Tobacco is a product prepared from the leaves of the tobacco plant by curing them. The plant is part of the genus Nicotiana and of the Solanaceae family. While more than 70 species of tobacco are known, the chief commercial crop is N. tabacum. The more potent variant N. rustica is used around the world. Tobacco contains the alkaloid nicotine, a stimulant, harmala alkaloids. Dried tobacco leaves are used for smoking in cigarettes, pipe tobacco, flavored shisha tobacco, they can be consumed as snuff, chewing tobacco, dipping tobacco and snus. Tobacco use is a risk factor for many diseases. In 2008, the World Health Organization named tobacco as the world's single greatest preventable cause of death; the English word "tobacco" originates from the Spanish and Portuguese word "tabaco". The precise origin of this word is disputed, but it is thought to have derived at least in part, from Taino, the Arawakan language of the Caribbean. In Taino, it was said to mean either a roll of tobacco leaves or to tabago, a kind of L-shaped pipe used for sniffing tobacco smoke.
However coincidentally, similar words in Spanish and Italian were used from 1410 to define medicinal herbs believed to have originated from the Arabic طُبّاق ṭubbāq, a word dating to the 9th century, as a name for various herbs. Tobacco has long been used in the Americas, with some cultivation sites in Mexico dating back to 1400–1000 BC. Many Native American tribes have traditionally used tobacco. Eastern North American tribes carried tobacco in pouches as a accepted trade item, as well as smoking it, both and ceremonially, such as to seal a peace treaty or trade agreement. In some populations, tobacco is seen as a gift from the Creator, with the ceremonial tobacco smoke carrying one's thoughts and prayers to the Creator. Following the arrival of the Europeans to the Americas, tobacco became popular as a trade item. Hernández de Boncalo, Spanish chronicler of the Indies, was the first European to bring tobacco seeds to the Old World in 1559 following orders of King Philip II of Spain; these seeds were planted in the outskirts of Toledo, more in an area known as "Los Cigarrales" named after the continuous plagues of cicadas.
Before the development of the lighter Virginia and white burley strains of tobacco, the smoke was too harsh to be inhaled. Small quantities were smoked at a time, using a pipe like the midwakh or kiseru or smoking newly invented waterpipes such as the bong or the hookah. Tobacco became so popular that the English colony of Jamestown used it as currency and began exporting it as a cash crop; the alleged benefits of tobacco account for its considerable success. The astronomer Thomas Harriot, who accompanied Sir Richard Grenville on his 1585 expedition to Roanoke Island, explains that the plant "openeth all the pores and passages of the body" so that the natives’ "bodies are notably preserved in health, know not many grievous diseases, wherewithal we in England are times afflicted." Tobacco smoking and snuffing became a major industry in Europe and its colonies by 1700. Tobacco has been a major cash crop in Cuba and in other parts of the Caribbean since the 18th century. Cuban cigars are world-famous.
In the late 19th century, cigarettes became popular. James Bonsack created a machine that automated cigarette production; this increase in production allowed tremendous growth in the tobacco industry until the health revelations of the late-20th century. Following the scientific revelations of the mid-20th century, tobacco became condemned as a health hazard, became encompassed as a cause for cancer, as well as other respiratory and circulatory diseases. In the United States, this led to the Tobacco Master Settlement Agreement, which settled the lawsuit in exchange for a combination of yearly payments to the states and voluntary restrictions on advertising and marketing of tobacco products. In the 1970s, Brown & Williamson cross-bred a strain of tobacco to produce Y1; this strain of tobacco contained an unusually high amount of nicotine, nearly doubling its content from 3.2-3.5% to 6.5%. In the 1990s, this prompted the Food and Drug Administration to use this strain as evidence that tobacco companies were intentionally manipulating the nicotine content of cigarettes.
In 2003, in response to growth of tobacco use in developing countries, the World Health Organization rallied 168 countries to sign the Framework Convention on Tobacco Control. The convention is designed to push for effective legislation and its enforcement in all countries to reduce the harmful effects of tobacco; this led to the development of tobacco cessation products. Many species of tobacco are in the genus of herbs Nicotiana, it is part of the nightshade family indigenous to North and South America, south west Africa, the South Pacific. Most nightshades contain varying amounts of a powerful neurotoxin to insects. However, tobaccos tend to contain a much higher concentration of nicotine than the others. Unlike many other Solanaceae species, they do not contain tropane alkaloids, which are poisonous to humans and other animals. Despite containing enough nicotine and other compounds such as germacrene and anabasine and other piperidine alkaloids to deter most herbivores, a number of such animals have evolved
A prison officer known as corrections officer, correctional officer, detention officer or penal officer, is a uniformed official, responsible for the supervision and security of prisoners in a prison, jail, or similar form of secure custody. Terms such as jailer, jail guard, prison guard, turnkey have been used. Corrections Officers are responsible for the care and control of individuals who have been arrested and are awaiting trial while on remand or who have been convicted of a crime and sentenced to serve time in a prison or jail, they are responsible for the safety and security of the facility itself. Most officers are employed by the government of the jurisdiction in which they operate, though some are employed by private companies. Prison officers must maintain order and daily operations of the facility and are responsible for the care and control of inmates. A correction officer has a responsibility to control inmates who may be dangerous, that society themselves do not wish to accommodate.
An officer must always prevent disturbances and escapes by supervising activities and work assignments of inmates. Officers have a responsibility to protect the public from incarcerated criminals, protect fellow officers from inmates and protect inmates from other inmates at all times. An officer must be aware of any and all movement taking place inside the facility. Prevention is one of the key components to an officer's duties. Officers can utilize prevention by searching inmates and their living quarters for potential threats such as weapons or drugs. An officer must remain assertive and refuse to back down. An officer must enforce the rules and punish when rules are violated. Correction officers must take full concern for the health and safety of the facility. Officers check for unsanitary conditions, fire hazards, and/or any evidence of tampering or damage to locks, grilles and gates. Officers must screen all incoming and outgoing mail as well as all visitors as a prevention method for future issues that could cause risk to safety and security of the facilities and staff.
Correction officers must assist in transportation responsibilities that may include transfers to other facilities, medical appointments, court appearances and other approved locations. Correction officers may assist police officers on/off duty depending on their peace officer status and jurisdiction. Corrections officers' training will vary from jurisdiction to jurisdiction as well as facility to facility depending on the legislated power given, the nature of the facilities, or the socioeconomics of the region. Training may be provided by external agencies or at the facility with a peer-group or supervisor instructor. In North America, standard training includes: Use of force and restraints Weapons Self-defense First aid and CPR Report writing Giving testimony in court Defusing hostility Interpersonal communication Correction law Criminal law Criminal procedure law Case work and criminal investigations Hostage negotiation Gang intelligenceMany jurisdictions have in recent years, expanded basic training to include: Suicide prevention/crisis intervention Critical incident stress management Occupational Safety and Health Act or Workplace Hazardous Materials Information System Gang awareness and intervention Crisis or hostage negotiation Drug abuse training Rehabilitation programs Rapid response training Bailiff Correctional Emergency Response Team Correctional Service of Canada Federal Bureau of Prisons Her Majesty's Prison Service Irish Prison Service Justizwache Law enforcement officer Ministry of Community Safety and Correctional Services New York State Department of Corrections and Community Supervision Punjab Prisons Scottish Prison Service Deputy Sheriff Texas Department of Criminal Justice Davenport, D.
K.. State of Arizona Office of the Auditor General Performance Audit: Arizona Department of Corrections. Sunset Factors Retrieved 8 March 2008 from http://www.auditorgen.state.az.us/Reports/State_Agencies/Agencies/Corrections Tracy, S. J.. The construction of correctional officers: Layers of emotionality behind bars. Qualitative Inquiry, 10, 509–533. Tracy, S. J. Meyers, K. & Scott, C.. Cracking jokes and crafting selves: Sensemaking and identity management among human service workers. Communication Monographs, 73, 283–308. Correctional Service of Canada.
Kinston, North Carolina
Kinston is a city in Lenoir County, North Carolina with a population of 21,677 as of the 2010 Census. It has been the county seat of Lenoir County since its formation in 1791. Kinston is located in the coastal plains region of Eastern North Carolina. In 2009, Kinston won the All-America City Award; this marks the second time in twenty-one years the city has won the title, the last time being in 1988. At the time of English settlement, the area was inhabited by the Neusiok Indians. Preceding the historic tribe, indigenous peoples of a variety of cultures had lived in the area for thousands of years. Before the English colonists established the city, they called the area Atkins Bank, referring to a bluff once owned by Robert Atkins just above the Neuse River. Atkins Bank was the site of farms, a tobacco warehouse, a Church of England mission. Kinston was created by an act of the North Carolina General Assembly in December 1762 as Kingston, in honor of King George III who had just ascended to the throne.
The bill to incorporate it was introduced by Richard Caswell, who made his home there and served as the first Governor of the State of North Carolina from 1776 to 1780. After victory in the American Revolution, the citizens renamed the city Kinston in 1784 to show the population's disavowal of royalty. In 1833, Kinston became Caswell, in honor of governor Richard Caswell, but the name was reverted to Kinston the following year. Commissioners appointed to design the town began to accept "subscriptions" for numbered lots. To keep a lot, subscribers were required to build brick homes of specific dimensions within three years or lose their rights to the property; the town was laid out with border streets named East and South, with the western border the Neuse River. The two principal roads within these borders were named for Queen Charlotte, they remain Queen Street to this day. Other streets were named in honor of the commissioners. In December 1791, an act was passed in the General Assembly to abolish Dobbs County and form Lenoir and Glasgow counties.
At that time, Kinston was designated the county seat for Lenoir County. Throughout this period, Kinston was an unincorporated town, it became incorporated through an act of the legislature in January 1849. Following incorporation, the population grew rapidly. In 1850, the population was estimated at 455 people, just ten years it had more than doubled to over one thousand. During the onset of the American Civil War, Camp Campbell and Camp Johnston were established near the city as training camps, a bakery on Queen Street was converted to produce hardtack in large quantities. There was a factory for the production of shoes for the military located in Kinston; the Battle of Kinston took place in and around the city on December 14, 1862. The Battle of Wyse Fork aka'Battle of Southwest Creek' occurred near the city, it was at this battle that the Confederate Ram Neuse was scuttled to avoid capture by Union troops. Remnants of the ship have been salvaged, are on display at Richard Caswell Park on West Vernon Ave.
A climate-controlled museum has been built on downtown Queen Street, has moved the hulk there to prevent further deterioration of the original ship's remains. A full-scale replica vessel has been constructed near the original's resting place beside the bank of the Neuse River on Heritage St. in Kinston. Union Army forces occupied the city following the battle. United States troops were assigned to the area through the Reconstruction Era. Despite the hardships of war and Reconstruction, the population of the city continued to grow. By 1870, the population had increased to eleven hundred people and grew to more than seventeen hundred within a decade. During the late nineteenth century, there was expansion into new areas of industry, most notably the production of horse-drawn carriages. Kinston became a major tobacco and cotton trading center. By the start of the twentieth century, more than five million pounds of tobacco were being sold annually in Kinston's warehouses. Along with the growth in population and industry was a growth in property values.
Some parcels increased in value more than fivefold within a twenty-year period. New industries were founded, including lumber and cotton mills, as North Carolina businessmen invested in processing their own crops. Professional sports was introduced in the form of a minor league baseball team. Growth would come in the form of a DuPont plant for the manufacture of polyester fibers, manufacturing plants for pharmaceuticals. Growth slowed following the 1960s, with the shift in textile production overseas. Efforts to reinvigorate the economy through various means have had limited success. Kinston was impacted by flooding in 1996 and 1999. Hurricane Fran struck the North Carolina coast on September 5, 1996 and brought 16 inches of rain to the area. Causing the Neuse River to flood portions of the city. On September 16, 1999, Hurricane Floyd struck the area, it caused what locals have called "The Flood of the Century."The National Register of Historic Places lists the American Tobacco Company Prizery and North Carolina Railroad Freight Depot, Baptist Parsonage, Robert L. Blalock House, B. W. Canady House, CSS Neuse, Hill-Grainger Historic District, Hotel Kinston, Jesse Jackson House, Kennedy Memorial Home Historic District, Kinston Apartments, Kinston Baptist-White Rock Presbyterian Church, Kinston Battlefield, Kinston Commercial Historic District, Kinston Fire Station-City Hall, Lenoir County Courthouse, Mitchelltown Historic District, Peebles House, Peoples Bank Building, Queen-
Murder is the unlawful killing of another human without justification or valid excuse the unlawful killing of another human being with malice aforethought. This state of mind may, depending upon the jurisdiction, distinguish murder from other forms of unlawful homicide, such as manslaughter. Manslaughter is a killing committed in the absence of malice, brought about by reasonable provocation, or diminished capacity. Involuntary manslaughter, where it is recognized, is a killing that lacks all but the most attenuated guilty intent, recklessness. Most societies consider murder to be an serious crime, thus believe that the person charged should receive harsh punishments for the purposes of retribution, rehabilitation, or incapacitation. In most countries, a person convicted of murder faces a long-term prison sentence a life sentence; the modern English word "murder" descends from the Proto-Indo-European "mrtró" which meant "to die". The Middle English mordre is a noun from Old French murdre. Middle English mordre is a verb from the Middle English noun.
The eighteenth-century English jurist William Blackstone, in his Commentaries on the Laws of England set out the common law definition of murder, which by this definition occurs when a person, of sound memory and discretion, unlawfully kills any reasonable creature in being and under the king's peace, with malice aforethought, either express or implied. The elements of common law murder are: Unlawful killing through criminal act or omission of a human by another human with malice aforethought; the Unlawful – This distinguishes murder from killings that are done within the boundaries of law, such as capital punishment, justified self-defence, or the killing of enemy combatants by lawful combatants as well as causing collateral damage to non-combatants during a war. Killing – At common law life ended with cardiopulmonary arrest – the total and irreversible cessation of blood circulation and respiration. With advances in medical technology courts have adopted irreversible cessation of all brain function as marking the end of life.Сriminal act or omission – Killing can be committed by an act or an omission.of a human – This element presents the issue of when life begins.
At common law, a fetus was not a human being. Life began when the fetus passed through the vagina and took its first breath.by another human – In early common law, suicide was considered murder. The requirement that the person killed be someone other than the perpetrator excluded suicide from the definition of murder. With malice aforethought – Originally malice aforethought carried its everyday meaning – a deliberate and premeditated killing of another motivated by ill will. Murder required that an appreciable time pass between the formation and execution of the intent to kill; the courts broadened the scope of murder by eliminating the requirement of actual premeditation and deliberation as well as true malice. All, required for malice aforethought to exist is that the perpetrator act with one of the four states of mind that constitutes "malice"; the four states of mind recognized as constituting "malice" are: Under state of mind, intent to kill, the deadly weapon rule applies. Thus, if the defendant intentionally uses a deadly weapon or instrument against the victim, such use authorizes a permissive inference of intent to kill.
In other words, "intent follows the bullet". Examples of deadly weapons and instruments include but are not limited to guns, deadly toxins or chemicals or gases and vehicles when intentionally used to harm one or more victims. Under state of mind, an "abandoned and malignant heart", the killing must result from the defendant's conduct involving a reckless indifference to human life and a conscious disregard of an unreasonable risk of death or serious bodily injury. In Australian jurisdictions, the unreasonable risk must amount to a foreseen probability of death, as opposed to possibility. Under state of mind, the felony-murder doctrine, the felony committed must be an inherently dangerous felony, such as burglary, rape, robbery or kidnapping; the underlying felony cannot be a lesser included offense such as assault, otherwise all criminal homicides would be murder as all are felonies. As with most legal terms, the precise definition of murder varies between jurisdictions and is codified in some form of legislation.
When the legal distinction between murder and manslaughter is clear, it is not unknown for a jury to find a murder defendant guilty of the lesser offence. The jury might sympathise with the defendant, the jury may wish to protect the defendant from a sentence of life imprisonment or execution. Many jurisdictions divide murder by degrees; the distinction between first- and second-degree murder exists, for example, in Canadian murder law and U. S. murder law. The most common division is between first- and second-degree murder. Second-degree murder is common law murder, first-degree is an aggravated form; the aggravating factors of first-degree murder depend on the jurisdiction, but may include a specific intent to kill, premeditation, or deliberation. In some, murder committed by acts such as strangulation, poisoning, or lying in wait are treated as first-degree murder. A few states in the U. S. further distinguish third-degree murder, but they differ in which kinds of murders they classify as second-degree versus third-degree.
For example, Minnesota defines third-degree murder as depraved-heart murder, whereas Flori
Raleigh, North Carolina
Raleigh is the capital of the state of North Carolina and the seat of Wake County in the United States. Raleigh is the second-largest city in the state, after Charlotte. Raleigh is known as the "City of Oaks" for its many oak trees, which line the streets in the heart of the city; the city covers a land area of 142.8 square miles. The U. S. Census Bureau estimated the city's population as 479,332 as of July 1, 2018, it is one of the fastest-growing cities in the country. The city of Raleigh is named after Sir Walter Raleigh, who established the lost Roanoke Colony in present-day Dare County. Raleigh is home to North Carolina State University and is part of Research Triangle Park, together with Durham and Chapel Hill; the "Triangle" nickname originated after the 1959 creation of the Research Triangle Park, located in Durham and Wake counties, among the three cities and their universities. The Research Triangle region encompasses the U. S. Census Bureau's Raleigh-Durham-Chapel Hill Combined Statistical Area, which had an estimated population of 2,037,430 in 2013.
The Raleigh metropolitan statistical area had an estimated population of 1,214,516 in 2013. Most of Raleigh is located within Wake County, with a small portion extending into Durham County; the towns of Cary, Garner, Wake Forest, Holly Springs, Fuquay-Varina, Wendell and Rolesville are some of Raleigh's primary nearby suburbs and satellite towns. Raleigh is an early example in the United States of a planned city. Following the American Revolutionary War when the US gained independence, this was chosen as the site of the state capital in 1788 and incorporated in 1792 as such; the city was laid out in a grid pattern with the North Carolina State Capitol in Union Square at the center. During the American Civil War, the city was spared from any significant battle, it fell to the Union in the closing days of the war, struggled with the economic hardships in the postwar period related to the reconstitution of labor markets, over-reliance on agriculture, the social unrest of the Reconstruction Era. Following the establishment of the Research Triangle Park in 1959, several tens of thousands of jobs were created in the fields of science and technology, it became one of the fastest-growing communities in the United States by the early 21st century.
Bath, the oldest town in North Carolina, was the first nominal capital of the colony from 1705 until 1722, when Edenton took over the role. The colony had no permanent institutions of government until the new capital New Bern was established in 1743. In December 1770, Joel Lane petitioned the North Carolina General Assembly to create a new county. On January 5, 1771, the bill creating Wake County was passed in the General Assembly; the county was formed from portions of Cumberland and Johnston counties. The county was named for the wife of Governor William Tryon; the first county seat was Bloomsbury. New Bern, a port town on the Neuse River 35 miles from the Atlantic Ocean, was the largest city and the capital of North Carolina during the American Revolution; when the British Army laid siege to the city, that site could no longer be used. Raleigh was chosen as the site of the new capital in 1788, as its central location protected it from attacks from the coast, it was established in 1792 as both county seat and state capital.
The city was named for sponsor of Roanoke, the "lost colony" on Roanoke Island. The city's location was chosen, in part, for being within 11 mi of Isaac Hunter's Tavern, a popular tavern frequented by the state legislators. No known city or town existed on the chosen city site. Raleigh is one of the few cities in the United States, planned and built to serve as a state capital, its original boundaries were formed by the downtown streets of North, East and South. The plan, a grid with two main axes meeting at a central square and an additional square in each corner, was based on Thomas Holme's 1682 plan for Philadelphia; the North Carolina General Assembly first met in Raleigh in December 1794, granted the city a charter, with a board of seven appointed commissioners and an "Intendant of Police" to govern it. In 1799, the N. C. Minerva and Raleigh Advertiser was the first newspaper published in Raleigh. John Haywood was the first Intendant of Police. In 1808, Andrew Johnson, the nation's future 17th President, was born at Casso's Inn in Raleigh.
The city's first water supply network was completed in 1818, although due to system failures, the project was abandoned. In 1819 Raleigh's first volunteer fire company was founded, followed in 1821 by a full-time fire company. In 1817, the Episcopal Diocese of North Carolina was headquartered in Raleigh. In 1831, a fire destroyed the North Carolina State House. Two years reconstruction began with quarried gneiss being delivered by the first railroad in the state. Raleigh celebrated the completions of the new State Capitol and new Raleigh & Gaston Railroad Company in 1840. In 1853, the first State Fair was held near Raleigh; the first institution of higher learning in Raleigh, Peace College, was established in 1857. Raleigh's Historic Oakwood contains many houses from the 19th century that are still in good condition. North Carolina seceded from the Union. After the Civil War began, Governor Zebulon Baird Vance ordered the construction of breastworks around the city as protection from
The United States of America known as the United States or America, is a country composed of 50 states, a federal district, five major self-governing territories, various possessions. At 3.8 million square miles, the United States is the world's third or fourth largest country by total area and is smaller than the entire continent of Europe's 3.9 million square miles. With a population of over 327 million people, the U. S. is the third most populous country. The capital is Washington, D. C. and the largest city by population is New York City. Forty-eight states and the capital's federal district are contiguous in North America between Canada and Mexico; the State of Alaska is in the northwest corner of North America, bordered by Canada to the east and across the Bering Strait from Russia to the west. The State of Hawaii is an archipelago in the mid-Pacific Ocean; the U. S. territories are scattered about the Pacific Ocean and the Caribbean Sea, stretching across nine official time zones. The diverse geography and wildlife of the United States make it one of the world's 17 megadiverse countries.
Paleo-Indians migrated from Siberia to the North American mainland at least 12,000 years ago. European colonization began in the 16th century; the United States emerged from the thirteen British colonies established along the East Coast. Numerous disputes between Great Britain and the colonies following the French and Indian War led to the American Revolution, which began in 1775, the subsequent Declaration of Independence in 1776; the war ended in 1783 with the United States becoming the first country to gain independence from a European power. The current constitution was adopted in 1788, with the first ten amendments, collectively named the Bill of Rights, being ratified in 1791 to guarantee many fundamental civil liberties; the United States embarked on a vigorous expansion across North America throughout the 19th century, acquiring new territories, displacing Native American tribes, admitting new states until it spanned the continent by 1848. During the second half of the 19th century, the Civil War led to the abolition of slavery.
By the end of the century, the United States had extended into the Pacific Ocean, its economy, driven in large part by the Industrial Revolution, began to soar. The Spanish–American War and World War I confirmed the country's status as a global military power; the United States emerged from World War II as a global superpower, the first country to develop nuclear weapons, the only country to use them in warfare, a permanent member of the United Nations Security Council. Sweeping civil rights legislation, notably the Civil Rights Act of 1964, the Voting Rights Act of 1965 and the Fair Housing Act of 1968, outlawed discrimination based on race or color. During the Cold War, the United States and the Soviet Union competed in the Space Race, culminating with the 1969 U. S. Moon landing; the end of the Cold War and the collapse of the Soviet Union in 1991 left the United States as the world's sole superpower. The United States is the world's oldest surviving federation, it is a representative democracy.
The United States is a founding member of the United Nations, World Bank, International Monetary Fund, Organization of American States, other international organizations. The United States is a developed country, with the world's largest economy by nominal GDP and second-largest economy by PPP, accounting for a quarter of global GDP; the U. S. economy is post-industrial, characterized by the dominance of services and knowledge-based activities, although the manufacturing sector remains the second-largest in the world. The United States is the world's largest importer and the second largest exporter of goods, by value. Although its population is only 4.3% of the world total, the U. S. holds 31% of the total wealth in the world, the largest share of global wealth concentrated in a single country. Despite wide income and wealth disparities, the United States continues to rank high in measures of socioeconomic performance, including average wage, human development, per capita GDP, worker productivity.
The United States is the foremost military power in the world, making up a third of global military spending, is a leading political and scientific force internationally. In 1507, the German cartographer Martin Waldseemüller produced a world map on which he named the lands of the Western Hemisphere America in honor of the Italian explorer and cartographer Amerigo Vespucci; the first documentary evidence of the phrase "United States of America" is from a letter dated January 2, 1776, written by Stephen Moylan, Esq. to George Washington's aide-de-camp and Muster-Master General of the Continental Army, Lt. Col. Joseph Reed. Moylan expressed his wish to go "with full and ample powers from the United States of America to Spain" to seek assistance in the revolutionary war effort; the first known publication of the phrase "United States of America" was in an anonymous essay in The Virginia Gazette newspaper in Williamsburg, Virginia, on April 6, 1776. The second draft of the Articles of Confederation, prepared by John Dickinson and completed by June 17, 1776, at the latest, declared "The name of this Confederation shall be the'United States of America'".
The final version of the Articles sent to the states for ratification in late 1777 contains the sentence "The Stile of this Confederacy shall be'The United States of America'". In June 1776, Thomas Jefferson wrote the phrase "UNITED STATES OF AMERICA" in all capitalized letters in the headline of his "original Rough draught" of the Declaration of Independence; this draft of the document did not surface unti
San Diego is a city in the U. S. state of California. It is in San Diego County, on the coast of the Pacific Ocean in Southern California 120 miles south of Los Angeles and adjacent to the border with Mexico. With an estimated population of 1,419,516 as of July 1, 2017, San Diego is the eighth-largest city in the United States and second-largest in California, it is part of the San Diego–Tijuana conurbation, the second-largest transborder agglomeration between the U. S. and a bordering country after Detroit–Windsor, with a population of 4,922,723 people. The city is known for its mild year-round climate, natural deep-water harbor, extensive beaches, long association with the United States Navy, recent emergence as a healthcare and biotechnology development center. San Diego has been called "the birthplace of California". Home to the Kumeyaay people, it was the first site visited by Europeans on what is now the West Coast of the United States. Upon landing in San Diego Bay in 1542, Juan Rodríguez Cabrillo claimed the area for Spain, forming the basis for the settlement of Alta California 200 years later.
The Presidio and Mission San Diego de Alcalá, founded in 1769, formed the first European settlement in what is now California. In 1821, San Diego became part of the newly independent Mexico, which reformed as the First Mexican Republic two years later. California became part of the United States in 1848 following the Mexican–American War and was admitted to the union as a state in 1850; the city is the seat of San Diego County and is the economic center of the region as well as the San Diego–Tijuana metropolitan area. San Diego's main economic engines are military and defense-related activities, international trade, manufacturing; the presence of the University of California, San Diego, with the affiliated UCSD Medical Center, has helped make the area a center of research in biotechnology. The original inhabitants of the region are now known as the San La Jolla people; the area of San Diego has been inhabited by the Kumeyaay people. The first European to visit the region was explorer Juan Rodríguez Cabrillo, sailing under the flag of Castile but born in Portugal.
Sailing his flagship San Salvador from Navidad, New Spain, Cabrillo claimed the bay for the Spanish Empire in 1542, named the site "San Miguel". In November 1602, Sebastián Vizcaíno was sent to map the California coast. Arriving on his flagship San Diego, Vizcaíno surveyed the harbor and what are now Mission Bay and Point Loma and named the area for the Catholic Saint Didacus, a Spaniard more known as San Diego de Alcalá. On November 12, 1602, the first Christian religious service of record in Alta California was conducted by Friar Antonio de la Ascensión, a member of Vizcaíno's expedition, to celebrate the feast day of San Diego. Permanent colonization of California and of San Diego began in 1769 with the arrival of four contingents of Spaniards from New Spain and the Baja California peninsula. Two seaborne parties reached San Diego Bay: the San Carlos, under Vicente Vila and including as notable members the engineer and cartographer Miguel Costansó and the soldier and future governor Pedro Fages, the San Antonio, under Juan Pérez.
An initial overland expedition to San Diego from the south was led by the soldier Fernando Rivera and included the Franciscan missionary and chronicler Juan Crespí, followed by a second party led by the designated governor Gaspar de Portolà and including the mission president Junípero Serra. In May 1769, Portolà established the Fort Presidio of San Diego on a hill near the San Diego River, it was the first settlement by Europeans in. In July of the same year, Mission San Diego de Alcalá was founded by Franciscan friars under Serra. By 1797, the mission boasted the largest native population in Alta California, with over 1,400 neophytes living in and around the mission proper. Mission San Diego was the southern anchor in Alta California of the historic mission trail El Camino Real. Both the Presidio and the Mission are National Historic Landmarks. In 1821, Mexico won its independence from Spain, San Diego became part of the Mexican territory of Alta California. In 1822, Mexico began its attempt to extend its authority over the coastal territory of Alta California.
The fort on Presidio Hill was abandoned, while the town of San Diego grew up on the level land below Presidio Hill. The Mission was secularized by the Mexican government in 1834, most of the Mission lands were granted to former soldiers; the 432 residents of the town petitioned the governor to form a pueblo, Juan María Osuna was elected the first alcalde, defeating Pío Pico in the vote. However, San Diego had been losing population throughout the 1830s and in 1838 the town lost its pueblo status because its size dropped to an estimated 100 to 150 residents. Beyond town Mexican land grants expanded the number of California ranchos that modestly added to the local economy. Americans gained increased awareness of California, its commercial possibilities, from the writings of two countrymen involved in the officially forbidden, to foreigners, but economically significant hide and tallow trade, where San Diego was a major port and the only one with an adequate harbor: William Shaler's "Journal of a Voyage Between China and the North-Western Coast of America, Made in 1804" and Richard Henry Dana's more substantial and convincing account, of his 1834–36 voyage, the classic Two Years Before the Mast.
In 1846, the United States went to war against Mexico and sent a naval and land expedition to conquer Alta California. At firs