Tory Island, or Tory, is an island 14.5 kilometres off the north-west coast of County Donegal in Ulster, is the most remote inhabited island of Ireland. It is known in Irish as Oileán Thoraí or Oileán Thúr Rí; the word Tory comes from the Middle Irish word Tóraidhe. The main spoken language on the island is Irish, although English is spoken to communicate with visitors. Tory is part of the Donegal Gaeltacht and Ulster Irish is the main Irish dialect in use; the island is 5 kilometres long and 1 kilometre wide, 1.38 square miles. The 2011 census recorded a population of 144; the population is divided among four towns -- An Baile Thiar, An Lár and Úrbaile. Petrol and diesel are available from Tory Oil at prices higher than on the mainland. Tory has regular ferry connections from mainland County Donegal; the ferry travels daily from five times a week for the rest of the year. The ferry holds up to 70 passengers. During the winter months, sea crossings may not be possible due to rough seas – but from November to March, a small 4-seater helicopter runs from Falcarragh to Tory every other Thursday.
In the apocryphal history of Ireland, Lebor Gabála Érenn, Tory Island was the site of Conand's Tower, the stronghold of the Fomorians, before they were defeated by the Nemedians in a great battle on the island. The Fomorian king Balor of the evil eye lived here. Balor would imprison Ethlinn in a tower built atop Tor Mór. Tor Mór is the island's highest point. A monastery was founded on Tory in the 6th century by Colmcille; the monastery dominated life on the island until 1595, when it was plundered and destroyed by English troops, waging a war of suppression against local chieftains. The monastery's bell tower is the largest structure to survive and was built in the 6th or 7th century. In 1608, the Siege of Tory Island, one of the final incidents of O'Doherty's Rebellion, took place when a surviving group of rebels took shelter in the castle, only to begin killing each other to secure a pardon; the Battle of Tory Island, the last action in the Irish Rebellion of 1798, took place at sea nearby.
On 27 October 1914, the British lost their first battleship of World War I: the British super-dreadnought battleship HMS Audacious was sunk off Tory Island, by a minefield laid by the armed German merchant-cruiser Berlin. The loss was kept an official secret in Britain until 14 November 1918; the sinking was photographed by passengers on RMS Olympic, sister ship of RMS Titanic. Since the 1950s, the island has been home to a small community of artists, has its own art gallery; the English artist Derek Hill was associated with the Tory artist community. Reflecting a long-standing tradition, a "king" is chosen by consensus of the islanders; the most recent "King of Tory" was painter Patsy Dan Rodgers, who held the post from the 1990s to his death on 19 October 2018. The king has no formal powers, though duties include being a spokesperson for the island community and welcoming people to the island. Power is generated on the island today from three diesel electricity generators; these have a total capacity of 4 MW and burn through 500 litres of fuel every day.
Public attention was focused on the island in 2009 when a one-time resident was awarded a payout following a court case after his house was demolished and the grounds used as a car park. In 2015, the island's only café was destroyed by fire; the table below reports data on Tory Island's population taken from Discover the Islands of Ireland and the census of Ireland. Censuses in Ireland before 1841 reliable. Tory Island has a number of historical and mythological sites: Dún Bhaloir is located on the island's eastern side; this peninsula is surrounded on three sides by 90-metre-high cliffs. Balor's Fort is accessible only by crossing a narrow isthmus, defended by four earthen embankments. An Eochair Mhór is a long, steep-sided spur jutting from the east side of the peninsula and ending in a crag called An Tor Mór; the spur has prominent rocky pinnacles – these are known as'Balor's soldiers'. They give the spur a'toothed' appearance and contribute to the name,'the Big Key'; the Wishing Stone is a precipitous flat-topped rock beside the northern cliff-face of Balor's Fort.
Traditionally, a wish is granted to anyone foolhardy enough to step onto the rock, or who succeeds in throwing three stones onto it. An Cloigtheach is the largest structure; the round tower was built in the 7th century. The Tau Cross is believed to date from the 12th century, it is one of only two Tau crosses in Ireland. Móirsheisear: Móirsheisear, which translates as'big six' – a term for seven – is the tomb of seven people, six men and one woman, who drowned when their boat capsized off Scoilt an Mhóirsheisear on the island's northwest coast. According to local superstition, clay from the woman's grave has the power to ward off vermin; the Lighthouse, standing at the west end of the island, was built between 1828 and 1832 to a design by George Halpin, a noted designer of Irish lighthouses. In April 1990, the lighthouse w
Museum of Witchcraft and Magic
The Museum of Witchcraft and Magic known as the Museum of Witchcraft, is a museum dedicated to European witchcraft and magic located in the village of Boscastle in Cornwall, south-west England. It houses exhibits devoted to folk magic, ceremonial magic and Wicca, with its collection of such objects having been described as the largest in the world; the museum was founded by the English folk magician Cecil Williamson in 1951 to display his own personal collection of artefacts. Known as the Folklore Centre of Superstition and Witchcraft, it was located in the town of Castletown on the Isle of Man. Williamson was assisted at the museum by the prominent Wiccan Gerald Gardner, who remained there as "resident witch". After their friendship deteriorated, Gardner purchased it from Williamson in 1954, renaming it the Museum of Magic and Witchcraft. Gardner's Castletown museum remained open until the 1970s, when Gardner's heir Monique Wilson sold its contents to the Ripley's company. In 1954, Williamson opened his own rival back in England, known as the Museum of Witchcraft.
Its first location was at Windsor and the next at Bourton-on-the-Water, Gloucestershire. In 1996 Williamson sold the museum to Graham King, who incorporated the Richel collection of magical regalia from the Netherlands in 2000; the museum was damaged and part of its collection lost during the Boscastle flood of 2004. In 2013 ownership was transferred to his Museum of British Folklore; the museum is a popular tourist attraction and is held in high esteem by the British occult community. A charity, Friends of the Museum of Witchcraft, has been established to raise funds for the exhibits; the museum contains a large library on related topics, accessible to researchers. After the Second World War, the former film producer Cecil Williamson decided to move into the museum business, and—probably influenced by personal interest—decided to open one that would be devoted to the subject of witchcraft. Williamson tried to open a museum to hold his collection of witchcraft and occult artifacts in Stratford-upon-Avon in 1947, but faced local opposition and had to abandon his plans.
He decided to open it in Castletown on the Isle of Man, an area which had much folklore surrounding fairies and witches, a tourist season, local laws that were congenial to the establishment of a museum. He had it set up in a dilapidated old mill known locally as the Witches' Mill which he had purchased in 1948, and, at the advice of his wife, opened an adjacent restaurant, known as the Witches' Kitchen; the museum was first named the Folklore Centre of Witchcraft. The launch of the museum was timed to coincide with the government's repeal of the Witchcraft and Vagrancy Acts in June 1951. In an interview with The Sunday Pictorial newspaper, Williamson claimed to be friends with at least a dozen witches, that he had invited a coven from southern England to come and practice their rituals at his museum; the historian Ronald Hutton deemed this to "fairly clearly" be a reference to the Bricket Wood coven, based in Hertfordshire and run by the Wiccan Gerald Gardner. In press interviews, Gardner was described as the museum's "resident witch" and performed a magical ritual at the museum's opening ceremony.
For Williamson, the press interest served to promote his museum, while for Gardner it gave the opportunity to promote Wicca at a safe distance from his main coven. Williamson had a practical interest in magic, in a 1952 interview with popular magazine Illustrated described himself as a consultant on the subject who could help remove curses from people, akin to an old cunning man, he acknowledged. He took an interest in the late ceremonial magician Aleister Crowley and wrote to Crowley's friend Gerald Yorke to enquire as to whether he could send him the instructions for any of Crowley's rituals. However, Gardner fell out with Williamson over. Williamson, in retaliation, removed a photograph of Gardner from the display. Williamson sold the museum to Gardner. Williamson decided to return to England, took his collection of witchcraft artefacts with him. In 1954 Gardner bought the Witches' Mill from him, renamed it The Museum of Magic and Witchcraft, filling it with his own collection of artefacts.
During the 1950s, Gardner discussed moving his museum to London with his friend, Charles Cardell, but decided not to. According to the historian Ronald Hutton, this left Gardner with "a secure and congenial base" from which he could promote Wicca by writing such books as Witchcraft Today and The Meaning of Witchcraft. Gardner continued to run the museum till his death in 1964, when it was run by his High Priestess Monique Wilson before it was shut down and the collection sold off. Ripley's Entertainment Inc. bought the collection and in 1972 opened the "Museum of Witchcraft and Magic" at Gatlinburg, TN and San Francisco, CA. In 1975, due to pressure from the local church and religious groups, Ripley's changed the name of the museums to the "World of the Unexplained". More attractions and items were added to the present witchcraft collection. In 1985, Ripley's closed both museums due to poor ticket sales; the collection was disbursted to other Ripley's museums. A lot of the witchcraft collection was sent to Ripley's Believe It or Not museum at Blackpool, England.
In his will, Gardner left the museum to his assistant there, with the proviso that if he did not want it it would go to his initiate Monique Wilson, what happened. On his return to England in 1954, Williamson opened the muse
According to folklore a fairy path is a route taken by fairies in a straight line and between sites of traditional significance, such as fairy forts or raths, "airy" mountains and hills, thorn bushes, lakes, rock outcrops, Stone Age monuments. Ley lines and spirit paths, such as with corpse roads, have some similarities with these fairy paths. A fairy ring is a path used by fairies, but in a circle, for dancing, as described by poet W. B. Yeats, "...the fairies dance in a place apart, Shaking their milk-white feet in a ring..." The concept is associated with Celtic folklore that of Ireland. In some parts of Ireland and Germany there were fairy or spirit paths that while being invisible had such perceived geographical reality in the minds of the country people that building practices were adapted to ensure they were not obstructed. A significant number of the characteristics of fairy paths are shared in common with ley lines. In many parts of Northern Europe the round barrows were the traditional homes of the fairies, elves, or trolls and were avoided by the country folk.
Such places were Fairy Toot in Somerset, Elf Howe barrow near Folkton, a round barrow at Beedon in Berkshire. Cornwall was and is a stronghold of fairy lore: fairies are said to dance on Carn Gluze, near St Just in Penwith. In Danish Jutland there was a belief that "Barrow-folk" dwelt in barrows and were descendants of fallen angels cast out of Heaven, it was considered bad luck to let cattle graze on any place where the Elf-folk have been, or to let the cattle mingle with the large blue cattle of the elves. However, all evils may be averted if one were to ask at an "Elf-barrow" for permission to graze cattle on their mound; some Danish "Elf-barrows" included one another not far from Kalundborg. In Sweden similar beliefs existed and one barrow called Helvetesbacke that lies near Kråktorps gård, Småland, was claimed to be the burial mound of Odin. In Germany the Wild Troop of Rodenstein was said to ride a straight path between the castles of Rodenstein and Schnellert. Throughout Europe are Corpse roads, which are believed to be of the same basic belief as fairy paths and most share an origin.
In Germany and the Netherlands in particular, these tend to be straight invisible lines and are known by a variety of names including Geisterweg and Helweg in German and Doodweg in Dutch. A straight road did however run straight over various burial mounds at Rösaring, Lassa in southern Sweden. In Ireland, people who had illnesses or other misfortune, were said to live in houses that were "in the way" or in a "contrary place", obstructing a fairy path. An example is that of a family in which four children sickened and died, leaving the doctors baffled; the fifth child was near death, only to make a sudden and full recovery. The father told the doctor that he had consulted a wise woman who informed him that his new house extension blocked a fairy path between two fairy forts, whereupon he demolished it and his child became healthy again. An example of this fairy path straightness is provided by an account concerning a croft at Knockeencreen, County Kerry. In an interview in the 1980s, the last human occupant told of the troubles his grandfather had experienced there, with his cattle periodically and inexplicably dying.
The front door is opposite the back door. The grandfather was informed by a passing Gypsy that the dwelling stands on a fairy path running between two hills; the Gypsy advised the grandfather to keep the doors ajar at night to allow the fairies free passage. The advice was heeded and the problem ceased, it so happens that the building is indeed on a straight line drawn between two local hilltops, is, moreover, at one end of a long, straight track. The fairies processed from Rath Ringlestown in Ireland every night and parents brought their children in before the fairies were due to pass; the path passed round several bushes. A man who cut down one bush could not get it to burn and sickened and died within a short while as a supposed consequence of his actions; the route passed between two mud-wall houses and a man, out at the wrong time was found dead. A traditional folk tale from the Southern Shore of Newfoundland, concerns a young married couple who discovered that they had built their house on a path used by the good people, the steps that couple take to rid themselves of fairy mischief.
It seems therefore that the fairy folk had emigrated together with their human counterparts or had been in Canada from time immemorial. Home-owners have knocked corners from houses because the corner blocked the fairy path, cottages have been built with the front and back doors in line, so that the owners could, in need, leave them both open and let the fairies troop through all night, it was believed that a house built on a fairy path would suffer from midnight noises or supernatural manifestations. Ill-luck in the form of sick farm animals or perso
Devon known as Devonshire, its common and official name, is a county of England, reaching from the Bristol Channel in the north to the English Channel in the south. It is part of South West England, bounded by Cornwall to the west, Somerset to the north east, Dorset to the east; the city of Exeter is the county town. The county includes the districts of East Devon, Mid Devon, North Devon, South Hams, Teignbridge and West Devon. Plymouth and Torbay are each geographically part of Devon, but are administered as unitary authorities. Combined as a ceremonial county, Devon's area is 6,707 km2 and its population is about 1.1 million. Devon derives its name from Dumnonia. During the British Iron Age, Roman Britain, the early Middle Ages, this was the homeland of the Dumnonii Brittonic Celts; the Anglo-Saxon settlement of Britain resulted in the partial assimilation of Dumnonia into the Kingdom of Wessex during the eighth and ninth centuries. The western boundary with Cornwall was set at the River Tamar by King Æthelstan in 936.
Devon was constituted as a shire of the Kingdom of England. The north and south coasts of Devon each have both cliffs and sandy shores, the county's bays contain seaside resorts, fishing towns, ports; the inland terrain is rural and hilly, has a lower population density than many other parts of England. Dartmoor is the largest open space in southern England, at 954 km2. To the north of Dartmoor are the Culm Measures and Exmoor. In the valleys and lowlands of south and east Devon the soil is more fertile, drained by rivers including the Exe, the Culm, the Teign, the Dart, the Otter; as well as agriculture, much of the economy of Devon is based on tourism. The comparatively mild climate and landscape make Devon a destination for recreation and leisure in England, with visitors attracted to the Dartmoor and Exmoor national parks; the name Devon derives from the name of the Britons who inhabited the southwestern peninsula of Britain at the time of the Roman conquest of Britain known as the Dumnonii, thought to mean "deep valley dwellers" from proto Celtic *dubnos'deep'.
In the Brittonic, Devon is known as Welsh: Dyfnaint, Breton: Devnent and Cornish: Dewnens, each meaning "deep valleys." Among the most common Devon placenames is -combe which derives from Brittonic cwm meaning'valley' prefixed by the name of the possessor. William Camden, in his 1607 edition of Britannia, described Devon as being one part of an older, wider country that once included Cornwall: THAT region which, according to the Geographers, is the first of all Britaine, growing straiter still and narrower, shooteth out farthest into the West, was in antient time inhabited by those Britans whom Solinus called Dumnonii, Ptolomee Damnonii For their habitation all over this Countrey is somewhat low and in valleys, which manner of dwelling is called in the British tongue Dan-munith, in which sense the Province next adjoyning in like respect is at this day named by the Britans Duffneit, to say, Low valleys, but the Country of this nation is at this day divided into two parts, knowen by names of Cornwall and Denshire, The term "Devon" is used for everyday purposes e.g. "Devon County Council" but "Devonshire" continues to be used in the names of the "Devonshire and Dorset Regiment" and "The Devonshire Association".
One erroneous theory is that the "shire" suffix is due to a mistake in the making of the original letters patent for the Duke of Devonshire, resident in Derbyshire. However, there are references to "Defenascire" in Anglo-Saxon texts from before 1000 AD, which translates to modern English as "Devonshire"; the term Devonshire may have originated around the 8th century, when it changed from Dumnonia to Defenascir. Kents Cavern in Torquay had produced. Dartmoor is thought to have been occupied by Mesolithic hunter-gatherer peoples from about 6000 BC; the Romans held the area under military occupation for around 350 years. The area began to experience Saxon incursions from the east around 600 AD, firstly as small bands of settlers along the coasts of Lyme Bay and southern estuaries and as more organised bands pushing in from the east. Devon became a frontier between Brittonic and Anglo-Saxon Wessex, it was absorbed into Wessex by the mid 9th century. A genetic study carried out by the University of Oxford & University College London discovered separate genetic groups in Cornwall and Devon, not only were there differences on either side of the Tamar, with a division exactly along the modern county boundary dating back to the 6th Century but between Devon and the rest of Southern England, similarities with the modern northern France, including Brittany.
This suggests the Anglo-Saxon migration into Devon was limited rather than a mass movement of people. The border with Cornwall was set by King Æthelstan on the east bank of the River Tamar in 936 AD. Danish raids occurred sporadically along many coastal parts of Devon between around 800AD and just before the time of the Norman conquest, including the silver mint at Hlidaforda Lydford in 997 and Taintona in 1001. Devon has featured in most of th
Titania is a character in William Shakespeare's play A Midsummer Night's Dream. In the play, she is the queen of the fairies. Due to Shakespeare's influence fiction has used the name "Titania" for fairy queen characters. In traditional folklore, the fairy queen has no name. Shakespeare took the name "Titania" from Ovid's Metamorphoses, where it is an appellation given to the daughters of Titans. Shakespeare's Titania is a proud creature and as much of a force to contend with as her husband, Oberon, she and Oberon are engaged in a marital quarrel over which of them should have the keeping of an Indian changeling boy. This quarrel is the engine that drives the mix-ups and confusion of the other characters in the play. Due to an enchantment cast by Oberon's servant Puck, Titania magically falls in love with a "rude mechanical", Nick Bottom the weaver, given the head of a donkey by Puck, who feels it is better suited to his character, it has been argued. In this case, the tables are turned on the character, rather than the sorceress turning her lovers into animals, she is made to love a donkey after Bottom has been transformed.
Titania has appeared in many other paintings, poems and other works. In Edmund Spenser's Faerie Queene, the title character is a descendent of Titania. Johann Wolfgang von Goethe included the figures from Shakespeare's work in Faust I, where she and her husband are celebrating their golden wedding anniversary. Carl Maria von Weber used the characters of Titania and Puck in his opera Oberon, but this time set during the reign of Charlemagne. Titania appears in the Persona franchise as an optional Persona for the silent protagonist along with Oberon. Alfred Lord Tennyson's play The Foresters, a Robin Hood story, has a brief segment with Titania, Queen of the Fairies. Titania, one of Uranus's moons, was named after her. Titania appears in the popular online game Warframe as the namesake of one of the titular Warframes, featuring razor-butterflies and assorted fairy-themed abilities. Titania, Queen of the Fairies, is the nickname given to Erza Scarlet in the Fairy Tail manga and anime. In the Fairy Dance arc of the manga and anime Sword Art Online, Oberon refers to Asuna as Titania, Queen of the fairies.
In the short story Marriage A La Mode, written by Katherine Mansfield, Isabel is referred as Titania. In the manga and anime The Ancient Magus' Bride the Queen of the Fairies is named Titania, her husband Oberon appears. In the cartoon Gargoyles, she appears in her homeland of Avalon, she is the mother to a human character, Fox. Titania is the basis for one of the bosses in Mega Man Zero 4, Sol Titanion
A jack-o'-lantern is a carved pumpkin, turnip, or other root vegetable lantern associated with Halloween. Its name comes from the phenomenon of a strange light flickering over peat bogs, called will-o'-the-wisp or jack-o'-lantern; the name is tied to the Irish legend of Stingy Jack, a drunkard who bargains with Satan and is doomed to roam the Earth with only a hollowed turnip to light his way. Jack-o'-lanterns are a yearly Halloween tradition that came to the United States from Irish immigrants. In a jack-o'-lantern, the top of the pumpkin or turnip is cut off to form a lid, the inside flesh is scooped out, an image — a scary or funny face – is carved out of the rind to expose the hollow interior. To create the lantern effect, a light source, traditionally a flame such as a candle or tea light, is placed within before the lid is closed. However, artificial jack-'o-lanterns with electric lights are marketed, it is common to see jack-o'-lanterns on doorsteps and otherwise used as decorations prior to and on Halloween.
The term jack-o'-lantern was used to describe the visual phenomenon ignis fatuus known as a will-o'-the-wisp in English folklore. Used in East England, its earliest known use dates to the 1660s; the term "will-o'-the-wisp" uses "wisp" and the proper name "Will": thus, "Will-of-the-torch." The term jack o'lantern is of the same construction: "Jack of lantern." The carving of vegetables has been a common practice in many parts of the world, gourds were one of the earliest plant species farmed by humans c. 10,000 years ago. For example, gourds were used to carve lanterns by the Māori over 700 years ago, it is believed. In the 19th century, "turnips or mangel wurzels, hollowed out to act as lanterns and carved with grotesque faces," were used on Halloween in parts of Ireland and the Scottish Highlands. In these Gaelic-speaking regions, Halloween was the festival of Samhain and was seen as a time when supernatural beings, the souls of the dead, walked the earth. Jack-o'-lanterns were made at Halloween time in Somerset during the 19th century.
By those who made them, the lanterns were said to represent either spirits or supernatural beings, or were used to ward off evil spirits. For example, sometimes they were used by Halloween participants to frighten people, sometimes they were set on windowsills to keep harmful spirits out of one's home, it has been suggested that the jack-o'-lanterns represented Christian souls in purgatory, as Halloween is the eve of All Saints' Day /All Souls' Day. On Halloween in 1835, the Dublin Penny Journal wrote a long story on the legend of "Jack-o'-the-Lantern". In 1837, the Limerick Chronicle refers to a local pub holding a carved gourd competition and presenting a prize to "the best crown of Jack McLantern"; the term "McLantern" appears in an 1841 publication of the same paper. There is evidence that turnips were used to carve what was called a "Hoberdy's Lantern" in Worcestershire, England, at the end of the 18th century; the folklorist Jabez Allies recalls: In my juvenile days I remember to have seen peasant boys make, what they called a "Hoberdy's Lantern," by hollowing out a turnip, cutting eyes and mouth therein, in the true moon-like style.
Adaptations of Washington Irving's short story "The Legend of Sleepy Hollow" show the Headless Horseman with a pumpkin or jack-o'-lantern in place of his severed head. The application of the term to carved pumpkins in American English is first seen in 1834; the carved pumpkin lantern's association with Halloween is recorded in the 1 November 1866 edition of the Daily News: The old time custom of keeping up Hallowe'en was not forgotten last night by the youngsters of the city. They had their maskings and their merry-makings, perambulated the streets after dark in a way, no doubt amusing to themselves. There was a great sacrifice of pumpkins from which to make transparent heads and face, lighted up by the unfailing two inches of tallow candle. James Fenimore Cooper wrote a nautical novel titled the Privateer; the Jack O'lantern was the name of the ship. The poet John Greenleaf Whittier, born in Massachusetts in 1807, wrote the poem "The Pumpkin": Agnes Carr Sage, in the article, "Halloween Sports and Customs" (Harper's Young People: It is an ancient British custom to light great bonfires on Hallowe'en, carry blazing fagots about on long poles.
In the United States, the carved pumpkin was first associated with the harvest season in general, long before it became a symbol of Halloween. In 1895, an article on Thanksgiving entertaining recommended a lit jack-o'-lantern as part of the festivities; the story of the jack-o'-lantern comes in many forms and is similar to the story of Will-o'-the-wisp retold in different forms across Western Europe, Italy, Norway and Sweden. In Switzerland, children will leave bowls of milk or cream out for mythical house spirits called Jack o' the bowl. An old Irish folk tale fr
Avalon, sometimes written Avallon or Avilion, is a legendary island featured in the Arthurian legend. It first appears in Geoffrey of Monmouth's 1136 pseudo-historical account Historia Regum Britanniae as the place where King Arthur's sword Excalibur was forged and where Arthur was taken to recover from his wounds after the Battle of Camlann. Avalon was associated from an early date with mystical figures such as Morgan le Fay, it is traditionally identified as the former island of Glastonbury Tor. Geoffrey of Monmouth referred to it in Latin as Insula Avallonis in Historia Regum Britanniae. In the Vita Merlini he called it Insula Pomorum the "isle of fruit trees"; the name is considered to be of Welsh origin, derived from Old Welsh, Old Cornish, or Old Breton aball or avallen, "apple tree, fruit tree". It is possible that the tradition of an "apple" island among the British was related to Irish legends concerning the otherworld island home of Manannán mac Lir and Lugh, Emain Ablach, where Ablach means "Having Apple Trees"—derived from Old Irish aball —and is similar to the Middle Welsh name Afallach, used to replace the name Avalon in medieval Welsh translations of French and Latin Arthurian tales.
All are etymologically related to the Gaulish root *aballo "fruit tree"— and are derived from a Common Celtic *abal- "apple", related at the Proto-Indo-European level to English apple, Russian яблоко, Latvian ābele, et al. According to Geoffrey in the Historia, much subsequent literature which he inspired, Avalon is the place where King Arthur is taken after fighting Mordred at the Battle of Camlann to recover from his wounds. Welsh and Breton tradition claimed that Arthur had never died, but would return to lead his people against their enemies. Historia states that Avalon is where his sword Excalibur was forged. Geoffrey dealt with Avalon in more detail in the Vita Merlini, in which he describes for the first time in Arthurian legend the enchantress Morgan as the chief of nine sisters who rule Avalon. Geoffrey's description of the island indicates, his description of Avalon here, indebted to the early medieval Spanish scholar Isidore of Seville, shows the magical nature of the island: In Erec and Enide by Chrétien de Troyes, the consort of Morgan is the Lord of the Isle of Avalon, Arthur's nephew named Guinguemar.
In Layamon's Brut, Arthur is taken to Avalon to be healed there through means of magic water by a distinctively Anglo-Saxon redefinition of Geoffrey's Morgen: an elf queen of Avalon named Argante. In the narrative of Alliterative Morte Arthure devoid of supernatural elements, it is physicians from Salerno who try, fail, to save Arthur's life in Avalon. Many versions of the Arthurian legend have Morgan and some other magical queens or enchantresses arrive after the battle to take the mortally wounded Arthur from the battlefield of Camlann to Avalon in a black boat. In the Vulgate Cycle, Morgan tells Arthur of her intention to relocate to the isle of Avalon, the place where "the ladies live who know all the magic in the world", shortly before Camlann. In Lope Garcia de Salazar's Spanish summary of the Post-Vulgate Roman du Graal, Morgan uses her magic to hide Avalon in mist. Arthur's fate is left untold. Conversely, Stephen of Rouen's chronicle Draco Normannicus contains a fictional letter from King Arthur to Henry II of England, in which Arthur claims that he has been healed of his wounds and made immortal by his "deathless/eternal nymph" sister Morgan on Avalon, using the island's restorative herbs.
Morgan features as an immortal ruler of a fantastic Avalon, sometimes alongside the still alive Arthur, in some subsequent and otherwise non-Arthurian chivalric romances such as Tirant lo Blanch, as well as the tales of Huon of Bordeaux, where Oberon is a son of either Morgan by name or "the Lady of the Secret Isle", the legend of Ogier the Dane, where Avalon can be described as a castle. In his La Faula, Guillem de Torroella claims to have visited the Enchanted Island and met Arthur, brought back to life by Morgan and they both of them are now forever young, sustained by the Grail. In the chanson de geste La Bataille Loquifer and her sister Marsion bring the hero Renoart to Avalon, where Arthur now prepares his return alongside Morgan, Ywain and Guinevere; such stories take place centuries after the times of King Arthur. Around 1190, Avalon became associated with Glastonbury, when monks at Glastonbury Abbey claimed to have discovered the bones