Joan van der Spriet
According to the RKD he was also a printmaker, but no known works survive.
According to the RKD he was also a printmaker, but no known works survive.
1. Delft – Delft is a city and a municipality in the Netherlands. It is located in the province of South Holland, to the north of Rotterdam, the city of Delft came into being aside a canal, the Delf, which comes from the word delven, meaning delving or digging, and led to the name Delft. It presumably started around the 11th century as a landlord court, from a rural village in the early Middle Ages, Delft developed to a city, that in the 13th century received its charter. The towns association with the House of Orange started when William of Orange, nicknamed William the Silent, at the time he was the leader of growing national Dutch resistance against Spanish occupation, known as the Eighty Years War. By then Delft was one of the cities of Holland. An attack by Spanish forces in October of that year was repelled, after the Act of Abjuration was proclaimed in 1581, Delft became the de facto capital of the newly independent Netherlands, as the seat of the Prince of Orange. When William was shot dead in 1584, by Balthazar Gerards in the hall of the Prinsenhof, therefore, he was buried in the Delft Nieuwe Kerk, starting a tradition for the House of Orange that has continued to the present day. The Delft Explosion, also known in history as the Delft Thunderclap, occurred on 12 October 1654 when a gunpowder store exploded, over a hundred people were killed and thousands were wounded. About 30 tonnes of gunpowder were stored in barrels in a magazine in a former Clarissen convent in the Doelenkwartier district, cornelis Soetens, the keeper of the magazine, opened the store to check a sample of the powder and a huge explosion followed. Luckily, many citizens were away, visiting a market in Schiedam or a fair in The Hague, Delft artist Egbert van der Poel painted several pictures of Delft showing the devastation. Historical buildings and other sights of interest include, Oude Kerk, buried here, Piet Hein, Johannes Vermeer, Anthony van Leeuwenhoek. Nieuwe Kerk, constructed between 1381 and 1496 and it contains the Dutch royal familys burial vault, which between funerals is sealed with a 5,000 kg cover stone. A statue of Hugo Grotius made by Franciscus Leonardus Stracké in 1886 and this is the only remaining gate of the old city walls. The Gemeenlandshuis Delfland, or Huyterhuis, built in 1505, which has housed the Delfland regional water authority since 1645, the Vermeer Centre in the rebuilt Guild house of St. Luke. Windmill De Roos, a mill built c.1760. Restored to working order in 2013, another windmill that formerly stood in Delft, Het Fortuyn, was dismantled in 1917 and re-erected at the Netherlands Open Air Museum, Arnhem, Gelderland in 1920. Delft is well known for the Delft pottery ceramic products which were styled on the imported Chinese porcelain of the 17th century, the city had an early start in this area since it was a home port of the Dutch East India Company. It can still be seen at the pottery factories De Koninklijke Porceleyne Fles, the painter Johannes Vermeer was born in Delft
2. London – London /ˈlʌndən/ is the capital and most populous city of England and the United Kingdom. Standing on the River Thames in the south east of the island of Great Britain and it was founded by the Romans, who named it Londinium. Londons ancient core, the City of London, largely retains its 1. 12-square-mile medieval boundaries. London is a global city in the arts, commerce, education, entertainment, fashion, finance, healthcare, media, professional services, research and development, tourism. It is crowned as the worlds largest financial centre and has the fifth- or sixth-largest metropolitan area GDP in the world, London is a world cultural capital. It is the worlds most-visited city as measured by international arrivals and has the worlds largest city airport system measured by passenger traffic, London is the worlds leading investment destination, hosting more international retailers and ultra high-net-worth individuals than any other city. Londons universities form the largest concentration of education institutes in Europe. In 2012, London became the first city to have hosted the modern Summer Olympic Games three times, London has a diverse range of people and cultures, and more than 300 languages are spoken in the region. Its estimated mid-2015 municipal population was 8,673,713, the largest of any city in the European Union, Londons urban area is the second most populous in the EU, after Paris, with 9,787,426 inhabitants at the 2011 census. The citys metropolitan area is the most populous in the EU with 13,879,757 inhabitants, the city-region therefore has a similar land area and population to that of the New York metropolitan area. London was the worlds most populous city from around 1831 to 1925, Other famous landmarks include Buckingham Palace, the London Eye, Piccadilly Circus, St Pauls Cathedral, Tower Bridge, Trafalgar Square, and The Shard. The London Underground is the oldest underground railway network in the world, the etymology of London is uncertain. It is an ancient name, found in sources from the 2nd century and it is recorded c.121 as Londinium, which points to Romano-British origin, and hand-written Roman tablets recovered in the city originating from AD 65/70-80 include the word Londinio. The earliest attempted explanation, now disregarded, is attributed to Geoffrey of Monmouth in Historia Regum Britanniae and this had it that the name originated from a supposed King Lud, who had allegedly taken over the city and named it Kaerlud. From 1898, it was accepted that the name was of Celtic origin and meant place belonging to a man called *Londinos. The ultimate difficulty lies in reconciling the Latin form Londinium with the modern Welsh Llundain, which should demand a form *lōndinion, from earlier *loundiniom. The possibility cannot be ruled out that the Welsh name was borrowed back in from English at a later date, and thus cannot be used as a basis from which to reconstruct the original name. Until 1889, the name London officially applied only to the City of London, two recent discoveries indicate probable very early settlements near the Thames in the London area
3. Jan Verkolje – Johannes, or Jan Verkolje was a Dutch Golden Age painter and engraver, often called Jan I to distinguish him from his son Jan II. He is known for his portraits and genre pieces, Verkolje was baptized in the Nieuwezijds Kapel as the son of Benjamin Jacobsz, a locksmith, and Maria Tonnes. The couple lived not far away in Regulierbreestraat, near the Munttoren, within the same year his brother Jacob was baptised. Jan became a student of Jan Andrea Lievens, the son of Jan Lievens, according to Arnold Houbraken, he was a wunderkind, whose talent started with an accident. As a child playing with darts, he had the accident of receiving a dart in his heel. While in bed a man named Bronkhorst gave him some prints to copy, and thus he took up drawing, with the same amount of dedication, the young Jan Verkolje learned the art of perspective within a month. Then he took up painting in oils, and copied the works of Gerard van Zyl, also known as Gerards. Lievens then offered him a present, namely to witness the sale of paintings, whereby the buyers claimed they were too good to be by Lievens. They were then sold as Gerards paintings and this experience only fueled the artistic fervor of Verkolje further. Houbraken also claimed that Verkolje discovered the mezzotint technique on his own, in the rampjaar 1672 he moved from Amsterdam via Schipluiden to Delft, where he married in October 1672 with Judick Voorheul. He became a member of the Guild of St. Luke in 1673 serving as its dean between 1678 and 1688, Verkolje became very successful and would sell to the court in the Hague. His sons Nikolaas Verkolje and Jan II also became painters and his other pupils were Albertus van der Burch, Joan van der Spriet, Willem Verschuring, and Thomas van der Wilt. In addition to this list of names, Houbraken also mentions Henrik Steenwinkel, Verkolje died in Delft in 1693 aged 43 at the peak of his fame, and was buried in the Oude Kerk. He left a wife, three sons and two daughters, Houbraken intended to write a biographical sketch of Nicolaas, but never got that far, he died in 1719 before publication of Volume III, which contains Jan Verkoljes biographical sketch. A Music Party, from the Permanent Collection of the Utah Museum of Fine Arts, media related to Jan Verkolje at Wikimedia Commons Vermeer and The Delft School, a full text exhibition catalog from The Metropolitan Museum of Art, which contains material on Jan Verkolje
4. Increase Mather – Increase Mather was a major figure in the early history of the Massachusetts Bay Colony and Province of Massachusetts Bay. He was a Puritan minister who was involved with the government of the colony, the administration of Harvard College, and most notoriously and he was the son of Richard Mather, and the father of Cotton Mather, both influential Puritan ministers. He was the youngest of six brothers, the others being, Samuel, Nathaniel, Eleazar, Joseph, Three of his brothers also became ministers. In 1651 Mather was admitted to Harvard University where he roomed with, when he graduated in 1656 with a B. A. he began to train for the ministry and gave his first sermon on his 18th birthday. He quickly left Massachusetts and went to Ireland, where he studied at Trinity College and he graduated in 1659, and spent the next 3 years as a chaplain attached to a garrison in the Channel Islands. During his time at Trinity College he was licensed as a Commonwealth Minister by Oliver Cromwell to the joint charge of St. Tidas Church at Ballyscullion, on Cromwells death in 1658 his joint charge at these South Londonderry churches was quickly severed by the new authorities. Harvard later awarded him the first honorary degree in the New World, becoming a Doctor of Sacred Theology, in 1661, with the advent of the English Restoration and resurgence of Anglicanism, Increase returned to Massachusetts, where he married Maria Cotton. She was his stepsister by virtue of his fathers marriage to Sarah Hankredge, widow of John Cotton and she gave birth to Cotton Mather in February,1663. In 1676, he published A Brief History of the War with the Indians in New-England and he was ordained as minister of the North Church, whose congregation included many of the upper class and governing class, on May 27,1664. He held this post until he died, by virtue of his position he quickly became one of the most influential people in the colony, both religiously and politically. On June 11,1685 he became the Acting President of Harvard University and steadily advanced, on June 27,1692, he became the President of Harvard, a position which he held until September 6,1701. He was rarely present on campus or in the town, especially during his term of Rector as he was out of the Colony for all, in 1686 James revoked the Charter of Massachusetts in the process of creating the Dominion of New England. The 1687 Declaration of Indulgence, prohibiting discrimination against Catholics, saw staunch opposition from the Puritan establishment, when Mather successfully roused opposition to revocation of the charter, he was nearly framed for treason. He traveled to London to petition the King, following the Glorious Revolution and subsequent overthrow of Andros, a new charter was granted to the colony. Following Andros deposition and arrest, he had William Phips appointed as Royal Governor and they returned to Massachusetts, following his return, the administration of Harvard grew increasingly insistent that he reside nearer to the institution. Not wanting to leave his Second Church, he did not do so, as an influential member of the community, having handpicked Governor Phips and his deputy Stoughton, Increase was involved in the notorious witch hysteria of Salem, Massachusetts. In June and July 1692 as the trials and executions grew and it said, It were better that Ten Suspected Witches should escape, than that one Innocent Person should be Condemned. Notwithstanding this, his reputation was not improved afterwards or for posterity due to his association with the trials as well as his subsequent refusal, for whatever reasons, to denounce them
5. Arnold Houbraken – Arnold Houbraken was a Dutch painter and writer from Dordrecht, now remembered mainly as a biographer of artists from the Dutch Golden Age. Houbraken was sent first to learn threadtwisting from Johannes de Haan, after two years he then studied art with Willem van Drielenburch, who he was with during the rampjaar, the year 1672. He then studied 9 months with Jacobus Leveck and finally, four years with Samuel van Hoogstraten, in 1685 he married Sara Sasbout, and around 1709 he moved from Dordrecht to Amsterdam. Arnold Houbraken painted mythological and religious paintings, portraits and landscapes and his first attempt at an instructive manual for artists was his Emblem book, Inhoud van t Sieraad der Afbeelding, which was meant as a guide of possible painting themes. His registered pupils were Matthijs Balen, Johan Graham, and his son Jacob and his son Jacobus Houbraken was an engraver of portraits and book illustrations, including books by his father. His daughter Antonina Houbraken also became an engraver for an Amsterdam publisher and his daughter Christina Houbraken was also an artist. Arnold Houbrakens books sold well during the entire 18th century. Jacob Campo Weyerman published his version in serial form that was published as a complete set in 1769. Houbrakens engravings of the artists are in cases the only surviving portraits of these people. The first to make a sequel to Houbrakens work was Johan van Gool in 1750-51. Houbraken was very careful to check and double check his sources, excepting those cases where the artist died quite young, or whose oeuvre was lost during various wars, very few artists were included in the Schouburg who do not hang in international museums today. The first modern art historian to publish an update of his work was Adriaan van der Willigen, since then he has remained a valuable resource for art historians. The Schouburgh is part of the Basic Library of the dbnl which contains the 1000 most important works in Dutch literature from the Middle Ages to today
6. Netherlands Institute for Art History – The Netherlands Institute for Art History or RKD is located in The Hague and is home to the largest art history center in the world. The center specializes in documentation, archives, and books on Western art from the late Middle Ages until modern times, all of this is open to the public, and much of it has been digitized and is available on their website. The main goal of the bureau is to collect, categorize, via the available databases, the visitor can gain insight into archival evidence on the lives of many artists of past centuries. The library owns approximately 450,000 titles, of which ca.150,000 are auction catalogs, there are ca.3,000 magazines, of which 600 are currently running subscriptions. Though most of the text is in Dutch, the record format includes a link to library entries and images of known works. The RKD also manages the Dutch version of the Art and Architecture Thesaurus, the original version is an initiative of the Getty Research Institute in Los Angeles, California. Their bequest formed the basis for both the art collection and the library, which is now housed in the Koninklijke Bibliotheek. Though not all of the holdings have been digitised, much of its metadata is accessible online. The website itself is available in both a Dutch and an English user interface, in the artist database RKDartists, each artist is assigned a record number. To reference an artist page directly, use the code listed at the bottom of the record, usually of the form, https, for example, the artist record number for Salvador Dalí is 19752, so his RKD artist page can be referenced. In the images database RKDimages, each artwork is assigned a record number, to reference an artwork page directly, use the code listed at the bottom of the record, usually of the form, https, //rkd. nl/en/explore/images/ followed by the artworks record number. For example, the record number for The Night Watch is 3063. The Art and Architecture Thesaurus also assigns a record for each term, rather, they are used in the databases and the databases can be searched for terms. For example, the painting called The Night Watch is a militia painting, the thesaurus is a set of general terms, but the RKD also contains a database for an alternate form of describing artworks, that today is mostly filled with biblical references. To see all images that depict Miriams dance, the associated iconclass code 71E1232 can be used as a search term. Official website Direct link to the databases The Dutch version of the Art and Architecture Thesaurus