The London Gazette
The London Gazette is one of the official journals of record of the British government, the most important among such official journals in the United Kingdom, in which certain statutory notices are required to be published. The London Gazette claims to be the oldest surviving English newspaper and the oldest continuously published newspaper in the UK, having been first published on 7 November 1665 as The Oxford Gazette; this claim is made by the Stamford Mercury and Berrow's Worcester Journal, because The Gazette is not a conventional newspaper offering general news coverage. It does not have a large circulation. Other official newspapers of the UK government are The Edinburgh Gazette and The Belfast Gazette, apart from reproducing certain materials of nationwide interest published in The London Gazette contain publications specific to Scotland and Northern Ireland, respectively. In turn, The London Gazette carries not only notices of UK-wide interest, but those relating to entities or people in England and Wales.
However, certain notices that are only of specific interest to Scotland or Northern Ireland are required to be published in The London Gazette. The London and Belfast Gazettes are published by TSO on behalf of Her Majesty's Stationery Office, they are subject to Crown copyright. The London Gazette is published each weekday, except for bank holidays. Notices for the following, among others, are published: Granting of royal assent to bills of the Parliament of the United Kingdom or of the Scottish Parliament The issuance of writs of election when a vacancy occurs in the House of Commons Appointments to certain public offices Commissions in the Armed Forces and subsequent promotion of officers Corporate and personal insolvency Granting of awards of honours and military medals Changes of names or of coats of arms Royal Proclamations and other DeclarationsHer Majesty's Stationery Office has digitised all issues of the Gazette, these are available online; the official Gazettes are published by The Stationery Office.
The content, apart from insolvency notices, is available in a number of machine-readable formats, including XML and XML/RDFa via Atom feed. The London Gazette was first published as The Oxford Gazette on 7 November 1665. Charles II and the Royal Court had moved to Oxford to escape the Great Plague of London, courtiers were unwilling to touch London newspapers for fear of contagion; the Gazette was "Published by Authority" by Henry Muddiman, its first publication is noted by Samuel Pepys in his diary. The King returned to London as the plague dissipated, the Gazette moved too, with the first issue of The London Gazette being published on 5 February 1666; the Gazette was not a newspaper in the modern sense: it was sent by post to subscribers, not printed for sale to the general public. Her Majesty's Stationery Office took over the publication of the Gazette in 1889. Publication of the Gazette was transferred to the private sector, under government supervision, in the 1990s, when HMSO was sold and renamed The Stationery Office.
In time of war, despatches from the various conflicts are published in The London Gazette. People referred to are said to have been mentioned in despatches; when members of the armed forces are promoted, these promotions are published here, the person is said to have been "gazetted". Being "gazetted" sometimes meant having official notice of one's bankruptcy published, as in the classic ten-line poem comparing the stolid tenant farmer of 1722 to the lavishly spending faux-genteel farmers of 1822: Notices of engagement and marriage were formerly published in the Gazette. Gazettes, modelled on The London Gazette, were issued for most British colonial possessions. History of British newspapers Iris Oifigiúil The Dublin Gazette – in Ireland London Gazette index Official Journal of the European Union List of government gazettes London and Belfast Gazettes official site Great Fire of London 1666 – Facsimile and transcript of London Gazette report
Child abuse or child maltreatment is physical, and/or psychological maltreatment or neglect of a child or children by a parent or a caregiver. Child abuse may include any act or failure to act by a parent or a caregiver that results in actual or potential harm to a child, can occur in a child's home, or in the organizations, schools or communities the child interacts with; the terms child abuse and child maltreatment are used interchangeably, although some researchers make a distinction between them, treating child maltreatment as an umbrella term to cover neglect and trafficking. Different jurisdictions have developed their own definitions of what constitutes child abuse for the purposes of removing children from their families or prosecuting a criminal charge. Definitions of what constitute child abuse vary among professionals, between social and cultural groups, as well as across time; the terms abuse and maltreatment are used interchangeably in the literature. Child maltreatment can be an umbrella term covering all forms of child abuse and child neglect.
Defining child maltreatment depends on prevailing cultural values as they relate to children, child development, parenting. Definitions of child maltreatment can vary across the sectors of society which deal with the issue, such as child protection agencies and medical communities, public health officials, researchers and child advocates. Since members of these various fields tend to use their own definitions, communication across disciplines can be limited, hampering efforts to identify, track and prevent child maltreatment. In general, abuse refers to acts of commission. Child maltreatment includes both acts of commission and acts of omission on the part of parents or caregivers that cause actual or threatened harm to a child; some health professionals and authors consider neglect as part of the definition of abuse, while others do not. Delayed effects of child abuse and neglect emotional neglect, the diversity of acts that qualify as child abuse, are factors; the World Health Organization defines child abuse and child maltreatment as "all forms of physical and/or emotional ill-treatment, sexual abuse, neglect or negligent treatment or commercial or other exploitation, resulting in actual or potential harm to the child's health, development or dignity in the context of a relationship of responsibility, trust or power."
In the United States, the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention uses the term child maltreatment to refer to both acts of commission, which include "words or overt actions that cause harm, potential harm, or threat of harm to a child", acts of omission, meaning "the failure to provide for a child's basic physical, emotional, or educational needs or to protect a child from harm or potential harm". The United States federal Child Abuse Prevention and Treatment Act defines child abuse and neglect as, at minimum, "any recent act or failure to act on the part of a parent or caretaker which results in death, serious physical or emotional harm, sexual abuse or exploitation" or "an act or failure to act which presents an imminent risk of serious harm"; the World Health Organization distinguishes four types of child maltreatment: physical abuse. Among professionals and the general public, people do not agree on what behaviors constitute physical abuse of a child. Physical abuse does not occur in isolation, but as part of a constellation of behaviors including authoritarian control, anxiety-provoking behavior, a lack of parental warmth.
The WHO defines physical abuse as: Intentional use of physical force against the child that results in – or has a high likelihood of resulting in – harm for the child's health, development or dignity. This includes hitting, kicking, biting, scalding, burning and suffocating. Much physical violence against children in the home is inflicted with the object of punishing. Joan Durrant and Ron Ensom write that most physical abuse is physical punishment "in intent and effect". Overlapping definitions of physical abuse and physical punishment of children highlight a subtle or non-existent distinction between abuse and punishment. For instance, Paulo Sergio Pinheiro writes in the UN Secretary-General's Study on Violence Against Children: Corporal punishment involves hitting children, with the hand or with an implement – whip, belt, wooden spoon, etc, but it can involve, for example, shaking or throwing children, pinching, pulling hair or boxing ears, forcing children to stay in uncomfortable positions, scalding or forced ingestion.
Most nations with child abuse laws deem the deliberate infliction of serious injuries, or actions that place the child at obvious risk of serious injury or death, to be illegal. Bruises, burns, broken bones, lacerations — as well as repeated "mishaps," and rough treatment that could cause physical injuries — can be physical abuse. Multiple injuries or fractures at different stages of healing can raise suspicion of abuse; the psychologist Alice Miller, noted for her books on child abuse, took the view that humiliations and beatings, slaps in the face, etc. are all forms of abuse, because they injure the
Chairman of the Labour Party (UK)
The Chairman of the Labour Party in the United Kingdom is responsible for party administration, overseeing the General election campaigns of the Labour Party. When the Labour Party are in government, the Chairman is a member of the Cabinet holding a sinecure position such as Minister without Portfolio; the position was created by Tony Blair in the aftermath of the 2001 General Election. The position is not to be confused with that of Chair of the National Executive Committee of the Labour Party under the Labour Party Constitution. Considered a courtesy title, the role has a larger portfolio for organising election campaigning under Jeremy Corbyn, working alongside the Co-National Campaign Coordinator, Andrew Gwynne. From 2007 to 2017, it was held concurrently by the party's Deputy Leader; the Labour Party is chaired by Ian Lavery, appointed following the 2017 general election
Secretary of State for International Development
Her Majesty's Principal Secretary of State for International Development is a British cabinet minister responsible for the Department for International Development and for promoting development overseas in developing countries. The post was created in 1997 when the Department for International Development was made independent of the Foreign and Commonwealth Office. A separate Ministry of Overseas Development was established by Harold Wilson when he came to office in 1964; the first three holders of the office served in the Cabinet, but from 29 August 1967 the office was demoted. Under Edward Heath, the Ministry was re-incorporated into the FCO on 15 October 1970. Wilson again established the Ministry in 1974, but merged it into the FCO once again: from 10 June 1975 to 8 October 1979 the Foreign Secretary served as Secretary of State for Foreign and Commonwealth Affairs and Minister for Overseas Development in the cabinet, while the Minister for Overseas Development held the rank of Minister of State within the Foreign and Commonwealth Office.
The Minister of State had day-to-day responsibility. Under the Labour government of the 1970s, Reg Prentice sat in the Cabinet during his term; the post is held by Penny Mordaunt
Under-Secretary of State for Foreign Affairs
The Parliamentary Under-Secretary of State for Foreign Affairs has been a junior position in the British government since 1782, subordinate to both the Secretary of State for Foreign Affairs and since 1945 to the Minister of State for Foreign Affairs. The post has been based at the Foreign and Commonwealth Office, created in 1968, by the merger of the Foreign Office, where the position was based, the Commonwealth Office. Notable holders of the office include Granville Leveson-Gower, 2nd Earl Granville, John Wodehouse, 1st Earl of Kimberley, Edward Grey, 1st Viscount Grey of Fallodon, George Curzon, 1st Marquess Curzon of Kedleston, Anthony Eden; the current holders are Alistair Burt and Henry Bellingham
Eccles (UK Parliament constituency)
Eccles was a parliamentary constituency of the United Kingdom, centred on the town of Eccles in Greater Manchester, England. It returned one Member of Parliament to the House of Commons of the Parliament of the United Kingdom, elected by the first past the post system; the constituency was established under the Redistribution of Seats Act 1885 for the 1885 general election, abolished at the 2010 general election. The constituency, known as South East Lancashire, Eccles Division, was defined as consisting of the civil parishes of Barton upon Irwell, Flixton, Urmston and the part of the parish of Pendlebury not in the Parliamentary Borough of Salford; the Representation of the People Act 1918 redrew all constituencies in Great Britain. The Parliamentary Borough of Eccles consisted of two local government districts: the Municipal Borough of Eccles and the Urban District of Swinton and Pendlebury; the seat was renamed Eccles Borough Constituency by the Representation of the People Act 1948. In 1983 constituency boundaries were altered to align with the new administrative geography introduced by the Local Government Act 1972.
Eccles became a borough constituency in the parliamentary county of Greater Manchester, consisting of seven wards of the City of Salford: Barton, Pendlebury, Swinton North, Swinton South and Seedley, Winton. The boundaries of the constituency were altered for 1997 general election, reflecting a change in ward boundaries, it was defined as consisting of the following wards: Barton, Eccles, Pendlebury, Swinton North, Swinton South and Winton. Following its review of parliamentary representation in Greater Manchester, the Boundary Commission for England recommended that Eccles be split between two new constituencies: Salford and Eccles, from the existing Salford constituency and the central/eastern part of Eccles. Worsley and Eccles South, from the existing Worsley constituency and the southern/western part of Eccles; these constituencies were used from the 2010 general election. List of Parliamentary constituencies in Greater Manchester
1983 United Kingdom general election
The 1983 United Kingdom general election was held on Thursday 9 June 1983. It gave the Conservative Party under the leadership of Margaret Thatcher the most decisive election victory since that of the Labour Party in 1945. Thatcher's first four years as Prime Minister had not been an easy time. Unemployment increased during the first three years of her premiership and the economy went through a recession. However, the British victory in the Falklands War led to a recovery of her personal popularity. By the time Thatcher called the election in May 1983, the Conservatives were most people's firm favourites to win the general election; the Labour Party had been led by Michael Foot since the resignation of former Prime Minister James Callaghan in 1980. They had fared well in opinion polls and local elections during this time, but issues developed which would lead directly to their defeat. Labour adopted a platform, considered more left-wing than usual. Several moderate Labour MPs had defected from the party to form the Social Democratic Party.
The opposition vote split evenly between the Alliance and Labour. With its worst electoral performance since 1918, the Labour vote fell by over 3 million votes from 1979 and this accounted for both a national swing of 4% towards the Conservatives and their larger parliamentary majority of 144 seats though the Conservatives' total vote fell by 700,000; this was the last general election where a governing party increased its number of seats until 2015. The Alliance came within 700,000 votes of out-polling Labour. By gaining 25% of the popular vote, the Alliance won the largest such percentage for any third party since the 1923 general election. Despite this, they won only 23 seats, whereas Labour won 209; the Liberals argued that a proportional electoral system would have given them a more representative number of MPs. Changing the electoral system had been a long-running Liberal Party campaign plank and would be adopted by the Liberal Democrats; the election night was broadcast live on the BBC, was presented by David Dimbleby, Sir Robin Day and Peter Snow.
It was broadcast on ITV, presented by Alastair Burnet, Peter Sissons and Martyn Lewis. Three future Leaders of the Labour Party were first elected as Members of Parliament at this election—two of them would hold the office of Prime Minister, whilst Corbyn became Labour leader in 2015. Former Labour Prime Minister Harold Wilson, Shirley Williams, Bill Rodgers, Joan Lestor and Tony Benn left Parliament as a result of this election, although Benn would return in a by-election the following year, Lestor at the following general election. Michael Foot was elected leader of the Labour Party in 1980; the election of Foot signalled that the core of the party was swinging to the left and the move exacerbated divisions within the party. In 1981 a group of senior figures including Roy Jenkins, David Owen, Bill Rodgers and Shirley Williams left Labour to found the Social Democratic Party; the SDP agreed to a pact with the Liberals for the 1983 election and stood as "The Alliance". The campaign displayed the huge divisions between the two major parties.
Thatcher had been unpopular during her first two years in office until the swift and decisive victory in the Falklands War, coupled with an improving economy raised her standings in the polls. The Conservatives' key issues included economic growth and defence. Labour's campaign manifesto involved leaving the European Economic Community, abolishing the House of Lords, abandoning the United Kingdom's nuclear deterrent by cancelling Trident and removing cruise missiles—a programme dubbed by Labour MP Gerald Kaufman "the longest suicide note in history". Pro-Labour political journalist Michael White, writing in The Guardian, commented: "There was something magnificently brave about Michael Foot's campaign but it was like the Battle of the Somme." Following boundary changes in 1983, the BBC and ITN co-produced a calculation of how the 1979 general election would have gone if fought on the new 1983 boundaries. The following table shows the effects of the boundary changes on the House of Commons: Prime Minister Margaret Thatcher visited Buckingham Palace on the afternoon of 9 May and asked the Queen to dissolve Parliament on 13 May, announcing that the election would be held on 9 June.
The key dates were as follows: The election saw a landslide victory for the Conservatives, achieving their best results since 1935. Although there was a slight drop in their share of the vote, they made significant gains at the expense of Labour; the night was a disaster for the Labour Party. The massive increase of support for the Alliance at the expense of Labour meant that, in many seats, the collapse in the Labour vote allowed the Conservatives to gain. Despite winning over 25% of the national vote, the Alliance got fewer than 4% of seats, 186 fewer than Labour; the most significant Labour loss of the night was Tony Benn, defeated in the revived Bristol East seat. SDP President Shirley Williams a prominent leader in the Social Democratic Party, lost her Crosby seat which she had won in a by-election in 1981. Bill Rodgers, another leading figure in the Alliance failed to win his old seat that he held as a Labour MP. In Scotland, both Labour a