Sweden the Kingdom of Sweden, is a Scandinavian Nordic country in Northern Europe. It borders Norway to the west and north and Finland to the east, is connected to Denmark in the southwest by a bridge-tunnel across the Öresund, a strait at the Swedish-Danish border. At 450,295 square kilometres, Sweden is the largest country in Northern Europe, the third-largest country in the European Union and the fifth largest country in Europe by area. Sweden has a total population of 10.2 million. It has a low population density of 22 inhabitants per square kilometre; the highest concentration is in the southern half of the country. Germanic peoples have inhabited Sweden since prehistoric times, emerging into history as the Geats and Swedes and constituting the sea peoples known as the Norsemen. Southern Sweden is predominantly agricultural, while the north is forested. Sweden is part of the geographical area of Fennoscandia; the climate is in general mild for its northerly latitude due to significant maritime influence, that in spite of this still retains warm continental summers.
Today, the sovereign state of Sweden is a constitutional monarchy and parliamentary democracy, with a monarch as head of state, like its neighbour Norway. The capital city is Stockholm, the most populous city in the country. Legislative power is vested in the 349-member unicameral Riksdag. Executive power is exercised by the government chaired by the prime minister. Sweden is a unitary state divided into 21 counties and 290 municipalities. An independent Swedish state emerged during the early 12th century. After the Black Death in the middle of the 14th century killed about a third of the Scandinavian population, the Hanseatic League threatened Scandinavia's culture and languages; this led to the forming of the Scandinavian Kalmar Union in 1397, which Sweden left in 1523. When Sweden became involved in the Thirty Years War on the Reformist side, an expansion of its territories began and the Swedish Empire was formed; this became one of the great powers of Europe until the early 18th century. Swedish territories outside the Scandinavian Peninsula were lost during the 18th and 19th centuries, ending with the annexation of present-day Finland by Russia in 1809.
The last war in which Sweden was directly involved was in 1814, when Norway was militarily forced into personal union. Since Sweden has been at peace, maintaining an official policy of neutrality in foreign affairs; the union with Norway was peacefully dissolved in 1905. Sweden was formally neutral through both world wars and the Cold War, albeit Sweden has since 2009 moved towards cooperation with NATO. After the end of the Cold War, Sweden joined the European Union on 1 January 1995, but declined NATO membership, as well as Eurozone membership following a referendum, it is a member of the United Nations, the Nordic Council, the Council of Europe, the World Trade Organization and the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development. Sweden maintains a Nordic social welfare system that provides universal health care and tertiary education for its citizens, it has the world's eleventh-highest per capita income and ranks in numerous metrics of national performance, including quality of life, education, protection of civil liberties, economic competitiveness, equality and human development.
The name Sweden was loaned from Dutch in the 17th century to refer to Sweden as an emerging great power. Before Sweden's imperial expansion, Early Modern English used Swedeland. Sweden is derived through back-formation from Old English Swēoþēod, which meant "people of the Swedes"; this word is derived from Sweon/Sweonas. The Swedish name Sverige means "realm of the Swedes", excluding the Geats in Götaland. Variations of the name Sweden are used in most languages, with the exception of Danish and Norwegian using Sverige, Faroese Svøríki, Icelandic Svíþjóð, the more notable exception of some Finnic languages where Ruotsi and Rootsi are used, names considered as referring to the people from the coastal areas of Roslagen, who were known as the Rus', through them etymologically related to the English name for Russia; the etymology of Swedes, thus Sweden, is not agreed upon but may derive from Proto-Germanic Swihoniz meaning "one's own", referring to one's own Germanic tribe. Sweden's prehistory begins in the Allerød oscillation, a warm period around 12,000 BC, with Late Palaeolithic reindeer-hunting camps of the Bromme culture at the edge of the ice in what is now the country's southernmost province, Scania.
This period was characterised by small bands of hunter-gatherer-fishers using flint technology. Sweden is first described in a written source in Germania by Tacitus in 98 AD. In Germania 44 and 45 he mentions the Swedes as a powerful tribe with ships that had a prow at each end. Which kings ruled these Suiones is unknown, but Norse mythology presents a long line of legendary and semi-legendary kings going back to the last centuries BC; as for literacy in Sweden itself, the runic script was in use among the south Scandinavian elite by at least the 2nd century AD, but all that has come down to the present from the Roman Period is curt inscriptions on artefacts of male names, demonstrating th
Rittmeister is or was a military rank of a commissioned cavalry officer in the armies of Germany, Austria-Hungary and some other countries. A Rittmeister is in charge of a squadron, is the equivalent of a Hauptmann-rank with a NATO rank of OF-2; the various names of this rank in different languages were: Swedish: ryttmästare Danish: ritmester Norwegian: rittmester or rittmeister German: Rittmeister Estonian: rittmeisterThe Dutch equivalent, Ritmeester, is still the official designation for officers in the cavalry branches of the Royal Dutch Army. The Norwegian rank, rittmester/rittmeister, still serves as the official designation for officers in the armoured and mechanized infantry branches of the Norwegian Army. In Sweden the rank was known as ryttmästare, in Denmark as ritmester; the spelling ritmester was used in Norwegian until 1907. The armies of Poland, Finland and Russia adopted, but localised, the Germanic term for someone of similar rank; these were: Polish: rotmistrz, Finnish: ratsumestari, Lithuanian: rotmistras, Russian: ротмистр.
In the Polish army a rotmistrz commanded. However, a rotmistrz of hussars was a commander of between 100 and 180 hussars, with a lieutenant of hussars as his second-in-command; the Lithuanian term was rotmistras. In earlier times the rotmistrz served as the commander of an infantry or cavalry company, though sometimes he would temporarily be assigned field rank tasks e.g. commanding an entire regiment or a larger formation. In the cavalry the rank continued until 1945 as a company level title. Applied to the commander of a troop, it was equivalent of a modern-day captain; the rank was adopted by Russian New Regiments as rotmistr and formalized in Table of Ranks as the cavalry post. In British and Commonwealth military forces, a Riding Master is an appointment, not a rank. In the Household Cavalry Regiment a suitable Warrant Officer within the ranks of Riding Instructors is commissioned from the ranks; the duration of this appointment is determined by the Regimental Lieutenant-Colonel and, once appointed, the Riding Master is responsible to the Commanding Officer of the Household Cavalry Regiment for the training of recruits and remounts.
Comparative military ranks Comparative military ranks of World War I Ranks and insignia of NATO armies officers List of Imperial German cavalry regiments Rittmeister Karl Bolle Rittmeister Bruno Richter Rotmistrz Witold Pilecki Rotmistrz Atanazy Miączyński
Gåsevadholm Castle is a castle on an island in the Rolfsån river in Halland, Sweden. Sir John Maclean, 1st Baronet was the Lord of Gåsevadholm. List of castles in Sweden
Alatskivi Castle is a Neo-Gothic castle in Alatskivi, Estonia. Dating to the 17th century, it is situated in Tartu County, it was rebuilt in the late 19th century by Baron Arved von Nolcken, modeled on the royal residence of Balmoral in Scotland. A renovation occurred between 2005 and 2011. Five rooms on the first floor house the Eduard Tubin museum, which documents his accomplishments as a music composer and conductor. Alatskivi Castle is surrounded by various ancillary buildings and a forested park of 130 hectares area, the largest in Tartu County; the park contains many oaks, maples, alders and an approach road lined with linden trees. Alatskivi Castle is located 40 kilometres north of 205 kilometres from Tallinn, it is built on the high bank of Lake Alatskivi at the foot of the Alatskivi valley. An arched entrance leads to the castle along a road lined with linden trees; the earliest mention of the manor was in 1601. King Gustav Adolf II of Sweden gave it to his secretary, Johan Adler Salvius, in 1628.
In 1642, its ownership passed on to Hans Detterman Cronman. In 1753, it was purchased by the Stackelbergs and inherited by the Nolckens in 1870. Baron Arved George de Nolcken rebuilt the castle between 1876–1885 according to his own designs, in the Scottish baronial style, designed as a smaller version of Queen Victoria's Balmoral Castle in Scotland, which he had visited in 1875. After nationalization occurred in 1919, the castle complex was taken over by the government under the Ministry of Agriculture and became a school, cavalry barracks, state controlled farm land, council offices and library, it has been refurbished to its original form based on the original pictures of the aristocracy and their descendants who resided here. After the 2011 restoration, the castle was opened to the public with the Alatskivi Castle Foundation administrating the castle and the manor complex; the writer Ain Hinsberg refers to the manor house having been designed as a mock-English castle. The castle is built to an asymmetrical plan, with single- and double-storied wings, turrets and a slate roof.
The building has both single- and double-storied floors. It hosts seminars, training programmes and small conferences, is fitted with three meeting rooms and dining facilities. Completed in 2011, the Eduard Tubin Museum is located in five rooms on the first floor of the castle; the main feature is devoted to the life and work of Eduard Tubin, one of Estonia's most esteemed composers. The initial exhibits are of members of the Tartu school who studied with Tubin, including Heino Eller, Eduard Oja, Alfred Karindi, Olav Roots, Karl Leichter. Tubin's music scores, books, records and photos, musical instruments, records and sketches of theatre costumes are all part of the display; the museum houses a large-scale model of the castle and plays the music of Tubin. The 130 hectares large Manor Park consists of oaks, maples, alders and an approach road lined with linden trees, some trees being grown on terraces, it is the largest in the Tartu County. A hiking track is laid through the Alatskivi Nature Reserve.
There are two artificial reservoirs along the Alatskivi River. There is a large boulder at the extreme end of the park in Kõdesi Forest where Apollo Belvedere's statue existed in the past, although the statue has been moved to Kadriorg Park in Tallinn; the main castle is surrounded by many stone buildings. During the 19th century, the manor had 57 buildings; these are grouped in four areas connected by roads. The first contains coaching house and cheese cellar. BibliographyBain, Carolyn. Estonia and Lithuania. Lonely Planet. ISBN 978-1-74104-770-7. Hein, Ants. Eesti Mõisad - Herrenhäuser in Estland - Estonian Manor Houses. Tallinn: Tänapäev. ISBN 978-9985-62-765-5. Hudson, Charles Edward Mogridge; the Manors of Wike Burnell and Wyke Waryn, Country of Worcester. Hudson. Hinsberg, Ain. Key to Estonia. Areal. ISBN 978-9985-9180-2-9. Maunder, Hilke. Baltic States:. Hayit. ISBN 978-1-874251-07-1. Sakk, Ivar. Estonian Manors - A Travelogue. Tallinn: Sakk & Sakk OÜ. ISBN 9949-10-117-4. Official website
Tallinn is the capital and largest city of Estonia. It is on the shore of the Gulf of Finland in Harju County. From the 13th century until 1918, the city was known as Reval. Tallinn occupies an area of 159.2 km2 and has a population of 440,776. Tallinn, first mentioned in 1219, received city rights in 1248, but the earliest human settlements date back 5,000 years; the initial claim over the land was laid by the Danes in 1219, after a successful raid of Lindanise led by Valdemar II of Denmark, followed by a period of alternating Scandinavian and German rule. Due to its strategic location, the city became a major trade hub from the 14th to the 16th century, when it grew in importance as part of the Hanseatic League. Tallinn's Old Town is one of the best preserved medieval cities in Europe and is listed as a UNESCO World Heritage Site. Tallinn is the major political, financial and educational center of Estonia. Dubbed the Silicon Valley of Europe, it has the highest number of startups per person in Europe and is a birthplace of many international companies, including Skype.
The city is to house the headquarters of the European Union's IT agency. Providing to the global cybersecurity it is the home to the NATO Cyber Defence Centre of Excellence, it has been listed among the top 10 digital cities in the world. According to the Global Financial Centres Index Tallinn is the most competitive financial center in Northern Europe and ranks 52nd internationally; the city was a European Capital of Culture for 2011, along with Turku in Finland. In 1154, a town called قلون was put on the world map of the Almoravid by the Arab cartographer Muhammad al-Idrisi, who described it as "a small town like a large castle" among the towns of'Astlanda', it was suggested. The earliest names of Tallinn include Kolyvan, known from East Slavic chronicles and which may have come from the Estonian mythical hero Kalev. However, modern historians consider connecting al-Idrisi placename with Tallinn unfounded and erroneous. Up to the 13th century, the Scandinavians and Henry of Livonia in his chronicle called the town Lindanisa.
This name may have been derived from Linda, the mythical wife of Kalev and the mother of Kalevipoeg, who in an Estonian legend carried rocks to her husband's grave, which formed the Toompea hill. It has been suggested that the archaic Estonian word linda is similar to the Votic word lidna'castle, town'. According to this suggestion, nisa would have the same meaning as niemi'peninsula', producing Kesoniemi, the old Finnish name for the city. Another ancient historical name for Tallinn is Rääveli in Finnish; the Icelandic Njal's saga mentions Tallinn and calls it Rafala, based on the primitive form of Revala. This name originated from the adjacent ancient name of the surrounding area. After the Danish conquest in 1219, the town became known in the German and Danish languages as Reval. Reval was in use until 1918; the name Tallinn is Estonian. It is thought to be derived from Taani-linn, after the Danes built the castle in place of the Estonian stronghold at Lindanisse. However, it could have come from tali-linna, or talu-linna.
The element -linna, like Germanic -burg and Slavic -grad / -gorod meant'fortress', but is used as a suffix in the formation of town names. The previously-used official names in German Reval and Russian Revel were replaced after Estonia became independent in 1918. At first, both forms Tallinn were used; the United States Board on Geographic Names adopted the form Tallinn between June 1923 and June 1927. Tallinna in Estonian denotes the genitive case of the name, as in Tallinna Reisisadam. In Russian, the spelling of the name was changed from Таллинн to Таллин by the Soviet authorities in the 1950s, this spelling is still sanctioned by the Russian government, while Estonian authorities have been using the spelling Таллинн in Russian-language publications since the restoration of independence; the form Таллин is used in several other languages in some of the countries that emerged from the former Soviet Union. Due to the Russian spelling, the form Tallin is sometimes found in international publications.
Other variations of modern spellings include Tallinna in Finnish, Tallina in Latvian and Talinas in Lithuanian. The first traces of human settlement found in Tallinn's city center by archeologists are about 5,000 years old; the comb ceramic pottery found on the site dates to about 3000 BCE and corded ware pottery c. 2500 BCE. Around 1050, the first fortress was built on Tallinn Toompea; as an important port for trade between Russia and Scandinavia, it became a target for the expansion of the Teutonic Knights and the Kingdom of Denmark during the period of Northern Crusades in the beginning of the 13th century when Christianity was forcibly imposed on the local population. Danish rule of Tallinn and Northern Estonia started in 1219. In 1285, the city known as Reval, became the northern most member of the Hanseatic League – a mercantile and military alliance of German-dominated cities in Northern Europe; the Danes sold Reval along with their other land possessions in northe
Johan Cronman was a lieutenant general and the commandant of the Skåne fortress in the Swedish Empire as well as the Governor of Malmöhus County from 1727 to 1737. He was Baron of Alatskivi and Kokora, he was born on November 2, 1662, in Alatskivi Castle called Unanitz, in Swedish Livonia. He was the son of Lunetta Makeléer. Lunetta was the daughter of John Hans Makeléer, a merchant and banker who had emigrated from Scotland to Sweden. Johan joined the military and was commissioned as a lieutenant with the Narva garrison, second captain with the Närke and Värmland regiments in 1687, he was promoted to captain with the Zurlauben regiment in 1699, was made a lieutenant-colonel in 1701. He was promoted to colonel of the Kronobergs in 1706. On July 11, 1709, he was at surrender at Perevolochna and held prisoner in Siberia until 1722. Johan returned to Sweden after his release and was promoted to lieutenant-general of the infantry in 1722, he was made a baron in 1727, named the Governor of Malmö and commandant of Malmö Castle, both in 1727.
Through his life, he was never wounded. He spoke 8 languages: Swedish, German, Polish, Russian and Dutch, he died on July 26, 1737, at age 75. He had children. A plaque at St Petri, Malmö, reads in German: Ihro Konigl:r Maij:ts Zu Schweden Wolbestalter Generallientenant der Infanterie Landes Hauptman und OberCommendannt der Festungen Zu Schonen Hochwolgebohren Baron H:r Johan Cronman Freijherr Von Alatskivi Kadaster und Kakara Herr Von Vosuauer Sattkula Gebohren Auf Alatskivi 1662 den 2 Novemb. Gelich Gestorben In Malmö den 26 Julii 1737, it translates into English as: His Royal Majesty of Sweden recognizes Lieutenant General of the Infantry and High Commandant at the Fortress of Skåne, Honourable Baron Mr. Johan Cronman, Baron to Alatskivi and Kokora, Master of Wasuva and Sottkylä. Born at Alatskivi November 2, 1662. Died in Malmö on July 26, 1737. A plaque at Caroli Church in Malmö reads: Hier ligt der weyland hoch geborne herr baron general lieutenant landshauptmann und ober commandant Johann Cronmann.
Freyherr von alt und neu Alatskivi. Herr von Kokara und Sottkyl. Anno 1737 It translates into English as: Here lies Lieutenant General, Baron and Commandant Johan Cronmann. Baron of old and new Alatskivi. Lord of Kokora and Sottkylä. Year 1737 Military ranks of the Swedish Armed Forces St Petri, Malmö Cronman family tree based on Gabriel Anrep and Gustaf Elgenstierna Johan Cronman grave in Malmö
Aminoff is a noble family of Russian origin. Its family members live in Sweden and in Finland, its genealogy branches are represented in Sweden's and Finland's Houses of Nobility. Aminoffs were introduced to Swedish House of Nobility in 1650 with the number of 446, to Finnish House of Nobility in 1836 with the number of 36. Aminoffs are offspring of Russian boyar Feodor Aminev, knighted in 1618. Aminev was the castle commander in Novgorod, conquered by the King of Sweden Gustav II Adolf in 1612. Feodor Aminev's mother was Princess Helena Ivan's daughter Golitsin, daughter of Great Novgorod's Governor, Prince Ivan Juri's Son Golitsin. Aminoff's is a traditional military family but in 1900s and 2000s they have been involved more in business and industry and as public servants. Aminoff noble family is still active, it has plenty of family members in Sweden and in Finland. Henrik Johan Aminoff, Lieutenant General Carl Mauritz Aminoff, Lieutenant General, Director of the Swedish Royal Army Pension Fund Adolf Aminoff, Major General and Commander of Savo Brigade Johan Fredrik Aminoff, General, Statesman Johan Gabriel Aminoff, Major General Gustaf Aminoff, Major General, Governor Adolf Aminoff, General Berndt Adolf Carl Gregori, Statesman Wilhelm Sixten Gregorius Aminoff, Chamberlain of Sweden's Queen Mother Josephine Johan Fredrik Gustaf Aminoff, Lieutenant General, Governor Adolf Petter Johannes Aminoff, Major General Ivar Aminoff, Defence Minister of Finland, Politician Gregor Carl Georg Aminoff, Adjutant of King of Sweden Gustav V Alexis Aminoff and Chamberlain of Duke and Duchess of Västergötland Carl Göran Aminoff, CEO of Insurance Company Varma and Minister for Foreign Trade of Finland Marianne Aminoff, a Swedish film actress Sten Gregor Aminoff, Ambassador of Sweden in New Zealand and Western Samoa Gregori Aminoff Prize