Martin Luther University of Halle-Wittenberg
The Martin Luther University of Halle-Wittenberg referred to as MLU, is a public, research-oriented university in the cities of Halle and Wittenberg in Saxony-Anhalt, Germany. MLU offers German and international courses leading to academic degrees such as BA, BSc, MA, MSc, doctoral degrees and Habilitation; the university was created in 1817 through the merger of the University of Wittenberg and the University of Halle. The university is named after the Protestant reformer Martin Luther, a professor in Wittenberg. Today, the university itself is located in Halle, while the Leucorea Foundation in Wittenberg serves as MLU's convention centre for seminars as well as for academic and political conferences. Both Halle and Wittenberg are about one hour from Berlin via the Berlin–Halle railway, which offers Intercity-Express trains; the University of Wittenberg was founded in 1502 by Frederick the Wise, Elector of Saxony, as the Renaissance was becoming more and more popular. The foundation of the university was criticized when the Ninety-five Theses reached Albert of Brandenburg, the Archbishop of Mainz.
Ecclesiastically speaking, the Electorate of Saxony was subordinate to Albert. He criticized the elector for Luther's theses, viewing the founded university as a breeding ground for heretical ideas. Under the influence of Philipp Melanchthon, building on the works of Martin Luther, the university became a centre of the Protestant Reformation incorporating, at one point in time, Luther's house in Wittenberg, the Lutherhaus, as part of the campus. Notable alumni include George Müller, Georg Joachim Rheticus and – in fiction – William Shakespeare's Prince Hamlet and Horatio and Christopher Marlowe's Doctor Faustus; the University of Halle was founded in 1694 by Frederick III, Elector of Brandenburg, who became Frederick I, King in Prussia, in 1701. In the late 17th century and early 18th century, Halle became a centre for Pietism within Prussia. In the 17th and 18th centuries, the universities were centers of the German Enlightenment. Christian Wolff was an important proponent of rationalism, he influenced many German scholars, such as Immanuel Kant.
Christian Thomasius was at the same time the first philosopher in Germany to hold his lectures not in Latin, but German. He contributed to a rational programme in philosophy but tried to establish a more common-sense point of view, aimed against the unquestioned superiority of aristocracy and theology; the institutionalisation of the local language as the language of instruction, the prioritisation of rationalism over religious orthodoxy, new modes of teaching, the ceding of control over their work to the professors themselves, were among various innovations which characterised the University of Halle, have led to its being referred to as the first "modern" university, whose liberalism was adopted by the University of Göttingen about a generation and subsequently by other German and most North American universities. The University of Wittenberg was closed in 1813 during the Napoleonic Wars; the town of Wittenberg was granted to Prussia in the Congress of Vienna in 1815, the university was merged with the Prussian University of Halle in 1817.
It took its present name on 10 November 1933. More than a dozen professors were expelled. Others were shifted to Halle-Wittenberg from universities regarded as "better" at the time, which led to the university being called an academic Vorkuta – after the largest center of the Gulag camps in European Russia). Following the continental European academic tradition, MLU has 9 faculties, regrouping academic staff and students according to their field of studies: Faculty of Theology Faculty of Law and Economics Faculty of Medicine Faculty of Philosophy I Faculty of Philosophy II Faculty of Philosophy III Faculty of Natural Sciences I Faculty of Natural Sciences II Faculty of Natural Sciences III The Botanical Garden of Martin Luther University of Halle-Wittenberg, founded in 1698. MLU's historical observatory, built in 1788 by Carl Gotthard Langhans. MLU is enclosed by a variety of research institutions, which have either institutional or personal links with the university or cooperate in their respective fields of studies: The German Academy of Sciences Leopoldina The Halle Institute for Economic Research The Fraunhofer Institute for Mechanics of Materials The Leibniz Institute of Agricultural Development in Central and Eastern Europe The Leibniz Institute of Plant Biochemistry The Max Planck Research Unit for Enzymology of Protein Folding The Max Planck Institute for Social Anthropology The Max Planck Institute of Microstructure Physics The Helmholtz Centre for Environmental Research Even though MLU is an academic, research oriented institution, not an academy of music or conservatory, the university has an academic orchestra, founded in 1779, a rather prestigious choir, founded in 1950, which together constitute the so-called Collegium musicum.
Members are gifted students of all faculties, but academic staff and alumni. The university choir performs at the international Handel Festival in George Frideric Handel’s birthplace, Halle. MLU has many international partner universities, including: Argentina: National University of La Plata Australia: University of Queensland Austria: Johannes Kepler University Linz Canada: University of Ottawa Colombi
John Albert I, Duke of Mecklenburg
John Albert I, Duke of Mecklenburg, in older literature known as John or Johann, was the reigning Duke of Mecklenburg-Güstrow from 1547 to 1556 and of Mecklenburg-Schwerin from 1556 to 1576. In 1549 John Albert I saw to it that the parliament of Mecklenburg carried through the Reformation for the entire Duchy. John Albert was the eldest son of the Duke Albrecht VII of Mecklenburg-Güstrow and his wife Anne of Brandenburg; until the age of 13, he was educated by the "papist vicar" Johann Sperling. In 1539, his father sent him to the court of his uncle, the protestant Elector Joachim II of Brandenburg, where he was educated together with the Elector's son John George. From 1541 to 1544, they attended. John Albert was a devout supporter of Protestantism, he fought on the imperial side in the Schmalkaldic War, at his father's request. When his father died in 1547, John Albert and his brothers Ulrich III and George were jointly invested with the Duchy of Mecklenburg-Güstrow by Emperor Charles V. Initially, John Albert administered the Mecklenburg-Güstrow part of the Duchy alone, while Ulrich administered the Bishopric of Schwerin from 1550 as successor to his cousin Magnus III and George fought in the Schmalkaldic War and fell in 1552 before Frankfurt am Main.
As a convinced adherent of Protestantism John Albert I, unlike his father, decided to back the introduction the Reformation in his lands. In 1549 he presided over a meeting of the Estates in Sternberg, which prescribed the Lutheran faith for all parts of Mecklenburg; this can be seen as the official introduction of Lutheranism as the state religion in Mecklenburg. In February 1550, he concluded a defensive alliance with Margrave John of Brandenburg-Küstrin and Duke Albert of Prussia, to whose daughter, Anna Sophia, he was engaged and married. On 22 May 1551, John Albert concluded the secret Treaty of Torgau with the other Protestant princes in northern Germany; this treaty formed the legal framework for the Princes' rebellion of 1552 against Emperor Charles V, in which John Albert I participated. His uncle Henry V, who ruled Mecklenburg-Schwerin, died in 1552 without a male heir; when John Albert's brother Ulrich claimed the inheritance, the Emperor objected. A violent inheritance dispute erupted.
Ulrich forced John Albert to consent to the Treaty of Wismar of 11 March 1555. The dispute was resolved in 1556 by the Edict of Ruppin by Elector Joachim II of Brandenburg; this edict made John Albert I regent of the western part of Mecklenburg, while Ulrich received the eastern part, the former Lordship of Werle, while maintaining a common state government. Ulrich chose Güstrow as his residence. Duke John Albert was considered a modern Renaissance prince and a patron of the arts and sciences, with an open mind for the scientific discoveries of his time, he modernized the state. He possessed an extensive library, which came into the possession of the University of Rostock, he was interested in astronomy and cartography. He employed Tilemann Stella as his court cartographer, they jointly visited the imperial court in Vienna, where they studied architecture and modern fortification techniques, which they subsequently applied in Mecklenburg. The Ducal Court in Wismar and the expansion of various ducal castles and modern fortifications date back to John Albert's intentions, although he did not always have sufficient resources to finance his efforts.
Among his major achievement are the creation of several high schools: in Güstrow in 1552, in Schwerin in 1553 and in Parchim in 1554. On 24 February 1555 he married Anna Sophia of the daughter of Duke Albert of Prussia; the couple had three children: Albert, Duke of Mecklenburg John VII, Duke of Mecklenburg-Schwerin from 1576 to 1592 Sigismund August, Duke of Mecklenburg, married Clara Maria of Pomerania-Barth Friedrich Wilhelm Schirrmacher: Johann Albrecht I. Herzog von Mecklenburg, 2 vols. Wismar, 1885 L. Schultz, "Johann Albrecht I.", Allgemeine Deutsche Biographie, 14, Leipzig: Duncker & Humblot, pp. 239–243 Hildegard Thierfelder, "Johann Albrecht I.", Neue Deutsche Biographie, 10, Berlin: Duncker & Humblot, pp. 499–499 Literature about John Albert I, Duke of Mecklenburg in the State Bibliography of Mecklenburg-VorpommernGenealogical table of the House of Mecklenburg
Theology is the critical study of the nature of the divine. It is taught as an academic discipline in universities and seminaries. Theology is the study of deities or their scriptures in order to discover what they have revealed about themselves, it occupies itself with the unique content of analyzing the supernatural, but especially with epistemology, asks and seeks to answer the question of revelation. Revelation pertains to the acceptance of God, gods, or deities, as not only transcendent or above the natural world, but willing and able to interact with the natural world and, in particular, to reveal themselves to humankind. While theology has turned into a secular field, religious adherents still consider theology to be a discipline that helps them live and understand concepts such as life and love and that helps them lead lives of obedience to the deities they follow or worship. Theology is derived from the Greek theologia, which derived from Τheos, meaning "God", -logia, meaning "utterances, sayings, or oracles" which had passed into Latin as theologia and into French as théologie.
The English equivalent "theology" had evolved by 1362. The sense the word has in English depends in large part on the sense the Latin and Greek equivalents had acquired in patristic and medieval Christian usage, although the English term has now spread beyond Christian contexts. Augustine of Hippo defined the Latin equivalent, theologia, as "reasoning or discussion concerning the Deity"; the term can, however, be used for a variety of fields of study. Theology begins with the assumption that the divine exists in some form, such as in physical, mental, or social realities, that evidence for and about it may be found via personal spiritual experiences or historical records of such experiences as documented by others; the study of these assumptions is not part of theology proper but is found in the philosophy of religion, through the psychology of religion and neurotheology. Theology aims to structure and understand these experiences and concepts, to use them to derive normative prescriptions for how to live our lives.
Theologians use various forms of analysis and argument to help understand, test, defend or promote any myriad of religious topics. As in philosophy of ethics and case law, arguments assume the existence of resolved questions, develop by making analogies from them to draw new inferences in new situations; the study of theology may help a theologian more understand their own religious tradition, another religious tradition, or it may enable them to explore the nature of divinity without reference to any specific tradition. Theology may be used to propagate, reform, or justify a religious tradition or it may be used to compare, challenge, or oppose a religious tradition or world-view. Theology might help a theologian address some present situation or need through a religious tradition, or to explore possible ways of interpreting the world. Greek theologia was used with the meaning "discourse on god" in the fourth century BC by Plato in The Republic, Book ii, Ch. 18. Aristotle divided theoretical philosophy into mathematike and theologike, with the last corresponding to metaphysics, for Aristotle, included discourse on the nature of the divine.
Drawing on Greek Stoic sources, the Latin writer Varro distinguished three forms of such discourse: mythical and civil. Theologos related to theologia, appears once in some biblical manuscripts, in the heading to the Book of Revelation: apokalypsis ioannoy toy theologoy, "the revelation of John the theologos". There, the word refers not to John the "theologian" in the modern English sense of the word but—using a different sense of the root logos, meaning not "rational discourse" but "word" or "message"—one who speaks the words of God, logoi toy theoy; some Latin Christian authors, such as Tertullian and Augustine, followed Varro's threefold usage, though Augustine used the term more to mean'reasoning or discussion concerning the deity'In patristic Greek Christian sources, theologia could refer narrowly to devout and inspired knowledge of, teaching about, the essential nature of God. The Latin author Boethius, writing in the early 6th century, used theologia to denote a subdivision of philosophy as a subject of academic study, dealing with the motionless, incorporeal reality.
Boethius' definition influenced medieval Latin usage. In scholastic Latin sources, the term came to denote the rational study of the doctrines of the Christian religion, or the academic discipline which investigated the coherence and implications of the language and claims of the Bible and of the theological tradition. In the Renaissance with Florentine Platonist apologists of Dante's poetics, the distinction between "poetic theology" and "revealed" or Biblical theology serves as steppingstone for a revival of philosophy as independent of theological authority, it is in this last sense, theology as an academic discipline involving rational study of Christian teaching
Saint Nicholas of Myra known as Nicholas of Bari, was an early Christian bishop of the ancient Greek maritime city of Myra in Asia Minor during the time of the Roman Empire. He is revered by many Christians as a saint; because of the many miracles attributed to his intercession, he is known as Nicholas the Wonderworker. Saint Nicholas is the patron saint of sailors, archers, repentant thieves, brewers and students in various cities and countries around Europe, his reputation evolved among the faithful, as was common for early Christian saints, his legendary habit of secret gift-giving gave rise to the traditional model of Santa Claus through Sinterklaas. Little is known about the historical Saint Nicholas; the earliest accounts of his life were written centuries after his death and contain many legendary elaborations. He is said to have been born in the Greek seaport of Patara, Lycia in Asia Minor to wealthy Christian parents. In one of the earliest attested and most famous incidents from his life, he is said to have rescued three girls from being forced into prostitution by dropping a sack of gold coins through the window of their house each night for three nights so their father could pay a dowry for each of them.
Other early stories tell of him calming a storm at sea, saving three innocent soldiers from wrongful execution, chopping down a tree possessed by a demon. In his youth, he is said to have made a pilgrimage to the Palestine area. Shortly after his return, he became Bishop of Myra, he was cast into prison during the persecution of Diocletian, but was released after the accession of Constantine. An early list makes him an attendee at the First Council of Nicaea in 325, but he is never mentioned in any writings by people who were at the council. Late, unsubstantiated legends claim that he was temporarily defrocked and imprisoned during the Council for slapping the heretic Arius. Another famous late legend tells how he resurrected three children, murdered and pickled in brine by a butcher planning to sell them as pork during a famine. Fewer than 200 years after Nicholas's death, the St. Nicholas Church was built in Myra under the orders of Theodosius II over the site of the church, where he had served as bishop and Nicholas's remains were moved to a sarcophagus in that church.
In 1087, while the Greek Christian inhabitants of the region were subjugated by the newly arrived Muslim Seljuk Turks, soon after their church was declared to be in schism by the Catholic church, a group of merchants from the Italian city of Bari removed the major bones of Nicholas's skeleton from his sarcophagus in the church without authorization and brought them to their hometown, where they are now enshrined in the Basilica di San Nicola. The remaining bone fragments from the sarcophagus were removed by Venetian sailors and taken to Venice during the First Crusade, his relics in Bari are said to exude a miraculous watery substance known as "manna" or "myrrh", which some members of the faithful regard as possessing supernatural powers. Little at all is known about Saint Nicholas's historical life. Any writings Nicholas himself may have produced have been lost and he is not mentioned by any contemporary chroniclers; this is not surprising. Furthermore, all written records were kept on papyrus or parchment, which were less durable than modern paper, texts needed to be periodically recopied by hand onto new material in order to be preserved.
The earliest mentions of Saint Nicholas indicate that, by the sixth century, his cult was well-established. Less than two hundred years after Saint Nicholas's probable death, the Eastern Emperor Theodosius II ordered the building of the Church of Saint Nicholas in Myra, which thereby preserves an early mention of his name; the Byzantine historian Procopius mentions that the Emperor Justinian I renovated churches in Constantinople dedicated to Saint Nicholas and Saint Priscus, which may have been built as early as c. 490. Nicholas's name occurs as "Nicholas of Myra of Lycia" on the tenth line of a list of attendees at the Council of Nicaea recorded by the historian Theodoret in the Historiae Ecclesiasticae Tripartitae Epitome, written sometime between 510 and 515. A single, offhand mention of Nicholas of Myra occurs in the biography of another saint, Saint Nicholas of Sion, who took the name "Nicholas" to honor him; the Life of Saint Nicholas of Sion, written around 250 years after Nicholas of Myra's death mentions Nicholas of Sion visiting Nicholas's tomb to pay homage to him.
According to Jeremy Seal, the fact that Nicholas had a tomb that could be visited serves as the solitary definitive proof that he was a real historical figure. In his treatise De statu animarum post mortem, the theologian Eustratius of Constantinople cites Saint Nicholas of Myra's miracle of the three counts as evidence that souls may work independent from the body. Eustratius credits a lost Life of Saint Nicholas as his source. Nearly all the sources Eustratius references date from the late fourth century to early fifth century, indicating the Life of Saint Nicholas to which he refers was written during this time period, shortly after Nicholas's death; the earliest complete account of Nicholas's life that has survived to the present is a Life of Saint Nicholas, written in the early ninth century by Michael the Archimandrite, nearly 500 years after Nicholas's probable death. Despite its late date, Michael the Archimandrite's Life of Saint Nicholas is believed to rely on old
Cambridge University Press
Cambridge University Press is the publishing business of the University of Cambridge. Granted letters patent by King Henry VIII in 1534, it is the world's oldest publishing house and the second-largest university press in the world, it holds letters patent as the Queen's Printer. The press mission is "to further the University's mission by disseminating knowledge in the pursuit of education and research at the highest international levels of excellence". Cambridge University Press is a department of the University of Cambridge and is both an academic and educational publisher. With a global sales presence, publishing hubs, offices in more than 40 countries, it publishes over 50,000 titles by authors from over 100 countries, its publishing includes academic journals, reference works and English language teaching and learning publications. Cambridge University Press is a charitable enterprise that transfers part of its annual surplus back to the university. Cambridge University Press is both the oldest publishing house in the world and the oldest university press.
It originated from letters patent granted to the University of Cambridge by Henry VIII in 1534, has been producing books continuously since the first University Press book was printed. Cambridge is one of the two privileged presses. Authors published by Cambridge have included John Milton, William Harvey, Isaac Newton, Bertrand Russell, Stephen Hawking. University printing began in Cambridge when the first practising University Printer, Thomas Thomas, set up a printing house on the site of what became the Senate House lawn – a few yards from where the press's bookshop now stands. In those days, the Stationers' Company in London jealously guarded its monopoly of printing, which explains the delay between the date of the university's letters patent and the printing of the first book. In 1591, Thomas's successor, John Legate, printed the first Cambridge Bible, an octavo edition of the popular Geneva Bible; the London Stationers objected strenuously. The university's response was to point out the provision in its charter to print "all manner of books".
Thus began the press's tradition of publishing the Bible, a tradition that has endured for over four centuries, beginning with the Geneva Bible, continuing with the Authorized Version, the Revised Version, the New English Bible and the Revised English Bible. The restrictions and compromises forced upon Cambridge by the dispute with the London Stationers did not come to an end until the scholar Richard Bentley was given the power to set up a'new-style press' in 1696. In July 1697 the Duke of Somerset made a loan of £200 to the university "towards the printing house and presse" and James Halman, Registrary of the University, lent £100 for the same purpose, it was in Bentley's time, in 1698, that a body of senior scholars was appointed to be responsible to the university for the press's affairs. The Press Syndicate's publishing committee still meets and its role still includes the review and approval of the press's planned output. John Baskerville became University Printer in the mid-eighteenth century.
Baskerville's concern was the production of the finest possible books using his own type-design and printing techniques. Baskerville wrote, "The importance of the work demands all my attention. Caxton would have found nothing to surprise him if he had walked into the press's printing house in the eighteenth century: all the type was still being set by hand. A technological breakthrough was badly needed, it came when Lord Stanhope perfected the making of stereotype plates; this involved making a mould of the whole surface of a page of type and casting plates from that mould. The press was the first to use this technique, in 1805 produced the technically successful and much-reprinted Cambridge Stereotype Bible. By the 1850s the press was using steam-powered machine presses, employing two to three hundred people, occupying several buildings in the Silver Street and Mill Lane area, including the one that the press still occupies, the Pitt Building, built for the press and in honour of William Pitt the Younger.
Under the stewardship of C. J. Clay, University Printer from 1854 to 1882, the press increased the size and scale of its academic and educational publishing operation. An important factor in this increase was the inauguration of its list of schoolbooks. During Clay's administration, the press undertook a sizeable co-publishing venture with Oxford: the Revised Version of the Bible, begun in 1870 and completed in 1885, it was in this period as well that the Syndics of the press turned down what became the Oxford English Dictionary—a proposal for, brought to Cambridge by James Murray before he turned to Oxford. The appointment of R. T. Wright as Secretary of the Press Syndicate in 1892 marked the beginning of the press's development as a modern publishing business with a defined editorial policy and administrative structure, it was Wright who devised the plan for one of the most distinctive Cambridge contributions to publishing—the Cambridge Histories. The Cambridge Modern History was published
Rostock is a city in the north German state Mecklenburg-Vorpommern. Rostock is on the Warnow river. Rostock is the largest city in Mecklenburg-Vorpommern, as well as its only regiopolis. Rostock is home to one of the oldest universities in the world, the University of Rostock, founded in 1419; the city territory of Rostock stretches for about 20 km along the Warnow to the Baltic Sea. The largest built-up area of Rostock is on the western side of the river; the eastern part of its territory is dominated by the forested Rostock Heath. In the 11th century Polabian Slavs founded; the Danish king Valdemar I set the town on fire in 1161. Afterwards the place was settled by German traders. There were three separate cities: Altstadt around the Alter Markt, which had St. Petri, Mittelstadt around the Neuer Markt, with St. Marien and Neustadt around the Hopfenmarkt, with St. Jakobi. In 1218, Rostock was granted Lübeck law city rights by prince of Mecklenburg. During the first partition of Mecklenburg following the death of Henry Borwin II of Mecklenburg in 1226, Rostock became the seat of the Lordship of Rostock, which survived for a century.
In 1251, the city became a member of the Hanseatic League. In the 14th century it was a powerful seaport town with 12,000 inhabitants and the largest city in Mecklenburg. Ships for cruising the Baltic Sea were constructed in Rostock; the independent fishing village of Warnemünde at the Baltic Sea became a part of Rostock in 1323, to secure the city's access to the sea. In 1419, the University of Rostock was founded, the oldest university in continental northern Europe and the Baltic Sea area. At the end of the 15th century, the dukes of Mecklenburg succeeded in enforcing their rule over the town of Rostock, which had until been only nominally subject to their rule and independent, they took advantage of a riot known as a failed uprising of the impoverished population. Subsequent quarrels with the dukes and persistent plundering led to a loss of the city's economic and political power. In 1565 there were further clashes with Schwerin. Among other things, the nobility introduced a beer excise. John Albert I advanced on the city with 500 horsemen, after Rostock had refused to take the formal oath of allegiance, had the city wall razed in order to have a fortress built.
The conflict did not end until the first Rostock Inheritance Agreement of 21 September 1573, in which the state princes were guaranteed hereditary rule over the city for centuries and recognizing them as the supreme judicial authority. The citizens razed the fortress the following spring. From 1575 to 1577 the city walls were rebuilt, as was the Lagebusch tower and the Stein Gate, in the Dutch Renaissance style; the inscription sit intra te concordia et publica felicitas, can still be read on the gate, refers directly to the conflict with the Duke. In 1584 the Second Rostock Inheritance Agreement was enforced, which resulted in a further loss of former city tax privileges. At the same time, these inheritance contracts put paid to Rostock's ambition of achieving imperial immediacy, as Lübeck had done in 1226; the strategic location of Rostock provoked the envy of its rivals. Danes and Swedes occupied the city twice, first during the Thirty Years' War and again from 1700 to 1721. In the early 19th century, the French, under Napoleon, occupied the town for about a decade until 1813.
In nearby Lübeck-Ratekau, Gebhard Leberecht von Blücher, born in Rostock and, one of few generals to fight on after defeat at the Battle of Jena, surrendered to the French in 1806. This was only after furious street fighting in the Battle of Lübeck, in which he led some of the cavalry charges himself. By the time of the surrender, the exhausted Prussians had neither ammunition. In the first half of the 19th century, Rostock regained much of its economic importance, due at first to the wheat trade from the 1850s, to industry its shipyards; the first propeller-driven steamers in Germany were constructed here. The city grew in area and population, with new quarters developing in the south and west of the ancient borders of the city. Two notable developments were added to house the increasing population at around 1900: Steintor-Vorstadt in the south, stretching from the old city wall to the facilities of the new Lloydbahnhof, was designed as a living quarter, it consisted of large single houses, once inhabited by wealthy citizens.
Kröpeliner-Tor-Vorstadt in the west, was designed to house the working population as well as to provide smaller and larger industrial facilities, such as the Mahn & Ohlerich's Brewery. The main shipyard, was nearby at the shore of the river. In the 20th century, important aircraft manufacturing facilities were situated in the city, such as the Arado Flugzeugwerke in Warnemünde and the Heinkel Works with facilities at various places, including their secondary Heinkel-Süd facility in Schwechat, Austria, as the original Heinkel firm's Rostock facilities had been renamed Heinkel-
The public domain consists of all the creative works to which no exclusive intellectual property rights apply. Those rights may have been forfeited, expressly waived, or may be inapplicable; the works of William Shakespeare and Beethoven, most early silent films, are in the public domain either by virtue of their having been created before copyright existed, or by their copyright term having expired. Some works are not covered by copyright, are therefore in the public domain—among them the formulae of Newtonian physics, cooking recipes, all computer software created prior to 1974. Other works are dedicated by their authors to the public domain; the term public domain is not applied to situations where the creator of a work retains residual rights, in which case use of the work is referred to as "under license" or "with permission". As rights vary by country and jurisdiction, a work may be subject to rights in one country and be in the public domain in another; some rights depend on registrations on a country-by-country basis, the absence of registration in a particular country, if required, gives rise to public-domain status for a work in that country.
The term public domain may be interchangeably used with other imprecise or undefined terms such as the "public sphere" or "commons", including concepts such as the "commons of the mind", the "intellectual commons", the "information commons". Although the term "domain" did not come into use until the mid-18th century, the concept "can be traced back to the ancient Roman Law, as a preset system included in the property right system." The Romans had a large proprietary rights system where they defined "many things that cannot be owned" as res nullius, res communes, res publicae and res universitatis. The term res nullius was defined as things not yet appropriated; the term res communes was defined as "things that could be enjoyed by mankind, such as air and ocean." The term res publicae referred to things that were shared by all citizens, the term res universitatis meant things that were owned by the municipalities of Rome. When looking at it from a historical perspective, one could say the construction of the idea of "public domain" sprouted from the concepts of res communes, res publicae, res universitatis in early Roman law.
When the first early copyright law was first established in Britain with the Statute of Anne in 1710, public domain did not appear. However, similar concepts were developed by French jurists in the 18th century. Instead of "public domain", they used terms such as publici juris or propriété publique to describe works that were not covered by copyright law; the phrase "fall in the public domain" can be traced to mid-19th century France to describe the end of copyright term. The French poet Alfred de Vigny equated the expiration of copyright with a work falling "into the sink hole of public domain" and if the public domain receives any attention from intellectual property lawyers it is still treated as little more than that, left when intellectual property rights, such as copyright and trademarks, expire or are abandoned. In this historical context Paul Torremans describes copyright as a, "little coral reef of private right jutting up from the ocean of the public domain." Copyright law differs by country, the American legal scholar Pamela Samuelson has described the public domain as being "different sizes at different times in different countries".
Definitions of the boundaries of the public domain in relation to copyright, or intellectual property more regard the public domain as a negative space. According to James Boyle this definition underlines common usage of the term public domain and equates the public domain to public property and works in copyright to private property. However, the usage of the term public domain can be more granular, including for example uses of works in copyright permitted by copyright exceptions; such a definition regards work in copyright as private property subject to fair-use rights and limitation on ownership. A conceptual definition comes from Lange, who focused on what the public domain should be: "it should be a place of sanctuary for individual creative expression, a sanctuary conferring affirmative protection against the forces of private appropriation that threatened such expression". Patterson and Lindberg described the public domain not as a "territory", but rather as a concept: "here are certain materials – the air we breathe, rain, life, thoughts, ideas, numbers – not subject to private ownership.
The materials that compose our cultural heritage must be free for all living to use no less than matter necessary for biological survival." The term public domain may be interchangeably used with other imprecise or undefined terms such as the "public sphere" or "commons", including concepts such as the "commons of the mind", the "intellectual commons", the "information commons". A public-domain book is a book with no copyright, a book, created without a license, or a book where its copyrights expired or have been forfeited. In most countries the term of protection of copyright lasts until January first, 70 years after the death of the latest living author; the longest copyright term is in Mexico, which has life plus 100 years for all deaths since July 1928. A notable exception is the United States, where every book and tale published prior to 1924 is in the public domain.