A queen consort is the wife of a reigning king. A queen consort shares her husband's social rank and status, she holds the feminine equivalent of the king's monarchical titles, but she does not share the king's political and military powers. A queen regnant is a queen in her own right with all the powers of a monarch, who has become queen by inheriting the throne upon the death of the previous monarch. In Brunei, the wife of the Sultan is known as a Raja Isteri with prefix Pengiran Anak, equivalent to queen consort in English, as were the consorts of tsars when Bulgaria was still a monarchy; the title of king consort for the husband of a reigning queen is not unheard of. Examples are: Lord Darnley, in Scotland. Where some title other than that of king is held by the sovereign, his wife is referred to by the feminine equivalent, such as princess consort or empress consort. In monarchies where polygamy has been practiced in the past, or is practiced today, the number of wives of the king varies.
In Morocco, King Mohammed VI has broken with tradition and given his wife, Lalla Salma, the title of princess. Prior to the reign of King Mohammed VI, the Moroccan monarchy had no such title. In Thailand, the king and queen must both be of royal descent; the king's other consorts are accorded royal titles. Other cultures maintain different traditions on queenly status. A Zulu chieftain designates one of his wives as "Great Wife", which would be the equivalent to queen consort. Conversely, in Yorubaland, all of a chief's consorts are of equal rank. Although one of their number the one, married to the chief for the longest time, may be given a chieftaincy of her own to highlight her higher status when compared to the other wives; when a woman is to be vested with an authority similar to that of the chief, she is a lady courtier in his service, not married to him, but, expected to lead his female subjects on his behalf. In general, the consorts of monarchs have no power per se when their position is constitutionally or statutorily recognized.
However the queen consort of a deceased king has served as regent if her child, the successor to the throne, was still a minor—for example: Anne of Kiev, wife of Henry I of France Munjeong, mother of King Myeongjong of Korea Mary of Guise, mother of Mary, Queen of Scots Catherine of Austria, grandmother of Sebastian of Portugal Marie de Medici, mother of Louis XIII of France Kösem Sultan, mother of Sultan Murad IV of the Ottoman Empire Luisa de Guzmán, mother of Afonso VI of Portugal Lakshmi Bai, the Rani of Jhansi and mother of Damodar Rao Maria Christina of Austria, mother of Alfonso XIII of Spain Emma of Waldeck and Pyrmont, mother of Wilhelmina of the Netherlands Anna Khanum, mother of Abbas II of Persia Helen of Greece, mother of King Michael of RomaniaBesides these examples, there have been many cases of queens consort being shrewd or ambitious stateswomen and unofficially, being among the king's most trusted advisors. In some cases, the queen consort has been the chief power behind her husband's throne.
Past queens consort: Queen Jang, consort to Sukjong of Joseon. Demoted back in 1694 to the rank of hui-bin, Royal Noble Consort Joseon rank 1 Queen Marie Antoinette, consort to Louis XVI of France Queen Charlotte was George III's consort for 57 years, 70 days, between 1761 and 1818, making her Britain's longest-tenured queen consort. Queen Mary, consort of George V Queen Elizabeth, consort of George VI Queen Fabiola, consort of Baudouin I of the Belgians Queen Paola, consort of Albert II of Belgium Queen Anne Marie, consort of Constantine II of Greece Queen Geraldine, consort of Zog I of Albania Queen Marie José, consort of Umberto II of Italy Queen Kapiolani, consort of King Kalākaua of Hawaiʻi Queen Soraya Tarzi, consort of King Amanullah Khan of Afghanistan Tsaritsa Ioanna, consort of Tsar Boris III of Bulgaria Queen Regent Saovabha Phongsri, consort of Chulalongkorn of Siam Panapillai Amma Srimathi Lakshmi Pilla Kochamma Chempakaraman Arumana Ammaveedu, wife of Visakham Thirunal Maharajah of Travancore Queen Catherine, first queen consort of Henry VIII of England, was regent when he was in a war in France.
Queen Hortense, consort of Louis Bonaparte, King of Holland Shahbanu Farah Pahlavi, consort of Mohammad Reza Pahlavi, Shah of Iran Queen Wilhelmine, consort of William I of the Netherlands Queen Anna Pavlovna, consort of William II of the Netherlands Queen Sophie, first consort of William III of the Netherlands Queen Emma, second consort of William III of the Netherlands: When William died on 23 November 1890, Emma became regent for her underaged daughter, the late king's only surviving child. Queen Ratna, second consort of Mahendra of Nepal Queen Sirikit, consort of King Bhumibol Adulyadej of Thailand Queen Ruth, consort of Seretse Khama, King of the Bamangwato Tswanas of BotswanaPast empresses consort: Empress Theodora, consort of Justinian I, East Roman Emperor Empress Ruqaiya Sultan Begum, consort of Akbar the Great, the third Mughal Emperor. Empress Hürrem Sultan, consort of Suleiman the Magnificent, Sultan of the Ottoman Empire, her imperial title was Haseki Sultan Empress Nur Jahan, consort of Jahangir, Mughal Emperor Empress Maria Theresa of Austria, consort of Francis I, Holy Roman Emperor Titular Empress Carlota Joaquina of Spain, consort of John VI
Alonso Enríquez known as Alfonso Enríquez was Lord of Medina de Rioseco and Admiral of Castile. Alonso Enriquez de Castilla was the son of Fadrique Alfonso, 25th Master of the Order of Santiago, an unnamed lady, his father was murdered on 29 May 1358 in the Alcázar of Seville, on the orders of his brother Peter. He was the founder of the lineage of Enriquez, is the first Admiral of Castile of his family since 1405, first lord of Medina de Rio Seco, his paternal grandparents were King Alfonso XI of Eleanor de Guzmán. He was a nephew of cousin of King John I of Castile, his brother was Pedro Enriquez de Castilla, Count of Trastámara and Sarria, Constable of Castile and Pertiguero mayor de Santiago. His sister was Eleanor of Castile. Alonso Enriquez remained hidden while living his uncle Pedro I of Castile, who ordered to kill his father in 1358 in the Alcazar of Seville. Although contemporary Castilian chroniclers wrapped the figure of his mother in mystery and genealogists do not mention her, other authors, for example, the Portuguese Fernão Lopes wrote in connection with events that occurred in 1384, that the Admiral was the son of a Jewess.
The "Memorial of old things" attributed to the dean of Toledo, Diego de Castilla, said Fadrique had Alonso from a Jewess from Guadalcanal called Paloma. He tells a story where King Ferdinand the Catholic was hunting and was a hawk with a heron and both walked away, leaving the king to follow, Martin de Rojas was always with the hawk until he saw it leave and throw after a dove. Asking the king for his hawk, Martin replied, "Lord, there goes after our grandmother", being Martin a descendant of Paloma himself. In 1389, John I of Castile gave him the area around Aguilar de Campos. In years, he managed to extend his territory; until 1402, he administered the castle of Medina de Rioseco. In 1387, Alonso married Juana de Mendoza y de Orozco. In 1395, together with his wife, he restarted the construction of the Monastery of Santa Clara de Palencia, begun by Henry II of Castile and his wife Queen Juana Manuel, by planning the church and cemetery of the Admirals of Castile, it is conjectured that it must have been at the behest of his wife that the title of Admiral of Castile passed to him upon the death of her brother Diego Hurtado de Mendoza in 1405, who held that post.
In addition to military action at sea, this post involved trying to obtain civil and criminal jurisdiction over all ports of the kingdom of Granada, culminating after three years with the taking of Antequera. The Enríquez family held the title of Admiral of Castile from 1405 to 1705. Alfonso was the most famous admiral in the family, winning many sea battles. In 1407, he defeated the combined fleet of Tunis and Tlemcen; this was his last major sea battle. Afterward, he inspected the fleet and led military actions on land, such as the capture of Antequera in 1410, he was involved in its feasts. In 1421, John II of Castile granted him the lordship of Medina de Rio Seco "for the many good and loyal and outstanding and distinguished services done to King Don Juan my grandfather and to King Henry my father and my lord, still does to me," instead he chose to settle and establish primogeniture in favor of his children; the city is since known as the City of the admirals. At the end of his life, he retired to the monastery of Santa María de Guadalupe, where he died in 1429 at the age of 75.
He was buried with his wife and several children in the monastery of Santa Clara de Palencia, which they had been founders. In his will, he left the monastery 11000maravedís for the construction of four chapels, his widow donated another 10000maravedís. The poet and biographer Fernán Pérez de Guzmán, a contemporary of Alonso's, described him as medium-sized, red-haired and not a talker; the historian Esteban de Garibay described him as hot-tempered and irritated. In 1387, Alonso Enriquez, posing as a servant, asked Juana de Mendoza; the disguised Alonso received the answer that Alonso Enríquez was the son of a "marrana", at which the supposed servant slapped her. Revealing his trickery, it is said, requested the presence of a priest to marry them "for let it not be said that any man had raised his hand to her, not her husband." It is said that on one occasion, having arrived late at night, he had to sleep with his company in the field, receiving the explanation the following day from the haughty Mendoza that "No self respecting Castilian woman would open the doors of her castle to anyone at night."
The result of his marriage to Juana de Mendoza were thirteen children: Fadrique Enriquez, married to Mariana Fernandez de Cordoba and Ayala, father of Queen Juana of Aragon.
Virtual International Authority File
The Virtual International Authority File is an international authority file. It is a joint project of several national libraries and operated by the Online Computer Library Center. Discussion about having a common international authority started in the late 1990s. After a series of failed attempts to come up with a unique common authority file, the new idea was to link existing national authorities; this would present all the benefits of a common file without requiring a large investment of time and expense in the process. The project was initiated by the US Library of Congress, the German National Library and the OCLC on August 6, 2003; the Bibliothèque nationale de France joined the project on October 5, 2007. The project transitioned to being a service of the OCLC on April 4, 2012; the aim is to link the national authority files to a single virtual authority file. In this file, identical records from the different data sets are linked together. A VIAF record receives a standard data number, contains the primary "see" and "see also" records from the original records, refers to the original authority records.
The data are available for research and data exchange and sharing. Reciprocal updating uses the Open Archives Initiative Protocol for Metadata Harvesting protocol; the file numbers are being added to Wikipedia biographical articles and are incorporated into Wikidata. VIAF's clustering algorithm is run every month; as more data are added from participating libraries, clusters of authority records may coalesce or split, leading to some fluctuation in the VIAF identifier of certain authority records. Authority control Faceted Application of Subject Terminology Integrated Authority File International Standard Authority Data Number International Standard Name Identifier Wikipedia's authority control template for articles Official website VIAF at OCLC
Ferdinand II of Aragon
Ferdinand II, called the Catholic, was King of Aragon from 1479 until his death. His marriage in 1469 to Isabella, the future queen of Castile, was the marital and political "cornerstone in the foundation of the Spanish monarchy." As a consequence of his marriage to Isabella I, he was de jure uxoris King of Castile as Ferdinand V from 1474 until her death in 1504. At Isabella's death the crown of Castile passed to their daughter Joanna, by the terms of their prenuptial agreement and her last will and testament. Following the death of Joanna's husband Philip I of Spain, her alleged mental illness, Ferdinand was recognized as regent of Castile from 1508 until his own death. In 1504, after a war with France, he became King of Naples as Ferdinand III, reuniting Naples with Sicily permanently and for the first time since 1458. In 1512, he became King of Navarre by conquest. In 1506 he married Germaine of Foix of France, but Ferdinand's only son and child of that marriage died soon after birth. Ferdinand had a role in inaugurating the first European encounters in the future Americas, since he and Isabella sponsored the first voyage of Christopher Columbus, in 1492.
That year was the final victory in the war with Granada which defeated the last Muslim state in Iberia and all of Western Europe. This brought to a close the centuries-long Christian reconquest of Iberia. For that Christian victory, Pope Alexander VI, born in the Kingdom of Valencia, awarded the royal couple the title of Catholic Monarchs. At Ferdinand's death Joanna's son, Ferdinand's grandson, Charles I, co-ruler in name over all the several Iberian kingdoms except for Portugal, succeeded him, making Charles the first King of Spain. However, during the regency of Ferdinand, many called him the King of Spain as distinct from his daughter Joanna, "queen of Castile". Ferdinand was born in Sada Palace, Sos del Rey Católico, Kingdom of Aragon, as the son of John II of Aragon by his second wife, Juana Enríquez, he married Infanta Isabella, the half-sister and heiress of Henry IV of Castile, on 19 October 1469 in Valladolid, Kingdom of Castile and Leon. Isabella belonged to the royal House of Trastámara, the two were cousins by descent from John I of Castile.
They were married with a clear prenuptial agreement on sharing power, under the joint motto "tanto monta, monta tanto." He became jure uxoris King of Castile when Isabella succeeded her deceased brother in 1474 to be crowned as Queen Isabella I of Castile. The two young monarchs were obliged to fight a civil war against Joan of Castile, the purported daughter of Henry IV, were swiftly successful; when Ferdinand succeeded his father as King of Aragon in 1479, the Crown of Castile and the various territories of the Crown of Aragon were united in a personal union. The various states were not formally administered as a single unit, but as separate political units under the same Crown; the first years of Ferdinand and Isabella's joint rule saw the Spanish conquest of the Nasrid dynasty of the Emirate of Granada, the last Islamic al-Andalus entity on the Iberian peninsula, completed in 1492. The completion of the Reconquista was not the only significant act performed by Ferdinand and Isabella in that year.
In March 1492, the monarchs issued the Edict of Expulsion of the Jews called the Alhambra Decree, a document which ordered all Jews either to be baptised and convert to Christianity or to leave the country. It allowed Mudéjar Moors and converso Marrano Jews to stay, while expelling all unconverted Jews from Castile and Aragon. 1492 was the year in which the monarchs commissioned Christopher Columbus to find a westward maritime route for access to Asia, which resulted in the Spanish arrival in the Americas. In 1494 the Treaty of Tordesillas divided the entire world beyond Europe between Portugal and Castile for conquest and dominion purposes – by a north–south line drawn down the Atlantic Ocean. Ferdinand violated the 1491 Treaty of Granada peace treaty in 1502 by dismissing the guaranteed religious freedom for Mudéjar Muslims. Ferdinand forced all Muslims in Castile and Aragon to convert, converso Moriscos, to Catholicism, or else be expelled; some of the Muslims who remained were mudéjar artisans, who could design and build in the Moorish style.
This was practised by the Spanish inquisitors on the converso Marrano Jewish population of Spain. The main architect behind the Spanish Inquisition was King Ferdinand II. Ferdinand destroyed over ten thousand Arabic manuscripts in Granada alone; the latter part of Ferdinand's life was taken up with disputes with successive Kings of France over control of Italy, the so-called Italian Wars. In 1494, Charles VIII of France invaded Italy and expelled Alfonso II, Ferdinand's first cousin once removed and stepson of Ferdinand's sister, from the throne of Naples. Ferdinand allied with various Italian princes and with Emperor Maximilian I to expel the French by 1496 and install Alfonso's son, Ferdinand, on the Neapolitan throne. In 1501, following the death of Ferdinand II of Naples and accession of his uncle Frederick, Ferdinand signed an agreement with Charles VIII's successor, Louis XII, who had just asserted his claims to the Duchy of Milan, to partition Naples between them, w
John I of Castile
John I was king of the Crown of Castile from 1379 until 1390. He was the son of Henry II and of his wife Juana Manuel of Castile, he was the last monarch of Castile to receive a formal coronation. His first marriage, to Eleanor of Aragon on 18 June 1375, produced his only known issue: Henry, succeeded his father as King of Castile. Ferdinand, became King of Aragon in 1412. Eleanor, died young. In 1379, John I formed the short lived military order of the Order of the Pigeon, known for its large feasts which included eating the organization's namesake, the pigeon, he ransomed Leon V of the House of Lusignan, the last Latin king of the Armenian Kingdom of Cilicia, from the Mamluks and out of pity granted him the lifetime lordship of Madrid, Villa Real and Andújar in 1383. He engaged in hostilities with Portugal. On the death of his father-in-law, John endeavoured to enforce the claims of his wife, Ferdinand's only child, to the crown of Portugal; the 1383-1385 Crisis, a period of civil unrest and anarchy in Portugal, followed.
He was resisted by supporters of his rival for the throne, John I of Portugal, was utterly defeated at the battle of Aljubarrota, on 14 August 1385. He had to contend with the hostility of John of Gaunt, who claimed the crown of Castile by right of his wife Constance, the eldest daughter of Peter of Castile; the king of Castile bought off the claim of his English competitor by arranging a marriage in 1388 between his son Henry and Catherine, daughter of Constance and John of Gaunt, as part of the treaty ratified at Bayonne. At the beginning of 1383, the political situation in Portugal was volatile. Beatrice was the only child of King Ferdinand I of Portugal, heir to the throne, after her younger brothers' deaths in 1380 and 1382, her marriage was the political issue of the day, inside the palace, factions lobbied constantly. Ferdinand arranged and canceled his daughter's wedding several times before settling for his wife's first choice, King John I of Castile. John had lost his wife, Infanta Eleanor of Aragon the year before, was happy to wed the Portuguese heiress.
The wedding took place on 17 May at the Cathedral of Badajoz. Beatrice was only ten years old. King Ferdinand died soon thereafter, on 22 October 1383. According to the treaty between Castile and Portugal, the Queen Mother, Leonor Telles de Menezes, declared herself Regent in the name of her daughter and son-in-law; the assumption of the regency by the queen was badly received in many Portuguese cities. At the request of John I of Castile, when he had knowledge of his father-in-law's decease, Leonor ordered the acclaim of Beatrice, although John I of Castile hadn't expressly recognized her as the Regent; this was ordered first in Lisbon, Santarém and other important places, some days after the assassination of Count Andeiro, in all the country. The national rebellion led by the Master of the Order of Aviz, the future John I, began leading to the 1383-1385 Crisis. King John of Castile invaded Portugal in the end of December 1383, to enforce his claim to be king by right of his wife; the consequent war was ended in 1385, with the defeat of Castile in the Battle of Aljubarrota on 14 August.
In the aftermath of this battle, John of Aviz became the uncontested King of Portugal. John of Castile and Beatrice no longer had a tenable claim to the throne of Portugal, but during the lifetime of John I of Castile, they continued to call themselves king and queen of Portugal. To secure the succession of the throne of Portugal, the Portuguese Cortes on 2 April 1383 in Salvaterra de Magos covenanted marriage between Beatrice and John I of Castile, with the stipulation that upon the death of Ferdinand I, with no issue of sons, the crown would pass to Beatrice, her husband become titular king of Portugal. Although John I of Castile could call himself king of Portugal, the Spanish and Portuguese parties agreed not to unite the kingdoms of Castile and Portugal, therefore, widow of King Ferdinand, would remain regent of the government of Portugal until Beatrice had a son who upon reaching fourteen years of age would assume the title and office of King of Portugal, his parents' claim cease. If Beatrice died childless, the crown would pass to other hypothetical younger sisters, if not, the crown would pass to John I of Castile, through him to his son Henry, thus disinheriting the line of Inês de Castro.
Pedro de Luna, a Papal legate to the realms of Castile, Aragon and Navarre, pronounced the betrothal in Elvas on 14 May, the wedding ceremony took place on 17 May at the Cathedral of Badajoz. To ensure compliance with the treaty, on 22 May a group of Castilian knights and prelates of the kingdom swore an oath to depose their king if the Castilian king dishonoured the commitments agreed in the treaty, a corresponding group of Portuguese knights and prelates vowed to do the same if the king of Portugal broke the treaty with Castile, among them the Master of Aviz. King Ferdinand I of Portugal had died on 22 October 1383, his widow, Leonor Telles de Menezes, under the Treaty of Salvaterra de Magos and by the previous testament of the deceased king, declared herself Regent in the name of her daughter and son-in-law. From onwards, Leonor ruled with her lover, João Fernandes Andeiro, second Count of Ourém called "Conde Andeiro", a Galician, Fernando's chancellor, which
Francis Bacon, 1st Viscount St Alban, was an English philosopher and statesman who served as Attorney General and as Lord Chancellor of England. His works are credited with developing the scientific method and remained influential through the scientific revolution. Bacon has been called the father of empiricism, his works argued for the possibility of scientific knowledge based only upon inductive reasoning and careful observation of events in nature. Most he argued science could be achieved by use of a sceptical and methodical approach whereby scientists aim to avoid misleading themselves. Although his practical ideas about such a method, the Baconian method, did not have a long-lasting influence, the general idea of the importance and possibility of a sceptical methodology makes Bacon the father of the scientific method; this method was a new rhetorical and theoretical framework for science, the practical details of which are still central in debates about science and methodology. Bacon was a patron of libraries and developed a functional system for the cataloging of books by dividing them into three categories—history and philosophy—which could further be divided into more specific subjects and subheadings.
Bacon was educated at Trinity College, where he rigorously followed the medieval curriculum in Latin. Bacon was the first recipient of the Queen's counsel designation, conferred in 1597 when Queen Elizabeth reserved Bacon as her legal advisor. After the accession of King James I in 1603, Bacon was knighted, he was created Baron Verulam in 1618 and Viscount St. Alban in 1621; because he had no heirs, both titles became extinct upon his death at 65 years. Bacon died of pneumonia, with one account by John Aubrey stating that he had contracted the condition while studying the effects of freezing on the preservation of meat, he is buried at St Michael's Church, St Albans, Hertfordshire. Francis Bacon was born on 22 January 1561 at York House near the Strand in London, the son of Sir Nicholas Bacon by his second wife, Anne Bacon, the daughter of the noted humanist Anthony Cooke, his mother's sister was married to 1st Baron Burghley, making Burghley Bacon's uncle. Biographers believe that Bacon was educated at home in his early years owing to poor health, which would plague him throughout his life.
He received tuition from a graduate of Oxford with a strong leaning toward Puritanism. He went up to Trinity College at the University of Cambridge on 5 April 1573 at the age of 12, living for three years there, together with his older brother Anthony Bacon under the personal tutelage of Dr John Whitgift, future Archbishop of Canterbury. Bacon's education was conducted in Latin and followed the medieval curriculum, he was educated at the University of Poitiers. It was at Cambridge that Bacon first met Queen Elizabeth, impressed by his precocious intellect, was accustomed to calling him "The young lord keeper", his studies brought him to the belief that the methods and results of science as practised were erroneous. His reverence for Aristotle conflicted with his rejection of Aristotelian philosophy, which seemed to him barren and wrong in its objectives. On 27 June 1576, he and Anthony entered de societate magistrorum at Gray's Inn. A few months Francis went abroad with Sir Amias Paulet, the English ambassador at Paris, while Anthony continued his studies at home.
The state of government and society in France under Henry III afforded him valuable political instruction. For the next three years he visited Blois, Tours and Spain. During his travels, Bacon studied language and civil law while performing routine diplomatic tasks. On at least one occasion he delivered diplomatic letters to England for Walsingham and Leicester, as well as for the queen; the sudden death of his father in February 1579 prompted Bacon to return to England. Sir Nicholas had laid up a considerable sum of money to purchase an estate for his youngest son, but he died before doing so, Francis was left with only a fifth of that money. Having borrowed money, Bacon got into debt. To support himself, he took up his residence in law at Gray's Inn in 1579, his income being supplemented by a grant from his mother Lady Anne of the manor of Marks near Romford in Essex, which generated a rent of £46. Bacon stated that he had three goals: to uncover truth, to serve his country, to serve his church.
He sought to further these ends by seeking a prestigious post. In 1580, through his uncle, Lord Burghley, he applied for a post at court that might enable him to pursue a life of learning, but his application failed. For two years he worked at Gray's Inn, until he was admitted as an outer barrister in 1582, his parliamentary career began when he was elected MP for Bossiney, Cornwall, in a by-election in 1581. In 1584 he took his seat in parliament for Melcombe in Dorset, in 1586 for Taunton. At this time, he began to write on the condition of parties in the church, as well as on the topic of philosophical reform in the lost tract Temporis Partus Maximus, yet he failed to gain a position. He showed signs of sympathy to Puritanism, attending the sermons of the Puritan chaplain of Gray's Inn and accompanying his mother to the Temple Church to hear Walter Travers; this led to the publication of his earliest surviving tract, which criticised the English church's suppression of the Puritan clergy. In the Parliament of 1586, he urged execution for the Catholic Mary, Queen of Scots.
About this time, he again approached his powerful uncle for help. He became a bencher in 1586 and was elected a
Ferdinand I of Naples
Ferdinand I of Naples should not be confused with Ferdinand I of the Two Sicilies, a king of Naples. Ferdinand I called Ferrante, was the King of Naples from 1458 to 1494, he was the son of his mistress, Giraldona Carlino. His mother was Giraldona Carlino. In order to arrange a good future for Ferdinand, King Alfonso had him married in 1444 to a feudal heiress, Isabella of Clermont, besides being the elder daughter of Tristan di Chiaramonte, Count of Copertino, Catherine of Baux Orsini, was the niece and heiress presumptive of childless prince Giovanni Antonio del Balzo Orsini of Taranto, she was a granddaughter of Mary of Enghien, queen consort of Naples between 1406 and 1414. Ferdinand's wife was the heiress presumptive of remarkable feudal possessions in Southern Italy, he used King of Naples and Jerusalem. In accordance with his father's will, Ferdinand succeeded Alfonso on the throne of Naples in 1458, when he was 35 years old. Pope Calixtus III, declared the line of Aragon extinct and the kingdom a fief of the church.
Calixtus died before he could make good his claim, the new Pope Pius II within the year publicly recognized Ferdinand's titles. In 1459, Ferdinand's rule was threatened by a long revolt of the barons. Among the leaders of revolt were Giovanni Antonio Orsini, prince of Taranto and uncle of Ferdinand's wife; the rebels joined to offer the crown to John of Anjou, a son of the former king René. With the help of the Genoese, John brought a fleet and landed taking some towns including Nocera. On July 7, 1460, Ferdinand was defeated by John in the plain beside the mouth of the Sarno River south of Mount Vesuvius. Ferdinand was nearly escaped with a guard of only twenty men; the pope and the duke of Milan sent reinforcements under the count of Urbino Federico da Montefeltro and condottiero Alessandro Sforza, but these arrived after the defeat and were themselves crushed by John's ally Piccinino at San Fabriano. Despite subsequently receiving the surrender of most of the strongholds in Campania, John did not march on Naples and Ferdinand and his wife Isabella were able to hold it and regain their position.
Isabella appears to have been responsible for dissuading Orsini from supporting John and Genoa removed its, assistance. The papacy and the Albanian chief Skanderbeg—who came to the aid of the prince whose father had aided him—provided forces which decisively defeated John's land forces at Troia on August 18, 1462, his fleet was demolished by the combined forces of Ferdinand and King Juan II of Aragon off Ischia in July 1465. By 1464, Ferdinand had re-established his authority in the kingdom, although some antipathy from the barons remained. In 1478 he allied himself with Pope Sixtus IV against Lorenzo de' Medici, but the latter journeyed alone to Naples, where he succeeded in negotiating an honorable peace with Ferdinand; the original intent of making Taranto as his and his heirs' main principality was no longer current, but still it was a strengthening of Ferdinand's resources and position that his wife in 1463 succeeded her uncle Giovanni Antonio del Balzo Orsini as possessor of the rich Taranto and other fiefs in Apulia.
Isabella became the holder of Brienne's rights to the Kingdom of Jerusalem. Ferdinand's wife Isabella had died in 1465, by 1476, Ferdinand had remarried Joanna of Aragon, his first cousin. In 1480, forces of the Ottoman Empire under orders of Mehmed II captured Otranto, massacred the majority of the inhabitants, but in the following year it was retaken by Ferdinand's son Alphonso, duke of Calabria. In 1482, abandoning his traditional position of paladin of the Papal States, he fought alongside Ferrara and Milan against the alliance of Sixtus IV and the Republic of Venice. Ferdinand's oppressive government led in 1485 to a reinvigorated rebellion of the aristocracy, known as the Conspiracy of the Barons, which included Francesco Coppola and Antonello Sanseverino of Salerno and supported by Pope Innocent VIII. Coppola and Antonello Petrucci were arrested during a wedding at Castel Nuovo, subsequently executed; this uprising was crushed, many of the nobles, notwithstanding Ferdinand's signing of a general amnesty, were afterwards jailed and executed at his command.
In December 1491 Ferdinand was visited by a group of pilgrims on their return from the Holy Land. This group was led by Landgrave of Hesse. Encouraged by Ludovico Sforza of Milan, in 1493 King Charles VIII of France was preparing to invade Italy for the conquest of Naples and starting the Italian Wars, Ferdinand realized that this was a greater danger than any he had yet faced. With prophetic instinct he warned the Italian princes of the calamities in store for them, but his negotiations with Pope Alexander VI and Ludovico Sforza failed, he died on 25 January 1494. The cause of his death was determined in 2006 to have been colorectal cancer, by examination of his mummy, his remains show levels of carbon 13 and nitrogen 15 consistent with historical reports of considerable consumption of meat. According to the Encyclopædia Britannica Eleventh Edition, "Ferdinand was gifted with great courage and real political ability, but his method of government was vicious and disastrous, his financial administration was based on oppressive and dishonest monopolies, he was mercilessly severe and utterly treacherous towards his enemies."
Ferdinand had many enemies considerin