Chocolate chip cookie
A chocolate chip cookie is a drop cookie that originated in the United States and features chocolate chips or chocolate morsels as its distinguishing ingredient. Circa 1938, Ruth Graves Wakefield added chopped up bits from a Nestlé semi-sweet chocolate bar into a cookie; the traditional recipe starts with a dough composed of butter and both brown and white sugar, semi-sweet chocolate chips and vanilla. Variations on the recipe may add other types of chocolate, as well as additional ingredients such as nuts or oatmeal. There are vegan versions with the necessary ingredient substitutions, such as vegan chocolate chips, vegan margarine, egg substitute, so forth. A chocolate chocolate chip cookie uses a dough flavored with chocolate, before chocolate chips are mixed in; the chocolate chip cookie was invented by the American chef Ruth Graves Wakefield and chef Sue Brides in 1938. She invented the recipe during the period when she owned the Toll House Inn, in Whitman, Massachusetts. In this era, the Toll House Inn was a popular restaurant.
Thus began the nationwide craze for the chocolate chip cookie. The recipe for chocolate chip cookies was brought to the UK in 1956, with Maryland Cookies one of the UK's best selling chocolate chip cookies; every bag of Nestlé chocolate chips sold in North America has a variation of her original recipe printed on the back. The original recipe was passed down to Peg. In a 2017 interview, she shared the original recipe: 1 1/2 cups shortening 1 1/8 cups sugar 1 1/8 cups brown sugar 3 eggs 1 1/2 teaspoon salt 3 1/8 cups of flour 1 1/2 teaspoon hot water 1 1/2 teaspoon baking soda 1 1/2 teaspoon vanilla chocolate chips Although the Nestlé's Toll House recipe is known, every brand of chocolate chips, or "semi-sweet chocolate morsels" in Nestlé parlance, sold in the U. S. and Canada bears a variant of the chocolate chip cookie recipe on its packaging. All baking-oriented cookbooks will contain at least one type of recipe. All commercial bakeries offer their own version of the cookie in packaged baked or ready-to-bake forms.
There are at least three national chains that sell freshly baked chocolate chip cookies in shopping malls and standalone retail locations. Several businesses—including Doubletree hotels—offer freshly baked cookies to their patrons to differentiate themselves from their competition. To honor the cookie's creation in the state, on July 9, 1997, Massachusetts designated the chocolate chip cookie as the Official State Cookie, after it was proposed by a third-grade class from Somerset, Massachusetts. Chocolate chip cookies are made with white sugar; some recipes include milk or nuts in the dough. Depending on the ratio of ingredients and mixing and cooking times, some recipes are optimized to produce a softer, chewy style cookie while others will produce a crunchy/crispy style. Regardless of ingredients, the procedure for making the cookie is consistent in all recipes: First, the sugars and fat are creamed with a wooden spoon or electric mixer. Next, the eggs and vanilla extract are added followed by leavening agent.
Depending on the additional flavoring, its addition to the mix will be determined by the type used: peanut butter will be added with the wet ingredients while cocoa powder would be added with the dry ingredients. The titular ingredient, chocolate chips, as well as nuts are mixed in towards the end of the process to minimize breakage, just before the cookies are scooped and positioned on a cookie sheet. Most cookie dough is baked, although some eat the dough as is, or use it as an addition to vanilla ice cream to make chocolate chip cookie dough ice cream; the texture of a chocolate chip cookie is dependent on its fat composition and the type of fat used. A study done by Kansas State University showed that carbohydrate based fat-replacers were more to bind more water, leaving less water available to aid in the spread of the cookie while baking; this resulted in more cake-like cookies with less spread. The M&M cookie, or party cookie, replaces the
National Library of Australia
The National Library of Australia is the largest reference library in Australia, responsible under the terms of the National Library Act for "maintaining and developing a national collection of library material, including a comprehensive collection of library material relating to Australia and the Australian people." In 2012–13, the National Library collection comprised 6,496,772 items, an additional 15,506 metres of manuscript material. It is located in Parkes, Canberra, ACT; the National Library of Australia, while formally established by the passage of the National Library Act 1960, had been functioning as a national library rather than a Parliamentary Library since its inception. In 1901, a Commonwealth Parliamentary Library was established to serve the newly formed Federal Parliament of Australia. From its inception the Commonwealth Parliamentary Library was driven to development of a national collection. In 1907 the Joint Parliamentary Library Committee under the Chairmanship of the Speaker, Sir Frederick William Holder defined the objective of the Commonwealth Parliamentary Library in the following words: The Library Committee is keeping before it the ideal of building up, for the time when Parliament shall be established in the Federal Capital, a great Public Library on the lines of the world-famed Library of Congress at Washington.
The present library building was opened on 15 August 1968 by Prime Minister John Gorton. The building was designed by the architectural firm of Bunning and Madden in the Late Twentieth Century Stripped Classical style; the foyer is decorated in marble, with stained-glass windows by Leonard French and three tapestries by Mathieu Matégot. The building was listed on the Australian Commonwealth Heritage List on 22 June 2004. In 2012–13 the Library collection comprised 6,496,772 items, with an estimated additional 2,325,900 items held in the manuscripts collection; the Library's collections of Australiana have developed into the nation's single most important resource of materials recording the Australian cultural heritage. Australian writers and illustrators are sought and well represented—whether published in Australia or overseas; the Library's collection includes all formats of material, from books, journals and manuscripts to pictures, maps, oral history recordings, manuscript papers and ephemera.
92.1% of the Library's collection has been catalogued and is discoverable through the online catalogue. The Library has digitized over 174,000 items from its collection and, where possible, delivers these directly across the Internet; the Library is a world leader in digital preservation techniques, maintains an Internet-accessible archive of selected Australian websites called the Pandora Archive. The Library collects material produced by Australians, for Australians or about the Australian experience in all formats—not just printed works—books, newspapers, posters and printed ephemera—but online publications and unpublished material such as manuscripts and oral histories. A core Australiana collection is that of John A. Ferguson; the Library has particular collection strengths in the performing arts, including dance. The Library's considerable collections of general overseas and rare book materials, as well as world-class Asian and Pacific collections which augment the Australiana collections.
The print collections are further supported by extensive microform holdings. The Library maintains the National Reserve Braille Collection; the Library houses the largest and most developing research resource on Asia in Australia, the largest Asian language collections in the Southern hemisphere, with over half a million volumes in the collection, as well as extensive online and electronic resources. The Library collects resources about all Asian countries in Western languages extensively, resources in the following Asian languages: Burmese, Persian, Japanese, Korean, Manchu, Thai and Vietnamese; the Library has acquired a number of important Western and Asian language scholarly collections from researchers and bibliophiles. These collections include: Australian Buddhist Library Collection Braga Collection Claasz Collection Coedes Collection London Missionary Society Collection Luce Collection McLaren-Human Collection Otley Beyer Collection Sakakibara Collection Sang Ye Collection Simon Collection Harold S. Williams Collection The Asian Collections are searchable via the National Library's catalogue.
The National Library holds an extensive collection of manuscripts. The manuscript collection contains about 26 million separate items, covering in excess of 10,492 meters of shelf space; the collection relates predominantly to Australia, but there are important holdings relating to Papua New Guinea, New Zealand and the Pacific. The collection holds a number of European and Asian manuscript collections or single items have been received as part of formed book collections; the Australian manuscript collections date from the period of maritime exploration and settlement in the 18th century until the present, with the greatest area of strength dating from the 1890s onwards. The collection includes a large number of outstanding single items, such as the 14th century Chertsey Cartulary, the journal of James Cook on the HM Bark Endeavour, inscribed on t
National Diet Library
The National Diet Library is the national library of Japan and among the largest libraries in the world. It was established in 1948 for the purpose of assisting members of the National Diet of Japan in researching matters of public policy; the library is similar in scope to the United States Library of Congress. The National Diet Library consists of two main facilities in Tōkyō and Kyōtō, several other branch libraries throughout Japan; the National Diet Library is the successor of three separate libraries: the library of the House of Peers, the library of the House of Representatives, both of which were established at the creation of Japan's Imperial Diet in 1890. The Diet's power in prewar Japan was limited, its need for information was "correspondingly small"; the original Diet libraries "never developed either the collections or the services which might have made them vital adjuncts of genuinely responsible legislative activity". Until Japan's defeat, the executive had controlled all political documents, depriving the people and the Diet of access to vital information.
The U. S. occupation forces under General Douglas MacArthur deemed reform of the Diet library system to be an important part of the democratization of Japan after its defeat in World War II. In 1946, each house of the Diet formed its own National Diet Library Standing Committee. Hani Gorō, a Marxist historian, imprisoned during the war for thought crimes and had been elected to the House of Councillors after the war, spearheaded the reform efforts. Hani envisioned the new body as "both a'citadel of popular sovereignty'", the means of realizing a "peaceful revolution"; the Occupation officers responsible for overseeing library reforms reported that, although the Occupation was a catalyst for change, local initiative pre-existed the Occupation, the successful reforms were due to dedicated Japanese like Hani. The National Diet Library opened in June 1948 in the present-day State Guest-House with an initial collection of 100,000 volumes; the first Librarian of the Diet Library was the politician Tokujirō Kanamori.
The philosopher Masakazu Nakai served as the first Vice Librarian. In 1949, the NDL became the only national library in Japan. At this time the collection gained an additional million volumes housed in the former National Library in Ueno. In 1961, the NDL opened at its present location in Nagatachō, adjacent to the National Diet. In 1986, the NDL's Annex was completed to accommodate a combined total of 12 million books and periodicals; the Kansai-kan, which opened in October 2002 in the Kansai Science City, has a collection of 6 million items. In May 2002, the NDL opened a new branch, the International Library of Children's Literature, in the former building of the Imperial Library in Ueno; this branch contains some 400,000 items of children's literature from around the world. Though the NDL's original mandate was to be a research library for the National Diet, the general public is the largest consumer of the library's services. In the fiscal year ending March 2004, for example, the library reported more than 250,000 reference inquiries.
As Japan's national library, the NDL collects copies of all publications published in Japan. Moreover, because the NDL serves as a research library for Diet members, their staffs, the general public, it maintains an extensive collection of materials published in foreign languages on a wide range of topics; the NDL has eight major specialized collections: Modern Political and Constitutional History. The Modern Political and Constitutional History Collection comprises some 300,000 items related to Japan's political and legal modernization in the 19th century, including the original document archives of important Japanese statesmen from the latter half of the 19th century and the early 20th century like Itō Hirobumi, Iwakura Tomomi, Sanjō Sanetomi, Mutsu Munemitsu, Terauchi Masatake, other influential figures from the Meiji and Taishō periods; the NDL has an extensive microform collection of some 30 million pages of documents relating to the Occupation of Japan after World War II. This collection include the documents prepared by General Headquarters and the Supreme Commander of the Allied Powers, the Far Eastern Commission, the United States Strategic Bombing Survey Team.
The Laws and Preliminary Records Collection consists of some 170,000 Japanese and 200,000 foreign-language documents concerning proceedings of the National Diet and the legislatures of some 70 foreign countries, the official gazettes, judicial opinions, international treaties pertaining to some 150 foreign countries. The NDL maintains a collection of some 530,000 books and booklets and 2 million microform titles relating to the sciences; these materials include, among other things, foreign doctoral dissertations in the sciences, the proceedings and reports of academic societies, catalogues of technical standards, etc. The NDL has a collection of 440,000 maps of Japan and other countries, including the topographica
St. Cloud State University
St. Cloud State University is a public university founded in 1869 above the Beaver Islands on the Mississippi River in St. Cloud, United States; the university is one of the largest schools in the Minnesota State Colleges and Universities system, the largest provider of higher education in Minnesota. A regional comprehensive university, SCSU has nearly 110,000 alumni. St. Cloud State opened its doors under the name Third State Normal School; the school was one building, the Stearns House, a renovated hotel purchased by the state Legislature for $3,000. Classrooms were on the first floor, the model school was on the second floor and a women's dormitory was housed on the third floor; the five-member faculty was headed by Principal Ira Moore. Of the 53 original students, 43 were women; as the number of female students increased, Stearns House was transformed into a women's dormitory in 1874. In 1898, the school began offering a junior college curriculum. In 1914, the school dropped its secondary education program.
The Legislature authorized a name change in 1921 to St. Cloud State Teachers College. In 1957, the word "Teachers" was deleted; the first bachelor's degrees were awarded in 1925. Master's degree programs were first offered in 1953. In 1975, St. Cloud State became a university, comprising a graduate school; the Herberger Business School is one of only six nationally accredited business schools in Minnesota. Six bachelor's degree programs in the College of Science and Engineering are accredited through the Accreditation Board for Engineering and Technology, Inc. In 1987, men's hockey became an NCAA Division I program. Two years the team moved into a new two-rink arena called the National Hockey Center; the building, now called the Herb Brooks National Hockey Center, is undergoing a $30 million expansion and renovation. Applied doctoral degrees were first offered in 2007. Students can pursue an Ed. D. in Higher Education Administration or Educational Administration and Leadership. In 2010, the university teamed with the private sector to build a welcome center and student-housing complex at Coborn Plaza, adjacent to campus.
The university leases Coborn Plaza Apartments. The Integrated Science and Engineering Laboratory Facility, which broke ground in October 2011, went into service in fall 2013. ISELF is the final project of St. Cloud State's three-part Science Initiative; the $14.5 million addition to the Wick Science Building was completed in January 2009. The $15 million renovation of Brown Hall was finished in December 2009. St. Cloud Normal School 1869–1921 St. Cloud State Teachers College 1921–1957 St. Cloud State College 1957–1975 St. Cloud State University 1975–present Students can choose from more than 200 majors and pre-professional programs in six colleges and schools. Undergraduate programs of note include accounting, land surveying and mapping sciences and meteorology. SCSU offers 32 education-abroad programs, including a year-round program at Alnwick Castle in northern England. SCSU is the only Minnesota university that offers an Accreditation Board for Engineering and Technology accredited manufacturing engineering program.
It offers ABET-accredited electrical engineering, mechanical engineering and computer science programs. The Master of engineering management is the only Minnesota program certified by the American Society of Engineering Management; the School of Graduate Studies offers more than 60 graduate programs and certificates, including specialist, Master of Arts, Master of Business Administration, Master of Engineering Management, Master of Music and Master of Science. Ed. D. Doctoral degrees are offered in Higher Education Administration and Educational Administration and Leadership. Master's programs of note include Master of Business Administration, Regulatory Affairs & Services, Medical Technology Quality and Applied Clinical Research, they are among the programs offered at St. Cloud State at Plymouth in Plymouth, MN. St. Cloud State offers more than 200 undergraduate and more than 60 graduate programs of study through three colleges and five schools. On-campus students choose from among apartments.
Coborn Plaza Apartments, which can house 455 students, opened in 2010. Residence halls and apartments: A plan to revitalize student housing is under way. Shoemaker Hall was renovated in 2011 and 2014. A $12 million renovation of Case and Hill halls was completed in 2012. Benton Hall is still standing but does not house students. At the start of each academic year students are invited to "Mainstreet," a showcase for student organizations, campus services and community connections. Students are encouraged to participate in its more than 250 student organizations, including the Investment Club, which runs a student-managed investment portfolio. Students can join one of nine Greek houses; the newspaper, television station and radio station are among the most celebrated campus organizations. Their accomplished alumni include: Dick Bremer'78, television voice of the Minnesota Twins for more than three decades Jeff Passolt'81, Emmy-winning television sports and news anchor Tom Callinan'73, award-winning Gannett journalist and editor Tina Gust'97, vice president of business development, Minor League Baseball Clay Matvick'96, ABC and ESPN television play-by-play announcer Sven Sundgaard'02, Kare11 meteorologist Bryan Piatt'07, Kare11 anchorKVSC 88.1 FM is an educational public radio station licensed to SCSU.
The station started on May 10, 1967, expanded broadcasting times in September 1994. Among other things, KVSC is renowned for its 50-hour trivia c
Booklist is a publication of the American Library Association that provides critical reviews of books and audiovisual materials for all ages. Booklist’s primary audience consists of libraries and booksellers; the magazine is available to subscribers in online. Booklist is published 22 times per year, reviews over 7,500 titles annually; the Booklist brand offers a blog, various newsletters, monthly webinars. The Booklist offices are located in the American Library Association headquarters in Chicago’s Gold Coast neighborhood. Booklist, as an introduction from the American Library Association publishing board notes, began publication in January 1905 to "meet an evident need by issuing a current buying list of recent books with brief notes designed to assist librarians in selection."With an annual subscription fee of 50 cents, Booklist was subsidized by a $100,000 grant from the Carnegie Foundation, known for its public and university library endowments, at first contained the briefest 25- to 50-word summaries.
In 1913, the Booklist offices were moved from Boston to the ALA headquarters in Chicago's McCormick mansion. By the 1930s the reviews had become more in-depth, the journal began to include some articles. In October 1939, just a few weeks after the start of World War II, Booklist published an article entitled "Books for the'Long and Calm View': On the Crisis, Its Background and Implications to the United States", intended to address "the demand for impartial books without the emotionalism of propaganda." Amidst a world crisis, the editor helped library patrons to have their questions answered while presenting various viewpoints. From the 1950s to the 1960s, Booklist reviews were limited to 150 words three long sentences. Reviews were handwritten in pencil on yellow legal paper and typed up for the printer. Artistic design choices for the magazine were minimal, with the only visual change between issues being the plain cover's solid colour; the 1970s saw a great deal of change in the Booklist offices.
As adolescent literature gained popularity, a Young Adult books editor was hired. The publication of such books as Judy Blume’s Forever, Phyllis Reynolds Naylor's Alice series, S. E. Hinton's The Outsiders marked a need to evaluate books not meant for either children or adults. In 1973, new editor-publisher Paul Brawley was the first to print editions of the magazine with recreated book jackets on the cover; some Booklist subscribers protested the flashy new covers claiming they liked the plain covers and the space they afforded for listing potential book orders. Under Brawley’s editorship, beginning with 16mm film strips and spoken-word recordings, Booklist began to accept submissions and print reviews of audiovisual products. During the 1980s and 1990s, Booklist began its Editors’ Choice reviews and its first feature column, “Manley Arts”, by Will Manley; the 1990s issues of Booklist were the first to be composed on in-office computers. The June 2005 issue of Booklist marked the magazine’s 100th anniversary.
To celebrate the centennial, the acting editors published a feature article entitled “The Booklist Century”, wherein they chose a book from each year of the preceding hundred to highlight its social impact — ranging from Edith Wharton's The House of Mirth to the 9/11 Commission Report. The magazine can be found online and in print; the Booklist editorial team creates supplemental products, such as Book Links and the Booklist Reader. Booklist offices are located in the 50 E. Huron building at the ALA headquarters. Current editor Bill Ott is the seventh to hold the position. Bill Ott - Editor & Publisher Keir Graff - Executive Editor Donna Seaman - Editor, Adult Books Rebecca Vnuk - Editor, Collection Management and Library Outreach Daniel Kraus - Editor, Books for Youth Joyce Saricks - Editor, Audio Booklist Reviews Booklist reviews are said to be "the haiku of book reviewing." Reviews include a mention of the most successful elements of style. Most reviews fall between 225 words. Starred Reviews.
All starred. High-Demand Booklist recognizes that libraries wish to purchase new materials as soon as they become available, therefore works to review titles as early as possible; the “High-Demand Backstory” symbol indicates titles to be surrounded by media coverage and patron popularity. Adult Books with YA Appeal As an additional source for librarians, Booklist reviews certain adult titles and labels them for YA appeal; these materials tend to have young themes relevant to teenage readers. Recommendation-only system Since its founding in 1905, Booklist has followed a recommendation-only system; this means. Booklist Selection Policy The editors of Booklist magazine adhere to a selection policy consistent with the Library Bill of Rights; the process of choosing titles for reviews aims to promote readership, never censorship. Booklist Reviewers Titles are reviewed by a corps of librarians, freelancers and educators, as well as Booklist editors and staff. Website Booklist Online is the archive of the Booklist print magazine.
Within the database, subscribers have access to digital editions of the print magazine, an archive of over 170,000 reviews, a host of feature content. Non-subscribers can sign up for free monthly webinars. Booklist Online was developed in 2005, concurrent with the magazine’s centennial, launched in early 2006. Blog Launched in September 2014, The Booklist Reader is updated daily with feature content fo
BIBSYS is an administrative agency set up and organized by the Ministry of Education and Research in Norway. They are a service provider, focusing on the exchange and retrieval of data pertaining to research and learning – metadata related to library resources. BIBSYS are collaborating with all Norwegian universities and university colleges as well as research institutions and the National Library of Norway. Bibsys is formally organized as a unit at the Norwegian University of Science and Technology, located in Trondheim, Norway; the board of directors is appointed by Norwegian Ministry of Research. BIBSYS offer researchers and others an easy access to library resources by providing the unified search service Oria.no and other library services. They deliver integrated products for the internal operation for research and special libraries as well as open educational resources; as a DataCite member BIBSYS act as a national DataCite representative in Norway and thereby allow all of Norway's higher education and research institutions to use DOI on their research data.
All their products and services are developed in cooperation with their member institutions. BIBSYS began in 1972 as a collaborative project between the Royal Norwegian Society of Sciences and Letters Library, the Norwegian Institute of Technology Library and the Computer Centre at the Norwegian Institute of Technology; the purpose of the project was to automate internal library routines. Since 1972 Bibsys has evolved from a library system supplier for two libraries in Trondheim, to developing and operating a national library system for Norwegian research and special libraries; the target group has expanded to include the customers of research and special libraries, by providing them easy access to library resources. BIBSYS is a public administrative agency answerable to the Ministry of Education and Research, administratively organised as a unit at NTNU. In addition to BIBSYS Library System, the product portfolio consists of BISBYS Ask, BIBSYS Brage, BIBSYS Galleri and BIBSYS Tyr. All operation of applications and databases is performed centrally by BIBSYS.
BIBSYS offer a range of services, both in connection with their products and separate services independent of the products they supply. Open access in Norway Om Bibsys
California State University, San Bernardino
California State University, San Bernardino is a public university in San Bernardino, California. It is one of the 23 general campuses of the California State University system; the main campus sits on 441 acres in the University District of San Bernardino, with a branch campus of 40 acres in Palm Desert, opened in 1986. Founded in 1965, Cal State San Bernardino's Fall 2016 enrollment was 20,767. In Fall of 2013, it had 864 faculty; the university offers Bachelor's degrees in 138 programs, Master's degrees in 67 programs, the Doctor of Education, 23 teaching credentials. CSUSB's sports teams are known as the Coyotes and play in the California Collegiate Athletic Association in the Division II of the National Collegiate Athletic Association; the nickname was inspired by the coyotes that inhabit the area around the campus, which lies on the foothills of San Bernardino Mountains. The CSUSB women's volleyball team has won six three West Region titles; the men’s soccer team went to the NCAA Division II national semifinals, capturing the university’s first California Collegiate Athletic Association title.
California State University, San Bernardino was created by the state legislature on April 29, 1960, as the San Bernardino-Riverside State College. The California State College system's board of trustees chose a 440-acre site in the city of San Bernardino in 1963 and the official name was changed to California State College at San Bernardino, it opened in 1965 with 30 faculty members. CSUSB earned its university status in 1984 becoming California State University, San Bernardino. Today, the university has 84,000 alumni. Built atop 441 acres of bedrock on the city’s north side, CSUSB is framed to the north by the San Bernardino Mountains. More than 1,300,000 square feet of new facilities have been built to meet students' academic and social needs. Campus residential housing provides more than 1,500 beds. A new College of Education building opened in 2008; the Santos Manuel Student Union has doubled in size in recent years, a new 35,000-square-foot Student Recreation and Fitness Center was completed in 2007.
Other constructed facilities include the Social and Behavioral Sciences and Chemical Sciences buildings. The John M. Pfau Library, named after the university’s first president, sits at the center of the campus. Other distinctive university landmarks include: the clock tower above the Santos Manuel Student Union, the Robert V. Fullerton Art Museum, the James & Aerianthi Coussoulis Arena, a modern, 4,000-plus seat sports and events venue—one of the largest indoor arenas in the Inland Empire. In 2009, the university received a major donation from the Pauline Murillo family to construct a $2 million research observatory on the campus; the W. M. Keck Foundation and the California Portland Cement Co. made substantial contributions. The Robert and Frances Fullerton Museum of Art is among the 4 percent of museums in the United States accredited by the American Alliance of Museums; the RAFFMA's permanent collections consist of three distinct kinds of art: ancient and contemporary. A world-class collection of about 200 Egyptian artifacts and a smaller selection of Italian pottery are part of the museum's permanent holdings.
Rotating shows feature artists from throughout the country. One gallery of the museum is dedicated to exhibiting the work of the school's own art students; the museum celebrated its 20th anniversary in 2016 and received accreditation by the American Alliance of Museums in 2008. Opened in 1986, the California State University, San Bernardino Palm Desert Campus in Palm Desert, California hosts upper-division and graduate students. Many of them come from the Coachella Joshua Tree areas. Since its inception, the Palm Desert Campus has maintained a close relationship with the nearby College of the Desert; the majority of Palm Desert Campus undergraduate students have transferred from College of the Desert through a dual admissions program. A health sciences building for the four-year nursing program opened on the Palm Desert Campus in October 2008; the Palm Desert Campus was built with private funds. This public-private partnership was featured in a front-page story in the Sunday, Aug. 3, 2003, edition of the New York Times.
The Murillo Family Observatory is a teaching and research observatory at CSUSB, located on Badger Hill on the northern portion of campus. It is the newest research observatory in the Inland Empire and in the California State University system; the observatory consists of two telescopes which are used for teaching. In addition to the research telescopes the observatory has an observation deck with piers where small telescopes may be set up for undergraduate laboratory classes or open house nights, it serves as both an academic and community resource, with public viewing nights and special astronomy events for the community. San Bernardino-Riverside State College became a part of the California College System in 1965 and became California State University, San Bernardino. It, along with 22 other campuses, now forms the California State University system, the largest senior system of higher education in the United States; the current president is Tomas Morales, chosen in 2013. A graduate of SUNY New Paltz, he serves on the boards of directors of the American Council on Education, the American Association of State Colleges and Univ