Philip III of France
It can refer to Philippe III de Croÿ and Philippe III, Duke of Orléans. Philip III, called the Bold, was King of France from 1270 to 1285, Philip proved indecisive, soft in nature, and timid. The strong personalities of his parents apparently crushed him, and policies of his father dominated him, people called him the Bold on the basis of his abilities in combat and on horseback and not on the basis of his political or personal character. He was pious but not cultivated and he followed the suggestions of others, first of Pierre de La Broce and of his uncle King Charles I of Naples and Albania. His father, Louis IX, died in Tunis during the Eighth Crusade, who was accompanying him, came back to France to claim his throne and was anointed at Reims in 1271. Philip made numerous territorial acquisitions during his reign, the most notable being the County of Toulouse which was annexed to the Crown lands of France in 1271. Following the Sicilian Vespers, a rebellion triggered by Peter III of Aragon against Philips uncle Charles I of Naples, Philip was forced to retreat and died from dysentry in Perpignan in 1285.
He was succeeded by his son Philip the Fair, Philip was born in Poissy to King Saint Louis IX of France and Margaret of Provence, queen consort of France. As a younger son, Philip was not expected to rule a kingdom, at the death of his elder brother Louis in 1260, he became the heir to the throne. He was 15 years old and has less skill than his brother, being of a character, submissive and versatile. Pope Urban IV released Philip from his oath on June 6,1263, from 1268 Pierre de La Brosse became mentor. Saint Louis provided him his own advice, writing in particular Enseignements and he received a very faith-oriented education. Guillaume dErcuis was his chaplain before being the tutor of his son, as Count of Orléans, he accompanied his father to the Eighth Crusade in Tunis,1270. After taking Carthage, the army was struck by an epidemic of dysentery and his brother John Tristan, Count of Valois died first, on August 3, and on August 25 the king died. To prevent putrefaction of the remains of the sovereign, they recoursed to Mos Teutonicus, Philip, 25 years old, was proclaimed king in Tunis.
With neither great personality or will, very pious, but a good rider and he was unable to command the troops at the death of his father. He left his uncle Charles I of Naples to negotiate with Muhammad I al-Mustansir, Hafsid Sultan of Tunis and he got the payment of tribute from the caliph of Tunis in exchange for the departure of the crusaders. A treaty was concluded October 28,1270 between the kings of France and Navarre and the barons on one hand and the caliph of Tunis on the other
Artois is a region of northern France. Its territory has an area of around 4,000 km² and its principal cities are Arras, Saint-Omer, Lens and Béthune. Artois occupies the interior of the Pas-de-Calais département, the part of which constitutes the former Boulonnais. Artois roughly corresponds to the arrondissements of Arras, Béthune, Saint Omer, and Lens, and it occupies the western end of the coalfield which stretches eastward through the neighbouring Nord département and across central Belgium. Originally a feudal county itself, Artois was annexed by the county of Flanders and it came to France in 1180 as a dowry of a Flemish princess, Isabelle of Hainaut, and was again made a separate county in 1237 for Robert, a grandson of Isabelle. Through inheritance, Artois came under the rule of the dukes of Burgundy in 1384, at the death of the fourth duke, Charles the Bold, Artois was inherited by the Habsburgs and passed to the dynastys Spanish line. After the religious revolts of 1566 in the Netherlands, Artois briefly entered the Dutch Revolt in 1576, after the Union of Atrecht and Hainaut reached a separate agreement with Philip II.
Artois remained with the Spanish Netherlands until it was conquered by the French during the Thirty Years War, the annexation was acknowledged during the Treaty of the Pyrenees in 1659, and it became a French province. Artois had already been largely French-speaking, but it was part of the Southern Netherlands until the French annexation, Artois experienced rapid industrial development during the second half of the 19th century, fueled by its rich coal resources. During World War I, the front line between the opposing Entente and Allied armies in France ran through the province, resulting in physical damage. Since the second half of the 20th century, Artois has suffered along with nearby areas because of the decline of the coal industry, pierre-Charles Le Sueur, born in Artois, noted explorer and trader
John, Count of Chalon
John, called the Old, was a French nobleman, the Count of Auxonne and Chalon-sur-Saône in his own right and regent in right of his son, Hugh III, Count of Burgundy. In contemporary documents, he was sometimes called Count of Burgundy and he was the son of Stephen III of Auxonne and Beatrice, Countess of Châlon. He thus became one of the most powerful nobles in the county, although he gave charters to the towns in his territory, he welcomed the Dominican friars as inquisitors. The possession of Salins, with its production, gave John the fortune necessary to extend his territories. To protect the routes, he built the following fortresses, Le Pin, Saint-Anne and Nozeroy. To avoid the customs imposed by the Count of Pontarlier, he bought the forests in the region around Pontarlier and Jougne and he founded the towns of Châtelblanc, Chaux-Neuve, and Rochejean, the last of which contains his name. He had three wives and 16 children and he married Mahaud of Burgundy, the daughter of Hugh III, Duke of Burgundy and Beatrice of Albon.
They had the children, Elisabeth of Burgundy. In 1248, she married Henry I de Vergy, in 1260, she married Guichard V de Beaujeu, and Béraud IX de Mercœur in 1268. Hugh III, who became Count of Burgundy by his marriage to Adelaide I of Burgundy and he remarried to Isabeau of Courtenay, the daughter of Robert I of Courtenay. They had the children, seigneur de Rochefort. He became Count of Auxerre by his marriage to Alix de Bourgogne-Auxerre, in 1258, he married Beatrice, the daughter of Amadeus IV of Savoy. Upon Isabeaus death September 22,1257, he remarried to Laurette de Commercy, the daughter of Simon II, Seigneur de Commercy and they had the following children, John I of Châlon, seigneur dArlay. Founder of the Châlon-Arlay branch of the house of Ivrea, in 1272, he married Margaret, daughter of Hugh IV, Duke of Burgundy. Hugh, prince-bishop of Liège, and Archbishop of Besançon, who married Hugh of Burgundy. In 1285, she married Amedeus II, Count of Geneva
Odo IV, Duke of Burgundy
Odo IV or Eudes IV was Duke of Burgundy from 1315 until his death and Count of Burgundy and Artois between 1330 and 1347. He was the son of Duke Robert II and Agnes of France. Odo succeeded his brother, Hugh V, in 1315. Odo defended the rights of his niece Joan of Navarre against Philip the Tall, another uncle, in 1318, Odo married Philips eldest daughter, Joan III, Countess of Burgundy. Thus allying himself with Philip V, who had become king of France, on the death of his brother, Louis in 1316, Odo became titular king of Thessalonica. By 1320, Odo was complaining to the pope of the Angevins usurpation of Thessalonica, yet sold his rights as King of Thessalonica and Prince of Achaea to Louis, Count of Clermont. Odos wife inherited the domains of her mother in 1330, the county of Artois and the county of Burgundy and her claim to the County of Artois was challenged by Robert III of Artois, who at that time was a close friend and advisor of King Philip VI. The dispute ended abruptly when in December 1330 the documents used by Robert of Artois to support his claim were found to be forged on his instructions, Odo was a loyal vassal of his brother-in-law, Philip of Valois, after he succeeded to the French throne as Philip VI.
He belonged to Philip VI’s small circle of trusted advisors and he fought in many theatres of French warfare, the Low Countries, Aquitaine. He fought the Flemings and was wounded at the Battle of Cassel in 1328, in 1340, Odo first fought in Hainaut, helped capture the town of Antoing and defended Saint-Omer in the battle there against Robert III of Artois. During the summer the French government became aware of plans for an Anglo-Flemish army under Robert of Artois to attack on Saint-Omer, the Duke entered Saint-Omer 15 July with several thousands men-at-arms and begun preparing the defences of the city. The slow progress of the English army allowed further reinforcements led by John I, on 26 July Robert of Artois offered battle to the garrison of Saint-Omer. Contrary to orders some hotheads charged out, their attack was beaten off, the Duke of Burgundy now decided to sally with the Count of Armagnac. During the battle the Duke got into a fight with the English and Brugeois contingents. Meanwhile, however the Count of Armagnac had scattered the enemy left flank, the loss of most of his Flemish troops forced Robert of Artois to flee back to Flanders.
He took part in the War of the Breton Succession as a partisan of Charles of Blois serving as advisor to John and he served together with the Duke of Normandy and the Chancellor of France, Guillaume Flote, as French ambassadors to a peace conference at Avignon summer 1344. The conference was however actively sabotaged by the English, in 1346, he was in Guyenne combatting the English. Spring that year the French government decided to field its so far strongest army in the south-west, in April Normandy laid siege to the town of Aiguillon which controlled the confluence between the Lot and the Garonne
Blanche of Artois
Blanche of Artois was a member of the Capetian House of Artois who, as queen dowager, held regency over the Kingdom of Navarre and the County of Champagne. She was first married to Henry I of Navarre, after death she became regent in the name of their infant daughter. She passed on the regency of Navarre to Philip III of France, her cousin and her daughters prospective father-in-law and she shared the government of Champagne with her second husband, the English prince Edmund Crouchback, until her daughter reached the age of majority. Blanche was the child and only daughter of Robert I, Count of Artois. A fraternal niece of King Louis IX of France, Blanche was probably born in 1248, by February 1269, having received a papal dispensation, she was married to King Theobald II of Navarres brother Henry. The ceremony took place in Melun near Paris and her brother-in-law, in turn, was married to her cousin, Isabella of France. Henry was governing his brothers realm when King Theobald and Queen Isabella left to join the Seventh Crusade, when the King died in December 1270, followed by his widow within a few months, Blanches husband became King of Navarre and Count of Champagne.
King Henry and Queen Blanche were a couple with a son, Theobald. In 1273, they lost their son in an accident, a daughter named Joan, born the same year, remained the royal couples only child and was recognized as heir presumptive by the King and the Estates. The following year, on 22 July, King Henry himself died, the death of two kings within five years and accession of an infant queen, the first woman to rule Navarre and Champagne alike, triggered a political crisis. Now queen dowager, Blanche became regent for her daughter and her regency in Champagne was preceded by several long regencies of widowed mothers, but this was the first regency for a female ruler. The neighbouring kingdoms of Castile and Aragon moved to exploit the precarious situation, both Alfonso X of Castile and Peter III of Aragon wanted to secure Navarre for their respective houses either by marriage with Joan or by force. While Peter contemplated a marriage with a cousin of Joan, Alfonso moved his army to Navarre, the citizens loyally defended the city, for which Queen Blanche thanked them by granting special privileges.
Blanche remained in Pamplona at least until 14 April, but fled the kingdom, taking Joan with her, in reality, she sought protection from her cousin, King Philip III of France. In November, she paid homage to him for her daughters French possessions, the almost immediate departure of both the monarch and the regent only complicated the situation in Navarre. In May 1275, Queen Blanche signed the Treaty of Orléans, the elder died within a year, and Philip was left as both heir to the French throne and Joans bridegroom. Blanche administered Joans territories from Paris, appointing governors for Navarre, this role was taken over by Joans prospective father-in-law, while Blanche retained the administration of Champagne and Brie. Between 28 July and 29 October 1276, in Paris, Blanche became the wife of Edmund Crouchback
Otto I, Duke of Merania
Otto I, a member of the House of Andechs, was Duke of Merania from 1204 until his death. He was Count of Burgundy from 1208 to 1231, by his marriage to Countess Beatrice II and he was born about 1180 the eldest son of Duke Berthold of Merania and his wife Agnes of Rochlitz. On the death of his father in 1204, he succeeded him as Duke of Merania, while the titles in Istria. On 21 June 1208, Otto married Beatrice II, Countess of Burgundy of House Hohenstaufen, at the wedding ceremony in Bamberg, the Hohenstaufen king Philip of Swabia was murdered, whereafter Otto approached his Welf rival Otto IV. However, the position of the Andechs dynasty was significantly weakened, ottos brother Henry II was accused of having been involved in Philips assassination and his estates were seized by Duke Ludwig I of Bavaria. In 1213 Otto had joined the Babenberg duke Leopold VI of Austria, in 1222, he became embroiled in a dispute with Gerard I de Rougemont, the Archbishop of Besançon over the building of a castle where Otto I of Burgundy had vowed would never be built.
When Otto II of Burgundy refused to destroy the castle or explain his actions at the court, he was excommunicated. He immediately turned to his brother Ekbert, Bishop of Bamberg for help in Bamberg, there on 20 October 1223, he issued five charters in which he made lavish donations for the sake of his soul. In 1228 he inherited the Marches of Istria and Carniola, which his brother Henry II had regained shortly before, on Beatrices death in 1231, he ceased to be Count and was succeeded by his son as Otto III. On his own death in 1234, he was succeeded by his son as Otto II. With his death, the House of Andechs became extinct in the male line
Robert II, Count of Artois
Robert II was the Count of Artois, the posthumous son and heir of Robert I and Matilda of Brabant. Nephew of the sainted King Louis IX, as a young man Robert was fond of practical jokes and he died at the Battle of the Golden Spurs. An experienced soldier, he took part in the Aragonese Crusade, in 1288 Robert began work on a great park at Hesdin. The park contained a menagerie, fishponds, orchards and it contained mechanical statues including waving monkeys draped in skins. He defeated the Flemings in 1297 at the Battle of Furnes and he was again sent into Flanders in July 1302, where he began to ravage the countryside and attempted to take the town of Kortrijk. Robert brought falcons into church and let farm animals loose and he met the Flemish army at the Battle of the Golden Spurs. His infantry advanced with great success against the Flemings, but he ordered their recall to allow his cavalry to make the final, victorious charge. But on the broken, marshy ground, his knights were unable to gain momentum to break the Flemish shieldwall.
Robert led some of the reserves in a charge in an attempt to reverse their fortunes. In 1262 in Paris Robert married Amicie de Courtenay, daughter of Pierre de Courtenay, Seigneur de Conches, a great-grandson of Louis VI and they had three children, Mahaut Philip Robert. After Amicies death, Robert married twice more, first, in 1277, to Agnes of Dampierre, heiress of Bourbon, after Roberts death, his daughter Mahaut inherited Artois, but his grandson Robert III unsuccessfully tried to claim it. Dunbabin, Jean, A hound of God, Pierre de la Palud, funck-Brentano, The Middle Ages, Heinemann,1922. Housley, The Crusades, 1274-1580, from Lyons to Alcazar, Thelma Anna, Blood royal, issue of the kings and queens of medieval England, 1066-1399, Heritage Books Inc.2007. Coat of Arms in the Wijnbergen Roll
Joan I of Navarre
Joan I, the daughter of King Henry I of Navarre and Blanche of Artois, reigned as queen regnant of Navarre and served as queen consort to Philip IV of France. Joan was born in Bar-sur-Seine, Champagne on 14 January 1273 as a princess of the House of Blois, the following year, upon the death of her father, she became Countess of Champagne and queen regnant of Navarre. Her mother, was her guardian and regent in Navarre and her mother arrived in France in 1274, and by the Treaty of Orléans in 1275, Joan was betrothed to one of Philips sons. Blanche therefore placed her daughter and the government of Navarre under the protection of the King of France, after this, Joan was brought up with Philip. It is, in fact, uncertain whether she ever resided in Navarre during her childhood, at the age of 11, Joan married the future Philip IV of France on 16 August 1284, becoming queen consort of France in 1285 a year later. Their three surviving sons would all rule as kings of France, in turn, and their surviving daughter.
Joan was described as having been plump and plain, whereas her beautiful daughter Isabella resembled her father more in physical appearance, as regards her character, Joan was bold and enterprising. Having grown up together, the couple was close to each other. His emotional dependence on her is suggested as a reason to why she never visited Navarre, in 1294, Philip appointed her regent of France should his son succeed him being still a minor. However, he is not believed to have entrusted her with influence over the affairs of France, unless they concerned her own domains Navarre, queen Joan founded the famous College of Navarre in Paris in 1305. Queen Joan I of Navarre and countess of Champagne and Brie was declared to be of legal majority upon her marriage in 1284, and did homage for Champagne and Brie to her father-in-law in Paris. Joan never visited the Kingdom of Navarre, which was ruled in her name by French governors appointed first by her father-in-law, from afar, edicts were issued in her name, coins struck in her image, and she gave her protection to chapels and convents.
She never came closer to Navarre than to Carcasonne in 1300, Joan was much more directly active as countess of Champagne. While being a county rather than a kingdom, Champagne was much richer, in 1297, she raised and led an army against the Count of Bar when he rebelled against her by invading Champagne. This was explicitly in the absence of her spouse, and she brought the count to prison before she joined her spouse. She personally acted in her process against Bishop Guichard of Troyes, Joan died in 1305, allegedly in childbirth, though one chronicler accused her husband of having killed her. Her personal physician was the inventor Guido da Vigevano, the Queens Regnant of Navarre, Succession and Partnership, 1274-1512
Margaret of Bourbon, Queen of Navarre
Margaret of Bourbon was Queen of Navarre and Countess of Champagne from 1232 until 1253 as the third wife of Theobald I of Navarre. After her husbands death, she ruled both the kingdom and the county as regent for three years in the name of their son, Theobald II of Navarre, Margaret was born into the House of Dampierre, the eldest daughter of Archambaud VIII, Lord of Bourbon. Her mother was her fathers first wife, Alice of Forez, daughter of Guigues III, Archambaud was the constable of Count Theobald IV of Champagne. Margaret was 15 years old when, on 12 September 1232 and his first wife, Gertrude of Dagsburg, had been repudiated and already deceased, while the second, Agnes of Beaujeu, died leaving only a daughter, Blanche. Their marriage was one of two unions of the counts of Champagne with a significant age disparity between spouses, the other one being the marriage of Henry I of Champagne and Marie of France. Only if the union ended in annulment, as her parents, Margarets marriage lasted twenty years, during which she delivered seven children.
In 1234, she became Queen of Navarre when Theobald inherited the kingdom from his maternal uncle, little is known of Margarets life as queen consort, until her husbands death in 1253 brought her into the spotlight. Their son Theobald II of Navarre being 18 at the time could not, by the laws of the realm, now queen dowager, became regent. She immediately had to deal with a crisis in the kingdom. Margaret prevented the outbreak of a rebellion by travelling with Theobald to the capital, Pamplona. She inherited her husbands long-standing dispute with the Knights Templar, Margaret resolutely prohibited them from acquiring any more land within the county. In 1254, Margaret was persuaded by her son to arrange a marriage for him with Isabella, King Theobald II reached the age of majority in 1256. No longer regent, Queen Margaret retired to her dower lands, consisting of seven castellanies. She died in Provins and was buried at the Saint-Joseph de Clairval abbey in Flavigny-sur-Ozerain
Philip V of France
Philip V, the Tall, was King of France and King of Navarre. He reigned from 1316 to his death and was the monarch of the main line of the House of Capet. As the second son of king Philip IV, he was entitled to an appanage, when Louis died in 1316, he left a daughter and a pregnant wife, Clementia of Hungary. Philip the Tall successfully claimed the regency, Queen Clementia gave birth to a boy, who was proclaimed king as John I, but the infant king lived only for five days. At the death of his nephew, Philip immediately had himself crowned at Reims, his legitimacy was challenged by the party of Louis X’s daughter Joan. The succession of Philip, instead of Joan, set the precedent for the French royal succession that would be known as the Salic law. A spontaneous popular crusade started in Normandy in 1320 aiming to liberate Iberia from the Moors, instead the angry populace marched to the south attacking castles, royal officials, priests and Jews. Philip V engaged in a series of reforms intended to improve the management of the kingdom.
These reforms included the creation of an independent Court of Finances, the standardization of weights and measures, Philip V died from dysentery in 1322 without a male heir and was succeeded by his younger brother Charles IV. Philip was born in Lyon, the son of King Philip IV of France. His father granted to him the county of Poitiers in appanage, modern historians have described Philip V as a man of considerable intelligence and sensitivity, and the wisest and politically most apt of Philip IVs three sons. At the heart of the problems for both Philip IV and Louis X were taxes and the difficulty in raising them outside of crises, Philip married Joan, the eldest daughter of Count Otto IV of Burgundy, in 1307. The original plan had been for Louis X to marry Joan, Philip went to great lengths not only to endow Joan with lands and money but to try to ensure that these gifts were irrevocable in the event of his early death. Amongst the various gifts were a palace, additional money for jewels, and her servants and the property of all the Jews in Burgundy, which he gave to Joan in 1318.
Joan was implicated in Margarets adultery case during 1314, Margaret was accused and convicted of adultery with two knights, upon the testimony of their sister-in-law, Isabella. Joan was suspected of having known about the adultery, placed under house arrest at Dourdan as punishment. With Philips support she continued to protest her innocence, and by 1315 her name had been cleared by the Paris Parlement, partially through Philips influence and it is unclear why Philip stood by her in the way that he did. Philips older brother, Louis X, died in 1316 leaving the pregnant Clementia of Hungary as his widow
House of Capet
The House of Capet or the Direct Capetians, called the House of France, or simply the Capets, ruled the Kingdom of France from 987 to 1328. It was the most senior line of the Capetian dynasty – itself a derivative dynasty from the Robertians, historians in the 19th century came to apply the name Capetian to both the ruling house of France and to the wider-spread male-line descendants of Hugh Capet. It was not a contemporary practice and they were sometimes called the third race of kings, the Merovingians being the first, and the Carolingians being the second. The name is derived from the nickname of Hugh, the first Capetian King, the direct succession of French kings, father to son, from 987 to 1316, of thirteen generations in almost 330 years, was unparallelled in recorded history. The direct line of the House of Capet came to an end in 1328, with the death of Charles IV, the throne passed to the House of Valois, descended from a younger brother of Philip IV. He proceeded to make it hereditary in his family, by securing the election and coronation of his son, Robert II, the throne thus passed securely to Robert on his fathers death, who followed the same custom – as did many of his early successors.
Louis VIII – the eldest son and heir of Philip Augustus – married Blanche of Castile, a granddaughter of Aliénor of Aquitaine and Henry II of England. In her name, he claimed the crown of England, invading at the invitation of the English Barons and these lands were added to the French crown, further empowering the Capetian family. Louis IX – Saint Louis – succeeded Louis VIII as a child, unable to rule for several years, the government of the realm was undertaken by his mother, at the death of Louis IX, France under the Capetians stood as the pre-eminent power in Western Europe. Unfortunately for the Capetians, the proved a failure. Philip IV had married Jeanne, the heiress of Navarre and Champagne, by this marriage, he added these domains to the French crown. More importantly to French history, he summoned the first Estates General – in 1302 – and in 1295 established the so-called Auld Alliance with the Scots and it was Philip IV who presided over the beginning of his Houses end. The first quarter of the century saw each of Philips sons reign in rapid succession, Louis X, Philip V, Louis – unwilling to release his wife and return to their marriage – needed to remarry.
He arranged a marriage with his cousin, Clementia of Hungary and this proved the case, but the boy – King John I, known as the Posthumous – died after only 5 days, leaving a succession crisis. Eventually, it was decided based on several reasons that Joan was ineligible to inherit the throne, which passed to the Count of Poitiers. Marie died in 1324, giving birth to a stillborn son, the last of the direct Capetians were the daughters of Philip IVs three sons, and Philip IVs daughter, Isabella. Since they were female, they could not transmit their Capetian status to their descendants, the wife of Edward II of England, Isabella overthrew her husband in favour of her son and her co-hort, only for Edward III to execute Mortimer and have Isabella removed from power. Joan, the daughter of Louis X, succeeded on the death of Charles IV to the throne of Navarre, she now being – questions of paternity aside – the unquestioned heiress
Joan II of Navarre
Joan II was Queen of Navarre from 1328 until her death. She was the surviving child of Louis X of France, King of France and Navarre. Joans paternity was dubious because her mother was involved in a scandal, the French lords were opposed to the idea of a female monarch and elected Louis Xs brother, Philip V, king. The Navarrese noblemen did homage to Philip, after Philip V married his daughter to Odo and granted him two counties as her dowry, Odo renounced Joans claim to Champagne and Brie in exchange for a compensation in March 1318. Joan married Philip of Évreux, who was a member of the French royal family, Philip V was succeeded by his brother, Charles IV, in both France and Navarre in 1322, but most Navarrese lords refused to swear loyalty to him. After Charles IV died in 1328, the Navarrese expelled the French governor, in France, Philip of Valois was crowned king. He concluded an agreement with Joan and her husband, who renounced Joans claims to Champagne and her husband were together crowned in Pamplona Cathedral on 5 March 1329.
The royal couple closely cooperated during their joint reign, but Philip of Évreux was more active, they mostly lived in their French domains. Navarre was administered by governors during their absence, Joan was the daughter of Louis, King of Navarre, and his wife, Margaret of Burgundy. Her father was the oldest son of and heir to Philip IV of France, Joans mother and Margarets sisters-in-law and Blanche of Burgundy, were arrested, together with two knights, the brothers Philip and Walter of Aunay, in 1314. After being tortured, one of the brothers confessed that they had been the lovers of Margaret, the Aunay brothers were soon executed, and Margaret and Blanche were imprisoned. Before long, Margaret died in her prison in Château Gaillard, after the scandal, the legitimacy of Joan became dubious, because her mother was accused of having had an extramarital affair around the year of Joans birth. Philip IV died on 26 November 1314, and Joans father became Louis X of France, Louis stated that Joan was his legitimate daughter on his deathbed.
His second wife, Clementia of Hungary, was pregnant and it was agreed that Joan was to be sent to her mothers relatives in Burgundy, but her marriage could not be decided without the consent of the members of the French royal family. Clementia gave birth to a son, John the Posthumous, on 13 November 1316, instead, he made arrangements for his own coronation, which took place in Reims on 9 January 1317. The Estates-General of 1317, an assembly of the French lords strengthened Philips position on 2 February, the Navarrese noblemen sent a delegation to Paris to swear fidelity to Philip. Philip refused to give Champagne and Brie to Joan, Joans maternal grandmother, Agnes of France, Duchess of Burgundy, sent letters to the leading French lords, protesting against his coronation, but Philip V mounted the throne without real opposition. Letters were written to the lords of Champagne in Joans name, urging them to refrain from paying homage to Philip, Philip Vs uncle, Charles of Valois, defeated Joans supporters