Anne Neville was an English queen, the daughter of Richard Neville, 16th Earl of Warwick. She became Princess of Wales as the wife of Edward of Westminster, as a member of the powerful House of Neville, she played a critical part in the Wars of the Roses fought between the House of York and House of Lancaster for the English crown. Her father Warwick betrothed her as a girl to Edward, Prince of Wales, the marriage was to seal an alliance to the House of Lancaster and continue the civil war between the two houses of Lancaster and York. After the death of Edward, the Dowager Princess of Wales married Richard, Duke of Gloucester, brother of Edward IV and of George, Duke of Clarence, the husband of Anne Nevilles older sister Isabel. Anne Neville became queen when Richard III ascended the throne in June 1483, Anne Neville predeceased her husband by five months, dying in March 1485. Her only child was Edward of Middleham, who predeceased her, Anne Neville was born at Warwick Castle, the younger daughter of Richard Neville, 16th Earl of Warwick, and Anne de Beauchamp.
Her father was one of the most powerful noblemen in England and her grandfathers sister, Cecily Neville, was the wife of Richard, Duke of York, who claimed the crown for the House of York. Richard especially attended his knighthood training at Middleham since mid-1461 until at least the spring of 1465 and it is possible that even at this early stage, a match between the Earls daughters and the young dukes was being considered. The Duke of York was killed on 30 December 1460 but, with Warwicks help, the Earl of Warwick had been at odds with Edward IV for some time, resenting the rise in the kings favour of the new queens family, the Woodvilles. In 1469, the tried to put his son-in-law George on the throne. After a second rebellion against King Edward failed in early 1470, he was forced to flee to France, with King Henry VI imprisoned in the Tower of London, the de facto Lancastrian leader was his consort, Margaret of Anjou, who was suspicious of Warwicks motives. To quell these suspicions, Anne Neville was formally betrothed to the son of Henry VI and Margaret of Anjou, Edward of Westminster and they were married in Angers Cathedral, probably on 13 December 1470, to make Anne Neville the Princess of Wales.
Warwick restored Henry VI to the throne in October 1470, however Edward IV returned to the country in March 1471 and quickly captured London and the person of Henry VI. The mentally troubled Henry VI was taken by Edward IV as a prisoner to the Battle of Barnet, Edward IV incarcerated Henry VI in the Tower of London. As Constable of England, he probably delivered King Edwards order to kill Henry to the Constable of the Tower, Margaret of Anjou had returned to England with Anne Neville and Prince Edward in April, bringing additional troops. At the Battle of Tewkesbury, Edward IV crushed this last Lancastrian army, Prince Edward was killed in or shortly after the battle, and Anne Neville was taken prisoner. She was taken first to Coventry and to the house of her brother-in-law the Duke of Clarence in London, while her mother Anne Beauchamp, Warwicks wife, sought sanctuary in Beaulieu Abbey. When the crisis settled down and the Countess wished to be restored to her estates, Edward IV refused her safe conduct to plead her case, she wrote to Queen Elizabeth and several others to no avail
Isabel Neville, Duchess of Clarence
Lady Isabel Neville was the elder daughter of Richard Neville, 16th Earl of Warwick, and Anne de Beauchamp, 16th Countess of Warwick. She was the wife of George Plantagenet, 1st Duke of Clarence and she was the elder sister of Anne Neville, who was Princess of Wales, by her first marriage and Queen consort of England by her second. Isabel Neville was born at Warwick Castle, the seat of the Earls of Warwick, in 1469, her ambitious father betrothed her to Englands heir presumptive, George Plantagenet, 1st Duke of Clarence, the brother of both King Edward IV and Richard, Duke of Gloucester. The king opposed the marriage as it would bring the already powerful Earl of Warwick too close to the throne, the ceremony however took place in secret at Calais on 11 July 1469, conducted by Isabel Nevilles Uncle George Neville, archbishop of York. Following their marriage Clarence joined forces with Warwick and traitorously allied with the Lancastrians led by Margaret of Anjou, Isabel Neville married George Plantagenet, 1st Duke of Clarence, in Calais, France, on 11 July 1469.
Four children resulted, Anne of York, born outside Calais, Margaret Pole, 8th Countess of Salisbury. Married Sir Richard Pole, executed by Henry VIII, Edward Plantagenet, 17th Earl of Warwick. Executed by Henry VII for attempting to escape the Tower of London, Richard of York, born at Tewkesbury Abbey, died at Warwick Castle, buried Warwick. Isabel Neville died on 22 December 1476, two and a half months after the birth of Richard, the answer of the king was, Soit fait come il est desire
County Durham is a county in North East England. The county town is Durham, a cathedral city, the largest settlement is Darlington, closely followed by Hartlepool and Stockton-on-Tees. It borders Tyne and Wear to the north east, Northumberland to the north, Cumbria to the west, the county included southern Tyne and Wear, including Gateshead and Sunderland. The county has a mixture of mining and farming heritage, as well as a railway industry. Its economy was based on coal and iron mining. It is an area of regeneration and promoted as a tourist destination, in the centre of the city of Durham, Durham Castle and Durham Cathedral are a UNESCO-designated World Heritage Site. Many counties are named after their town, and the expected form here would be Durhamshire. Thus County Durham is a form of County of Durham. The situation regarding the name with regards to present-day local government is less clear. The structural change legislation which in 2009 created the present unitary council refers to the county of County Durham, the former postal county was named County Durham to distinguish it from the post town of Durham.
The ceremonial county of Durham is administered by four unitary authorities, the ceremonial county has no administrative function, but remains the area to which the Lord Lieutenant of Durham and the High Sheriff of Durham are appointed. The Borough of Hartlepool, until 1 April 1996 the borough was one of four districts in the relatively short-lived county of Cleveland, the part of the Borough of Stockton-on-Tees that is north of the centre of the River Tees. Stockton was part of Cleveland until that countys abolition in 1996, the remainder of the borough is part of the ceremonial county of North Yorkshire. Durham Constabulary operate in the area of the two districts of County Durham and Darlington. Ron Hogg was first elected the Durham Police and Crime Commissioner for the force on 15 November 2012, the other areas in the ceremonial county fall within the police area of the Cleveland Police. Air Ambulance services are provided by the Great North Air Ambulance, the charity operates 3 helicopters including one at Durham Tees Valley Airport covering the County Durham area.
Teesdale and Weardale Search and Mountain Rescue Team, based at the Durham Constabulary base in Barnard Castle, respond to search, Cuthbert between Tyne and Tees or the Liberty of Haliwerfolc. The bishops special jurisdiction rested on claims that King Ecgfrith of Northumbria had granted a substantial territory to St Cuthbert on his election to the see of Lindisfarne in 684
A dynasty is a sequence of rulers from the same family, usually in the context of a feudal or monarchical system but sometimes appearing in elective republics. The dynastic family or lineage may be known as a house, historians periodize the histories of many sovereign states, such as Ancient Egypt, the Carolingian Empire and Imperial China, using a framework of successive dynasties. As such, the dynasty may be used to delimit the era during which the family reigned and to describe events, trends. The word dynasty itself is often dropped from such adjectival references, until the 19th century, it was taken for granted that a legitimate function of a monarch was to aggrandize his dynasty, that is, to increase the territory and power of his family members. The longest-surviving dynasty in the world is the Imperial House of Japan, dynasties throughout the world have traditionally been reckoned patrilineally, such as under the Frankish Salic law. Succession through a daughter when permitted was considered to establish a new dynasty in her husbands ruling house, some states in Africa, determined descent matrilineally, while rulers have at other times adopted the name of their mothers dynasty when coming into her inheritance.
It is extended to unrelated people such as poets of the same school or various rosters of a single sports team. The word dynasty derives via Latin dynastia from Greek dynastéia, where it referred to power, dominion and it was the abstract noun of dynástēs, the agent noun of dynamis, power or ability, from dýnamai, to be able. A ruler in a dynasty is referred to as a dynast. For example, following his abdication, Edward VIII of the United Kingdom ceased to be a member of the House of Windsor. A dynastic marriage is one that complies with monarchical house law restrictions, the marriage of Willem-Alexander, Prince of Orange, to Máxima Zorreguieta in 2002 was dynastic, for example, and their eldest child is expected to inherit the Dutch crown eventually. But the marriage of his younger brother Prince Friso to Mabel Wisse Smit in 2003 lacked government support, thus Friso forfeited his place in the order of succession, lost his title as a Prince of the Netherlands, and left his children without dynastic rights.
In historical and monarchist references to formerly reigning families, a dynast is a member who would have had succession rights, were the monarchys rules still in force. Even since abolition of the Austrian monarchy and his descendants have not been considered the rightful pretenders by Austrian monarchists, nor have they claimed that position. The term dynast is sometimes used only to refer to descendants of a realms monarchs. The term can therefore describe overlapping but distinct sets of people, yet he is not a male-line member of the royal family, and is therefore not a dynast of the House of Windsor. Thus, in 1999 he requested and obtained permission from Elizabeth II to marry the Roman Catholic Princess Caroline of Monaco. Yet a clause of the English Act of Settlement 1701 remained in effect at that time and that exclusion, ceased to apply on 26 March 2015, with retroactive effect for those who had been dynasts prior to triggering it by marriage to a Catholic
Kettlethorpe is a village and civil parish in the West Lindsey district of Lincolnshire, England. It is situated 10 miles west from the city of Lincoln, the hamlet of Hardwick and the villages of Drinsey Nook and Laughterton lie within Kettlethorpe parish. The population of the parish taken at the 2011 census was 426. In the north wall of the sanctuary is a stone wall plaque to John Reeke. Also in the sanctuary on the wall is an oval marble wall plaque to Rev. On the north wall is a marble wall plaque to Charles Hall. In the north aisle is a plaque to the Cole family, at the west end of the nave are painted royal arms and round the side walls of the nave are 19th-century texts in red lettering. In the churchyard are the remains of a cross, dating from the 14th century with 19th-century restoration, the ecclesiastical parish is Kettlethorpe with Fenton, part of the Saxilby Group of the Deanery of Corringham. The parish church is in Kettlethorpe, as of 2014 the incumbent is the Revd Canon Rhys Prosser.
Today the Hall is a country house, dating from the early 18th century built by the M. P. Charles Hall who succeeded to the house in 1713. It passed to the Amcotts family and it was altered and extended in the 19th century. A gateway to the Hall, dating from the 14th century with 18th-century additions and alterations, is Grade II* listed, there are earthwork remains of a medieval deer park, enclosed about 1383 and dis-parked around 1830. In 1383 Katherine Swynford received a licence from King Richard II to enclose land, the settlement of Laughterton looks like a planned village, with properties of approximately equal depth on either side of a straight north-south street. Laughterton is always recorded with Kettlethorpe in tax returns, millfield Golf Course is situated in Laughterton. Media related to Kettlethorpe, Lincolnshire at Wikimedia Commons
John of Gaunt
John of Gaunt, 1st Duke of Lancaster, KG was a member of the House of Plantagenet, the third of five surviving sons of King Edward III of England and Philippa of Hainault. He was called John of Gaunt because he was born in Ghent, when he became unpopular in life, scurrilous rumours and lampoons circulated that he was actually the son of a Ghent butcher, perhaps because Edward III was not present at the birth. This story always drove him to fury, due to some generous land grants, John was one of the richest men in his era. John of Gaunts legitimate male heirs, the Lancasters, include Kings Henry IV, Henry V and his other legitimate descendants include his daughters Queen Philippa of Portugal and Elizabeth, Duchess of Exeter, and Queen Catherine of Castile. John fathered five children outside marriage, one early in life by a lady-in-waiting to his mother, the children of Katherine Swynford, surnamed Beaufort, were legitimised by royal and papal decrees after John and Katherine married in 1396.
Through his daughter Philippa, he was grandfather of King Edward of Portugal, through John II of Castiles great-granddaughter Joanna the Mad, John of Gaunt is an ancestor of the Habsburg rulers who would reign in Spain and much of central Europe. When John of Gaunt died in 1399, his estates and titles were declared forfeit to the crown, since King Richard II had named Henry a traitor, Henry Bolingbroke returned from exile to reclaim his inheritance and depose Richard. Bolingbroke reigned as King Henry IV of England, the first of the descendants of John of Gaunt to hold the throne of England, John was the fourth son of King Edward III of England. His first wife, Blanche of Lancaster, was his third cousin and they married in 1359 at Reading Abbey as a part of the efforts of Edward III to arrange matches for his sons with wealthy heiresses. He became the 14th Baron of Halton and 11th Lord of Bowland, John inherited the rest of the Lancaster property when Blanches sister Maud, Countess of Leicester, died without issue on 10 April 1362.
John received the title Duke of Lancaster from his father on 13 November 1362, by well established, he owned at least thirty castles and estates across England and France and maintained a household comparable in scale and organisation to that of a monarch. He owned land in almost every county in England, a patrimony that produced a net income of between £8,000 and £10,000 a year, Johns ascendancy to political power coincided with widespread resentment of his influence. Although he fought in the Battle of Nájera, for example, when Edward III died in 1377 and Johns ten-year-old nephew succeeded as Richard II of England, Johns influence strengthened. However, mistrust remained, and some suspected him of wanting to seize the throne himself, John took pains to ensure that he never became associated with the opposition to Richards kingship. As de facto ruler during Richards minority, he made unwise decisions on taxation that led to the Peasants Revolt in 1381, when the rebels destroyed his home in London, the Savoy Palace.
Unlike some of Richards unpopular advisors, John was away from London at the time of the uprising and thus avoided the direct wrath of the rebels. In 1386 John left England to seek the throne of Castile, claimed in Jure uxoris by right of his wife, Constance of Castile. However, crisis ensued almost immediately in his absence, and in 1387 King Richards misrule brought England to the brink of civil war
Northern England or the North of England, known as the North Country or simply the North, is the northern part of England, when considered as a single cultural area. The area roughly spans from the River Trent and River Dee to the Scottish border in the north, Northern England roughly comprises three statistical regions, the North East, North West and Yorkshire and the Humber. These have a population of around 14.9 million as of the 2011 Census. The region has been controlled by groups from the Brigantes. After the Norman conquest in 1066, the Harrying of the North brought destruction, a Council of the North was in place during the Late Middle Ages until the Commonwealth after the Civil War. The area experienced Anglo–Scottish border fighting until the unification of Britain under the Stuarts, in the late 19th and early 20th centuries, the economy of the North was dominated by heavy industry such as weaving, shipbuilding and mining. The deindustrialisation that followed in the half of the 20th century hit Northern England hard.
For government and statistical purposes, Northern England is defined as the covered by the three statistical regions of North East England, North West England and Yorkshire and the Humber. This definition will be used in article, except when otherwise stated. Using historic county boundaries, the North is generally taken to comprise Cumberland, Westmorland, County Durham and Yorkshire, the Isle of Man is occasionally included in definitions of the North, although it is politically and culturally distinct from England. Additionally, some areas of Derbyshire and Nottinghamshire have been associated with the North. The geographer Danny Dorling includes most of the West Midlands and part of the East Midlands in his definition of the North, more restrictive definitions exist, typically based on the extent of the historical Northumbria, which exclude Cheshire and Lincolnshire. Personal definitions of the North vary greatly and are sometimes passionately debated, when asked to draw a dividing line between North and South, Southerners tend to draw this line further south than Northerners do.
Various towns have been described as or promoted themselves as the gateway to the North, including Crewe, Stoke-on-Trent, through the North of England run the Pennines, an upland chain often referred to as the backbone of England. This stretches from the Cheviot Hills on the border with Scotland to the Peak District, the geography of the North has been heavily shaped by the ice sheets of the Pleistocene era, which often reached as far south as the Midlands. On the other side of the Pennines, a glacial lake forms the Humberhead Levels, a large area of fenland which drains into the Humber. This has left the North a region of contrasts, the Lake District includes Englands highest peak, Scafell Pike, which rises to 978 m, its largest lake and its deepest lake, Wastwater. However, dense areas have emerged along the coasts and rivers
Howden is a small historic market town and civil parish in the East Riding of Yorkshire, England. It lies north of the M62, on the A614 road about 17 miles south-east of York and 3 miles north of Goole, William the Conqueror gave the town to the Bishops of Durham in 1080. The wapentake of Howdenshire was named after the town, Howden is situated on the A614, although the town itself has been bypassed. Howden lies close to the M62 and the M18 motorways, nearby to Goole which lies at the side of the River Ouse. The town is served by Howden railway station, which is situated in North Howden and has services to Leeds, York, Howden is surrounded by largely flat land and in some places marshland. Much of the land surrounding Howden is separated by many drainage dykes, Howden lies within the Parliamentary constituency of Haltemprice and Howden. In 1080, William the Conqueror gave the town, including its church, which became the minster, to the Bishop of Durham. However, he kept Howden Manor for himself, Howdens royal connections continued when in 1191, Prince John spent Christmas in Howden.
Nine years later, now King of England, granted Howden the right to hold an annual fair. In 1228, work began on the current Howden Minster, though it was not finished until the 15th century when the chapter house and top of the tower was added by Bishop Walter de Skirlaw. In the 14th and 15th centuries, Howden became a centre for pilgrims because of John of Howdens alleged miracles in the part of the 13th century. The most prolific of these tales was that John of Howden, at his funeral in 1275, as such, he has become regarded as a saint, though the Catholic Church has never made this official. Through the pilgrims, Howden received the money that it needed to complete the minster, Howdens Workhouse From 1665–1794, a site on Pinfold Street in Howden was used as a lodging house for the needy. A workhouse was opened on the site which included a manufactory, stone-breaking yard, cowshed. A parliamentary report of 1776 listed the parish workhouse at Howden as being able to accommodate up to 20 inmates, after 1834 Howden Poor Law Union was formed on 4 February 1837.
The population falling within the union at the 1831 census had been 12,728 with parishes ranging in size from Cotness to Howden itself, the average annual poor-rate expenditure for the period 1834–36 had been £6,263. Initially, the Howden Guardians declined to build a new workhouse but made use of the existing parish workhouses in Howden and Cave. However, in 1839, following persuasion by the regions Assistant Poor Law Commsissioner John Revans and it was designed by Weightman and Hadfield of Sheffield
Warwickshire is a landlocked county in the West Midlands of England. The county town is Warwick, although the largest town is Nuneaton, the county is famous for being the birthplace of William Shakespeare. Commonly used abbreviations for the county are Warks or Warwicks, the county is divided into five districts of North Warwickshire and Bedworth, Rugby and Stratford-on-Avon. The current county boundaries were set in 1974 by the Local Government Act 1972, the historic county boundaries included Coventry and Solihull, as well as much of Birmingham. The northern tip of the county is only 3 miles from the Derbyshire border, an average-sized English county covering an area of almost 2,000 km2, it runs some 60 miles north to south. Equivalently it extends as far north as Shrewsbury in Shropshire and as far south as Banbury in north Oxfordshire, the majority of Warwickshires population live in the north and centre of the county. The market towns of northern and eastern Warwickshire were industrialised in the 19th century, and include Atherstone, Nuneaton, of these, Atherstone has retained most of its original character.
Major industries included coal mining, textiles and cement production, of the northern and eastern towns, only Nuneaton and Rugby are well-known outside of Warwickshire. The south of the county is rural and sparsely populated. The only town in the south of Warwickshire is Shipston-on-Stour, the highest point in the county, at 261 m, is Ebrington Hill, again on the border with Gloucestershire, grid reference SP187426 at the countys southwest extremity. There are no cities in Warwickshire since both Coventry and Birmingham were incorporated into the West Midlands county in 1974 and are now metropolitan authorities in themselves, the largest towns in Warwickshire in 2011 were, Rugby, Leamington Spa, Warwick and Kenilworth. Much of western Warwickshire, including that area now forming part of Coventry, thus the names of a number of places in the central-western part of Warwickshire end with the phrase -in-Arden, such as Henley-in-Arden, Hampton-in-Arden and Tanworth-in-Arden. The remaining area, not part of the forest, was called the Felden – from fielden, areas historically part of Warwickshire include Coventry, Sutton Coldfield and some of Birmingham including Aston and Edgbaston.
These became part of the county of West Midlands following local government re-organisation in 1974. Some organisations, such as Warwickshire County Cricket Club, which is based in Edgbaston, in Birmingham, Coventry is effectively in the centre of the Warwickshire area, and still has strong ties with the county. Coventry and Warwickshire are sometimes treated as an area and share a single Chamber of Commerce. Coventry has been a part of Warwickshire for only some of its history, in 1451 Coventry was separated from Warwickshire and made a county corporate in its own right, called the County of the City of Coventry. In 1842 the county of Coventry was abolished and Coventry was remerged with Warwickshire, in recent times, there have been calls to formally re-introduce Coventry into Warwickshire, although nothing has yet come of this
Raby Castle is near Staindrop in County Durham, among 200 acres of deer park. It was built by John Neville, 3rd Baron Neville de Raby, cecily Neville, the mother of the Kings Edward IV and Richard III, was born here. After Charles Neville, 6th Earl of Westmorland, led the failed Rising of the North in favour of Mary, from 1833 to 1891 they were the Dukes of Cleveland and they retain the title of Lord Barnard. Extensive alterations were carried out in the 17th and 18th centuries and it is famed for both its size and its art, including works by old masters and portraits. It is a Grade I listed building and open to the public on a seasonal basis, the castle is still a private home and remains the seat of the Vane family, the Barons Barnard. Due to the 11th Barons dedication to the renovation and restoration works. His heir, John Neville, became a member of Thomas, 2nd Earl of Lancasters household, Raby was the familys caput, their seat of power, and there may have been a fortified house on the site of the present building from around 1300.
In the second half of the 14th century the Nevilles began rebuilding several of their properties in northern England, in 1378 Thomas Hatfield Bishop of Durham granted John de Neville a licence to fortify his property at Raby. John died in 1388 and was succeeded by his son, almost nothing of the familys papers survive from this period so there is little documentary evidence of Raby Castles construction. The dating is based mostly on architectural details, in the words of historian Anthony Emery, the work converted it from a defendable house into a palace-fortress. Ralph was created Earl of Westmorland on 29 September 1397 by Richard II as a reward for his loyalty in the face of political unrest. However his familys association with the Earls of Lancaster meant that when Henry Bolinbroke of the House of Lancaster invaded in July 1399 Neville sided with Bolingbroke. Neville helped persuade Richard II to abdicate and Henry was crowned as Henry IV, Neville was made Earl Marshal of England on the day of Henrys coronation and a Knight of the Order of the Garter in 1403.
Henry Neville, 5th Earl of Westmorland, died in 1564 and was succeeded by his son, the Nevilles were Catholics and Charles was one of the leaders of the failed Rising of the North in 1569 against Englands Protestant Queen Elizabeth I. Owing to the severity of the threat to the Crown, more than 800 rebels were executed and Charles Neville, in 1571 an attainder was issued against Neville and his lands were forfeited to the Crown. After the Rising of the North the castle became the property of the Crown for more than forty-three years before being bought by Henry Vane the Elder and he was impressed by the size and lands, contrasting with Barnard Castle, which was hemmed in by the surrounding town. The House of Vane was responsible for much of the modernising of the castle and this included renovation of the medieval chapel and drawing room. The family drove a carriageway though the castle, causing damage to its medieval fabric
Lincoln Cathedral or the Cathedral Church of the Blessed Virgin Mary of Lincoln, and sometimes St. Marys Cathedral in Lincoln, England is the seat of the Anglican bishop. Building commenced in 1088 and continued in phases throughout the medieval period. It was the tallest building in the world for 238 years, the central spire collapsed in 1549 and was not rebuilt. The cathedral is the third largest in Britain after St Pauls and York Minster and it is highly regarded by architectural scholars, the eminent Victorian writer John Ruskin declared, I have always held. That the cathedral of Lincoln is out and out the most precious piece of architecture in the British Isles, laid the foundations of his Cathedral in 1088 and it is probable that he, being a Norman, employed Norman masons to superintend the building. Though he could not complete the whole before his death, winkles, It is well known that Remigius appropriated the parish church of St Mary Magdalene in Lincoln, although it is not known what use he made of it.
Up until St. Marys Church in Stow was considered to be the church of Lincolnshire. However, Lincoln was more central to a diocese that stretched from the Thames to the Humber, Bishop Remigius built the first Lincoln Cathedral on the present site, finishing it in 1092 and dying on 7 May of that year, two days before it was consecrated. In 1141, the roofing was destroyed in a fire. Bishop Alexander rebuilt and expanded the cathedral, but it was destroyed by an earthquake about forty years later. The earthquake was one of the largest felt in the UK, some have suggested that the damage to Lincoln Cathedral was probably exaggerated by poor construction or design, with the actual collapse most probably caused by a vault collapse. After the earthquake, a new bishop was appointed and he was Hugh de Burgundy of Avalon, who became known as St Hugh of Lincoln. He began a rebuilding and expansion programme. Rebuilding began with the choir and the eastern transepts between 1192 and 1210, the central nave was built in the Early English Gothic style.
Lincoln Cathedral soon followed other architectural advances of the time – pointed arches, flying buttresses and this allowed support for incorporating larger windows. There are thirteen bells in the south-west tower, two in the north-west tower, and five in the central tower, accompanying the cathedrals large bell, Great Tom of Lincoln, is a quarter-hour striking clock. The clock was installed in the early 19th century, the two large stained glass rose windows, the matching Deans Eye and Bishops Eye, were added to the cathedral during the late Middle Ages. The former, the Deans Eye in the transept dates from the 1192 rebuild begun by St Hugh