of the world's most populous megacities, with an estimated 20,320,876 people in its 2017 Metropolitan Statistical Area and 23,876,155 residents in its Combined Statistical Area. A global power city, New York City has been described as the cultural and media capital of the world, exerts a significant impact upon commerce, research, education, tourism, art and sports; the city's fast pace has inspired the term New York minute. Home to the headquarters of the United Nations, New York is an important center for international diplomacy.
Situated on one of the world's largest natural harbors, New York City consists of five boroughs, each of, a separate county of the State of New York. The five boroughs – Brooklyn, Manhattan, The Bronx, Staten Island – were consolidated into a single city in 1898; the city and its metropolitan area constitute the premier gateway for legal immigration to the United States. As many as 800 languages are spoken in New York, making it the most linguistically diverse city in the world. New York City is home to more than 3.2 million residents born outside the United States, the largest foreign-born population of any city in the world. In 2017, the New York metropolitan area produced a gross metropolitan product of US$1.73 trillion. If greater New York City were a sovereign state, it would have the 12th highest GDP in the world. New York is home to the highest number of billionaires of any city in the world. New York City traces its origins to a trading post founded by colonists from the Dutch Republic in 1624 on Lower Manhattan.
The city and its surroundings came under English control in 1664 and were renamed New York after King Charles II of England granted the lands to his brother, the Duke of York. New York served as the capital of the United States from 1785 until 1790, it has been the country's largest city since 1790. The Statue of Liberty greeted millions of immigrants as they came to the U. S. by ship in the late 19th and early 20th centuries and is an international symbol of the U. S. and its ideals of liberty and peace. In the 21st century, New York has emerged as a global node of creativity and entrepreneurship, social tolerance, environmental sustainability, as a symbol of freedom and cultural diversity. Many districts and landmarks in New York City are well known, with the city having three of the world's ten most visited tourist attractions in 2013 and receiving a record 62.8 million tourists in 2017. Several sources have ranked New York the most photographed city in the world. Times Square, iconic as the world's "heart" and its "Crossroads", is the brightly illuminated hub of the Broadway Theater District, one of the world's busiest pedestrian intersections, a major center of the world's entertainment industry.
The names of many of the city's landmarks and parks are known around the world. Manhattan's real estate market is among the most expensive in the world. New York is home to the largest ethnic Chinese population outside of Asia, with multiple signature Chinatowns developing across the city. Providing continuous 24/7 service, the New York City Subway is the largest single-operator rapid transit system worldwide, with 472 rail stations. Over 120 colleges and universities are located in New York City, including Columbia University, New York University, Rockefeller University, which have been ranked among the top universities in the world. Anchored by Wall Street in the Financial District of Lower Manhattan, New York has been called both the most economically powerful city and the leading financial center of the world, the city is home to the world's two largest stock exchanges by total market capitalization, the New York Stock Exchange and NASDAQ. In 1664, the city was named in honor of the Duke of York.
James's older brother, King Charles II, had appointed the Duke proprietor of the former territory of New Netherland, including the city of New Amsterdam, which England had seized from the Dutch. During the Wisconsinan glaciation, 75,000 to 11,000 years ago, the New York City region was situated at the edge of a large ice sheet over 1,000 feet in depth; the erosive forward movement of the ice contributed to the separation of what is now Long Island and Staten Island. That action left bedrock at a shallow depth, providing a solid foundation for most of Manhattan's skyscrapers. In the precolonial era, the area of present-day New York City was inhabited by Algonquian Native Americans, including the Lenape, whose homeland, known as Lenapehoking, included Staten Island; the first documented visit into New York Harbor by a European was in 1524 by Giovanni da Verrazzano, a Florentine explorer in the service of the French crown. He named it Nouvelle Angoulême. A Spanish expedition led by captain Estêvão Gomes, a Portuguese sailing for Emperor Charles V, arrived in New York Harbor in January 1525 and charted the mouth of the Hudson River, which he named Río de San Antonio.
The Padrón Rea