George Edward Cokayne
George Edward Cokayne, was an English genealogist and long-serving herald at the College of Arms in London, who rose to the rank of Clarenceux King of Arms. He wrote the authoritative and standard reference works The Complete Peerage and The Complete Baronetage. Cokayne was born on 29 April 1825, with the surname Adams, being the son of William Adams by his wife the Hon. Mary Anne Cokayne, a daughter of Viscount Cullen, he was baptised "George Edward Adams". On 15 August 1873 he changed his surname by Royal Licence to Cokayne, he matriculated from Exeter College on 6 June 1844, graduated BA in 1848 and MA in 1852. He was admitted a student of Lincoln's Inn on 16 January 1850, was called to the bar on 30 April 1853, he began his heraldic career at the College of Arms in London with an appointment in 1859 to the post of Rouge Dragon Pursuivant of Arms in Ordinary, was promoted in 1870 to the office of Lancaster Herald of Arms in Ordinary. In 1882 he was promoted to Norroy King of Arms, which office he held until his appointment as Clarenceux King of Arms in 1894, which he held until his death in 1911.
Cokayne wrote The Complete Peerage, the first edition of, published between 1887 and 1898 On 2 December 1856 he married Mary Dorothea Gibbs, daughter of George Henry Gibbs by his wife Caroline Crawley. The couple had eight children, of whom two daughters survived their father. One of his sons, became Governor of the Bank of England from 1918 to 1920 and was ennobled in 1920 as Baron Cullen of Ashbourne, he died on 6 August 1911 aged 86. The Complete Baronetage on Internet Archive The College of Arms CUHAGS Officer of Arms Index
Joan Beaufort, Queen of Scots
Joan Beaufort was the Queen of Scotland from 1424 to 1437 as the spouse of King James I of Scotland. During part of the minority of her son James II, she served as the regent of Scotland. Joan Beaufort was a daughter of John Beaufort, 1st Earl of Somerset, a legitimated son of John of Gaunt by his mistress Catherine Swynford. Joan's mother was Margaret Holland, the granddaughter of Joan of Kent from her marriage to Thomas Holland, 1st Earl of Kent. Joan was a half-niece of King Henry IV of England, great-niece of Richard II and great grand-daughter of Edward III, her uncle, Henry Beaufort, was Chancellor of England. King James I of Scotland met Joan during his time as a prisoner in England, knew her from at least 1420, she is said to have been the inspiration for King James' famous long poem, The Kingis Quair, written during his captivity, after he saw her from his window in the garden. The marriage was at least political, as their marriage was part of the agreement for his release from captivity.
From an English perspective an alliance with the Beauforts was meant to establish his country's alliance with the English, rather than the French. Negotiations resulted in Joan's dowry of 10,000 merks being subtracted from James's substantial ransom. On 12 February 1424, Joan King James were wed at St Mary Overie Church in Southwark, they were feasted at Winchester Palace that year by her uncle Cardinal Henry Beaufort. She accompanied her husband on his return from captivity in England to Scotland, was crowned alongside her husband at Scone Abbey; as queen, she pleaded with the king for those who might be executed. The royal couple had eight children, including the future James II, Margaret of Scotland, future spouse of Louis XI of France. James I was assassinated in Perth on 21 February 1437. Joan had been a target of assassination along with her husband, but managed to survive her injuries, she directed her husband's supporters to attack his assassin Walter Stewart, Earl of Atholl, but was forced to give up power three months later.
The prospect of being ruled by an English woman was unpopular in Scotland. The Earl of Douglas was thus appointed to power. Near the end of July 1439, she married James Stewart, the Black Knight of Lorne after obtaining a papal dispensation for both consanguinity and affinity. James was an ally of the latest Earl of Douglas, plotted with him to overthrow Alexander Livingston, governor of Stirling Castle, during the minority of James II. Livingston forced her to relinquish custody of the young king. In 1445, the conflict between the Douglas/Livingston faction and the queen's supporters resumed, she was under siege at Dunbar Castle by the Earl of Douglas when she died on 15 July 1445, she was buried in the Carthusian Priory at Perth. Margaret Stewart, Princess of Scotland married Prince Louis, Dauphin of Viennois Isabella Stewart, Princess of Scotland married Francis I, Duke of Brittany Mary Stewart, Countess of Buchan married Wolfart VI van Borsselen Joan of Scotland, Countess of Morton married James Douglas, 1st Earl of Morton Alexander Stewart, Duke of Rothesay.
Louis of Savoy, married and divorced 2. George Gordon, 2nd Earl of Huntly Eleanor Stewart, Princess of Scotland married Sigismund, Archduke of Austria. John Stewart, 1st Earl of Atholl James Stewart, 1st Earl of Buchan Andrew Stewart, Bishop of Moray Brown, M. H.. "Joan ". Oxford Dictionary of National Biography. Doi:10.1093/ref:odnb/14646. Retrieved 21 November 2013. Browning, Charles H.. The Magna Carta Barons and Their American Descendants. London: Genealogical Publishing Company. Marshall, Rosalind. Scottish Queens, 1034–1714. Tuckwell Press. Weir, Alison. Britain's The Complete Genealogy. London: Vintage Books. ISBN 978-0-09-953973-5. Weir, Alison. Mistress of the Monarchy: The Life of Katherine Swynford, Duchess of Lancaster. London: Random House. ISBN 978-0-345-45323-5
James Balfour Paul
Sir James Balfour Paul was the Lord Lyon King of Arms, the officer responsible for heraldry in Scotland, from 1890 until the end of 1926. Paul was born in Edinburgh, the second son of the Rev. John Paul of St Cuthbert's Church and Margaret Balfour, at their home, 13 George Square in Edinburgh, his great-grandfather was Sir William Moncreiff, 7th Baronet. He was educated at Royal High University of Edinburgh, he was admitted an advocate in 1870. Thereafter he was Registrar of Friendly Societies, Treasurer of the Faculty of Advocates, appointed Lord Lyon King of Arms in 1890, he was created a Knight Bachelor in the 1900 New Year Honours list, received the knighthood on 9 February 1900. Among his works was The Scots Peerage, a nine-volume series published from 1904 to 1914, he tried two interesting heraldic cases in Court of the Lord Lyon, the first being in 1909, when Sir Colin Macrae claimed the right to use the coat of arms as Chief of the Name of Clan Macrae, opposed by Colonel John MacRae-Gilstrap.
The second was action brought against Mrs. Fraser Mackenzie by Colonel James Stewart-Mackenzie, 1st Baron Seaforth, in connection with the bearing of arms in right of her father. In the second case, the Lyon's ruling was upheld on appeal by the House of Lords. Shortly before his retirement in 1926, he was appointed a Knight Commander of the Royal Victorian Order in the 1926 New Year Honours list, he was admitted an Esquire and a Commander of the Order of St. John of Jerusalem, elected a Fellow of the Society of Antiquaries of Scotland, was a member of the Royal Societies and University Clubs, he was Secretary of the Order of the Thistle. He gave the Rhind Lectures on heraldry, he resided at Edinburgh. Sir James married, in 1872, Helen Margaret, daughter of John Nairne Forman of Staffa, WS, they had four children: a daughter. One son, John William became a heraldic officer, while another, Arthur Forman, became an architect and partner of Robert Rowand Anderson. Sir James is buried with other family in Dean Cemetery in Edinburgh, in the north section east of the opening in the wall between the original cemetery and the north extension.
History of the Royal Company of Archer Record Series of Registrum Magni Sigilli, Handbook to the Parliament House Heraldry in relation to Scottish History and Art. An Ordinary of Arms Contained in the Public Register of All Arms and Bearings in Scotland 1st ed. 2nd ed. Memoir and Remains of John M. Gray in 2 vols; the Scots Peerage Vol. I, with successive volumes up to Vol. IX Accounts of the Lord Treasurer of Scotland Vols. II-XI, 1900-1916 "Ancient Artillery, with some notes on Mons Meg" in The Proceedings of the Society of Antiquaries of Scotland, volume 50, 1915-1916, pps: 191-201. Scottish History Society, Diary of the Rev. George Ridpath, Minister of Stichill Kelly's Handbook to the Titled and Official Classes, 1903, London, p. 1156. Douglas, Sir Robert, Sir James Balfour, ed; the Scots Peerage, Wood's — Volume IX contains the index for the other eight volumes. Works related to Obituary: Sir James Balfour Paul at Wikisource Family tree
John of Gaunt
John of Gaunt, Duke of Lancaster was an English prince, military leader, statesman. He was the third of the five sons of King Edward III of England. Due to his royal origin, advantageous marriages, some generous land grants, Gaunt was one of the richest men of his era, an influential figure during the reigns of both his father and his nephew, Richard II; as Duke of Lancaster, he is the founder of the royal House of Lancaster, whose members would ascend to the throne after his death. His birthplace, corrupted into English as Gaunt, was the origin for his name; when he became unpopular in life, scurrilous rumours and lampoons circulated that he was the son of a Ghent butcher because Edward III was not present at the birth. This story always drove him to fury. John's early career was spent in Spain fighting at the Hundred Years' War, he made an abortive attempt to enforce a claim to the Crown of Castile that came through his second wife, for a time styled himself as King of Castile. As Edward the Black Prince, Gaunt's elder brother and heir to the ageing Edward III, became incapacitated due to poor health, Gaunt assumed control of many government functions, rose to become one of the most powerful political figures in England.
He was faced with military difficulties abroad and political divisions at home, disagreements as to how to deal with these crises led to tensions between Gaunt, the English Parliament, the ruling class, making him an unpopular figure for a time. John exercised great influence over the English throne during the minority of King Richard II, the ensuing periods of political strife, he mediated between the king and a group of rebellious nobles, which included Gaunt's own son and heir, Henry Bolingbroke. Following Gaunt's death in 1399, his estates and titles were declared forfeit to the Crown, his son, now disinherited, was branded a traitor and exiled. Henry Bolingbroke returned from exile shortly after to reclaim his inheritance, deposed Richard, he reigned as King Henry IV of England, the first of the descendants of John of Gaunt to hold the English throne. The House of Lancaster would rule England from 1399 until the time of the Wars of the Roses, when the English crown was disputed with the House of York.
Gaunt fathered five children outside marriage. They were legitimised by royal and papal decrees, but which did not affect Henry IV's bar to their having a place in the line of succession. Despite that restriction, through these offspring, surnamed "Beaufort", Gaunt is ancestor to all Scottish monarchs beginning in 1437, of all English monarchs of the houses of Lancaster and Tudor as well as, York. John was the third surviving son of King Edward III of England, his first wife, Blanche of Lancaster, was his third cousin. They married in 1359 at Reading Abbey as a part of the efforts of Edward III to arrange matches for his sons with wealthy heiresses. Upon the death of his father-in-law, the 1st Duke of Lancaster, in 1361, John received half his lands, the title "Earl of Lancaster", distinction as the greatest landowner in the north of England as heir of the Palatinate of Lancaster, he became the 14th Baron of Halton and 11th Lord of Bowland. John inherited the rest of the Lancaster property when Blanche's sister Maud, Countess of Leicester, died without issue on 10 April 1362.
John received the title "Duke of Lancaster" from his father on 13 November 1362. By well established, he owned at least thirty castles and estates across England and France and maintained a household comparable in scale and organisation to that of a monarch, he owned land in every county in England, a patrimony that produced a net income of between £8,000 and £10,000 a year. After the death in 1376 of his older brother Edward of Woodstock, John of Gaunt contrived to protect the religious reformer John Wycliffe to counteract the growing secular power of the church. However, John's ascendancy to political power coincided with widespread resentment of his influence. At a time when English forces encountered setbacks in the Hundred Years' War against France, Edward III's rule was becoming unpopular due to high taxation and his affair with Alice Perrers, political opinion associated the Duke of Lancaster with the failing government of the 1370s. Furthermore, while King Edward and the Prince of Wales were popular heroes due to their successes on the battlefield, John of Gaunt had not won equivalent military renown that could have bolstered his reputation.
Although he fought in the Battle of Nájera, for example, his military projects proved unsuccessful. When Edward III died in 1377 and John's ten-year-old nephew succeeded as Richard II of England, John's influence strengthened. However, mistrust remained, some suspected him of wanting to seize the throne himself. John took pains to ensure; as de facto ruler during Richard's minority, he made unwise decisions on taxation that led to the Peasants' Revolt in 1381, when the rebels destroyed his home in London, the Savoy Palace. Unlike some of Richard's unpopular advisors, John was away from London at the time of the uprising and thus avoided the direct wrath of the rebels. In 1386 John left England to seek the throne of Castile, claimed in jure ux
A dynasty is a sequence of rulers from the same family in the context of a feudal or monarchical system, but sometimes appearing in elective republics. Alternative terms for "dynasty" may include "family" and "clan", among others; the longest-surviving dynasty in the world is the Imperial House of Japan, otherwise known as the Yamato dynasty, whose reign is traditionally dated to 660 BC. The dynastic family or lineage may be known as a "noble house", which may be styled as "royal", "princely", "ducal", "comital" etc. depending upon the chief or present title borne by its members. Historians periodize the histories of numerous nations and civilizations, such as Ancient Egypt and Imperial China, using a framework of successive dynasties; as such, the term "dynasty" may be used to delimit the era during which a family reigned, to describe events and artifacts of that period. The word "dynasty" itself is dropped from such adjectival references; until the 19th century, it was taken for granted that a legitimate function of a monarch was to aggrandize his dynasty: that is, to expand the wealth and power of his family members.
Prior to the 20th century, dynasties throughout the world have traditionally been reckoned patrilineally, such as under the Frankish Salic law. In nations where it was permitted, succession through a daughter established a new dynasty in her husband's ruling house; this has changed in some places in Europe, where succession law and convention have maintained dynasties de jure through a female. For instance, the House of Windsor will be maintained through the children of Queen Elizabeth II, as it did with the monarchy of the Netherlands, whose dynasty remained the House of Orange-Nassau through three successive queens regnant; the earliest such example among major European monarchies was in the Russian Empire in the 18th century, where the name of the House of Romanov was maintained through Grand Duchess Anna Petrovna. In Limpopo Province of South Africa, Balobedu determined descent matrilineally, while rulers have at other times adopted the name of their mother's dynasty when coming into her inheritance.
Less a monarchy has alternated or been rotated, in a multi-dynastic system – that is, the most senior living members of parallel dynasties, at any point in time, constitute the line of succession. Not all feudal states or monarchies were/are ruled by dynasties. Throughout history, there were monarchs. Dynasties ruling subnational monarchies do not possess sovereign rights; the word "dynasty" is sometimes used informally for people who are not rulers but are, for example, members of a family with influence and power in other areas, such as a series of successive owners of a major company. It is extended to unrelated people, such as major poets of the same school or various rosters of a single sports team; the word "dynasty" derives from Latin dynastia, which comes from Greek dynastéia, where it referred to "power", "dominion", "rule" itself. It was the abstract noun of dynástēs, the agent noun of dynamis, "power" or "ability", from dýnamai, "to be able". A ruler from a dynasty is sometimes referred to as a "dynast", but this term is used to describe any member of a reigning family who retains a right to succeed to a throne.
For example, King Edward VIII ceased to be a dynast of the House of Windsor following his abdication. In historical and monarchist references to reigning families, a "dynast" is a family member who would have had succession rights, were the monarchy's rules still in force. For example, after the 1914 assassinations of Archduke Franz Ferdinand of Austria and his morganatic wife Duchess Sophie von Hohenberg, their son Duke Maximilian was bypassed for the Austro-Hungarian throne because he was not a Habsburg dynast. Since the abolition of the Austrian monarchy, Duke Maximilian and his descendants have not been considered the rightful pretenders by Austrian monarchists, nor have they claimed that position; the term "dynast" is sometimes used only to refer to agnatic descendants of a realm's monarchs, sometimes to include those who hold succession rights through cognatic royal descent. The term can therefore describe distinct sets of people. For example, David Armstrong-Jones, 2nd Earl of Snowdon, a nephew of Queen Elizabeth II through her sister Princess Margaret, is in the line of succession to the British crown.
On the other hand, the German aristocrat Prince Ernst August of Hanover, a male-line descendant of King George III of the United Kingdom, possesses no legal British name, titles or styles. He was born in the line of succession to the British throne and was bound by Britain's Royal Marriages Act 1772 until it was repealed when the Succession to the Crown Act 2013 took effect on 26 March 2015. Thus, he requested and obtained formal permission from Queen Elizabeth II to marry the Roman Catholic Princess Caroline of Monaco in 1999. Yet, a clause of the English Act of Settlement 1701 remained in effect at that time, stipulating that dynasts who
James Douglas, 1st Earl of Morton
James Douglas, the 4th Lord of Dalkeith, was created the 1st Earl of Morton in 1458. He was the son of James Douglas, 2nd Lord of Dalkeith and Elizabeth Gifford, daughter of James Gifford of Sheriffhall, his father resigned all his estates to James in 1456. James was created Earl of Morton in 1458 upon his marriage to Joan Stewart, the daughter of James I, King of Scots, she was a deaf-mute. The Earl entered into a marriage contract with Patrick Graham, Bishop of St. Andrews between the Bishop's niece and John Douglas, the Earl's eldest son and heir. In turn the Grahams, the Bishop, his brother and nephew, allied themselves to the Earl and pledged to assist him in recovering the diverted lands of Whittingehame and Morton, it appears, that this pledge was intended to draw the Earl of Morton into a conspiracy that included the Bishop, Lord Boyd and his party. Robert Boyd, 1st Lord Boyd who, as one of the Regents during the minority of James III of Scotland, took possession of the young king and married his son to the king's elder sister, for which crimes he was attainted for high treason.
The Earl of Morton did not participate since he sat on the jury which convicted the Boyds. Bishop Graham was excommunicated and deposed; the lands of Whittinghame and all rights over the barony of Morton, Dumfriesshire were resigned into the Earl's hands in 1473-4 and in that same year he recovered the lordship of Dalkeith increasing the Earls vast estates. He re-endowed the collegiate church at Dalkeith his 3rd great-grandfather founded and he founded St. Martha's Hospital in Aberdour in 1474; the Earl died on 22 October 1493. His wife Joan predeceased him by 4 months dying on 22 June 1493; the Earl and Countess of Morton were buried together in the choir of the parish church of St. Nicholas Buccleuch, known as the Dalkeith Collegiate Church, in Dalkeith, south of Fife and east of Edinburgh, in Midlothian, Scotland. Known as the Morton Monument, their tombs are covered with their stone effigies, complete with their armorial bearings; the choir is now in the ruins, leaving the tombs out in the open, where, in a few centuries, the elements have erased their faces.
Their hands, pressed together in prayer, were to have been destroyed during the Reformation. Today, as one of the visitors remarked, "nce crisply carved and detailed with heraldic devices", the tombs have "the look of sand sculptures after the tide has washed in and retreated". Due to their historical value, in 2005 a team of volunteers and preservationists created a protective canopy over their effigies, he and his wife Joan were the parents of: 2nd Earl of Morton. James, appeared in several writs 1466-1480. Janet, married bef. 1 February 1490-1 to Sir Patrick Hepburn, 1st Earl of Bothwell. Elizabeth, she was mentioned in a charter of 1479. Charles Cawley, "Scotland, Earls Created, 1162-1398: Earls of Morton", Medieval Lands: A propsography of medieval European noble and royal families
Dauphin of France
Dauphin of France Dauphin of Viennois, was the title given to the heir apparent to the throne of France from 1350 to 1791 and 1824 to 1830. The word dauphin is French for dolphin. At first the heirs were granted the County of Viennois to rule, but only the title was granted. Guigues IV, Count of Vienne, was nicknamed le Dauphin; the title of Dauphin de Viennois descended in his family until 1349, when Humbert II sold his seigneury, called the Dauphiné, to King Philippe VI on condition that the heir of France assume the title of le Dauphin. The wife of the Dauphin was known as la Dauphine; the first French prince called le Dauphin was Charles the Wise to become Charles V of France. The title was equivalent to the English Prince of Wales, the Scottish Duke of Rothesay, the Portuguese Prince of Brazil, the Brazilian Prince of Grão-Pará and the Spanish Prince of Asturias; the official style of a Dauphin of France, prior to 1461, was par la grâce de Dieu, dauphin de Viennois, comte de Valentinois et de Diois.
A Dauphin of France united the coat of arms of the Dauphiné, which featured Dolphins, with the French fleurs-de-lis, might, where appropriate, further unite that with other arms. The Dauphin was responsible for the rule of the Dauphiné, part of the Holy Roman Empire, which the Emperors, in giving the rule of the province to the French heirs, had stipulated must never be united with France; because of this, the Dauphiné suffered from anarchy in the 14th and 15th centuries, since the Dauphins were minors or concerned with other matters. During his period as Dauphin, son of Charles VII, defied his father by remaining in the province longer than the King permitted and by engaging in personal politics more beneficial to the Dauphiné than to France. For example, he married Charlotte of Savoy against his father's wishes. Savoy was a traditional ally of the Dauphiné, Louis wished to reaffirm that alliance to stamp out rebels and robbers in the province. Louis was driven out of the Dauphiné by Charles VII's soldiers in 1456, leaving the region to fall back into disorder.
After his succession as Louis XI of France in 1461, Louis united the Dauphiné with France, bringing it under royal control. The title was automatically conferred upon the next heir apparent to the throne in the direct line upon birth, accession of the parent to the throne or death of the previous Dauphin, unlike the British title Prince of Wales, which has always been in the gift of the monarch; the sons of the King of France hold the style and rank of fils de France, while male-line grandsons hold the style and rank of petits-enfants de France. The sons and grandsons of the Dauphin ranked higher than their cousins, being treated as the king's children and grandchildren respectively; the sons of the Dauphin, though grandsons of the king, are ranked as Sons of France, the grandsons of the Dauphin ranked as Grandsons of France. The title was abolished by the Constitution of 1791. Under the constitution the heir-apparent to the throne was restyled Prince Royal, taking effect from the inception of the Legislative Assembly on 1 October 1791.
The title was restored in potentia under the Bourbon Restoration of Louis XVIII, but there would not be another Dauphin until after his death. With the accession of his brother Charles X, Charles' son and heir Louis-Antoine, Duke of Angoulême automatically became Dauphin. With the removal of the Bourbons the title fell into disuse, the heirs of Louis-Philippe being titled Prince Royal. After the death of Henri, comte de Chambord, Duke of Madrid, the heir of the legitimist claimant, Count of Montizón, made use of the title in pretense, as have the Spanish legitimist claimants since. In Mark Twain's Adventures of Huckleberry Finn, Huck encounters two odd characters who turn out to be professional con men. One of them claims that he should be treated with deference, since he is "really" an impoverished English duke, the other, not to be outdone, reveals that he is "really" the Dauphin. Is a character in Shakespeare's Henry V. In Baronness Emma Orczy's Eldorado, the Scarlet Pimpernel rescues the Dauphin from prison and helps spirit him from France.
Alphonse Daudet wrote a short story called "The Death of the Dauphin", about a young Dauphin who wants to stop Death from approaching him. It is mentioned in Cormac McCarthy's Blood Meridian. "The Dauphin" is a 1988 episode of Star Trek: The Next Generation. As the titular character is female, the episode title gets the gender incorrect. Dauphine of France List of heirs to the French throne Prince of Wales Prince of Asturias Prince of Beira Duke of Braganza Crown Prince Tsarevich Dauphins of Viennois Dauphins of Auvergne King of Rome Madame Royale Monsieur Madame Fils de France Petit-Fils de France Prince du Sang Prince of Tarnovo